What is Opdivo (nivolumab)?
Opdivo (nivolumab) is a chemotherapy drug used to treat skin cancer (melanoma) and many different kinds of metastatic cancer, such as lung cancer, a type of kidney cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, types of head and neck cancer, bladder cancer, types of liver cancer, and types of colorectal cancer.
No formal drug interaction studies have been conducted with Opdivo.
Based on its mechanism of action and data from animal studies, Opdivo can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Human IgG4 is known to cross the placental barrier and nivolumab is an immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4); therefore, Opdivo has the potential to be transmitted from the mother to the developing fetus. The effects of Opdivo are likely to be greater during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
It is unknown if Opdivo is present in human milk. Because many drugs, including antibodies, are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Opdivo, women are advised to discontinue breastfeeding during treatment with Opdivo.
What are the side effects of Opdivo?
- Orkambi should be used with caution in patients with advanced liver disease and only when the benefits are expected to outweigh the risks.
- Orkambi is associated with liver-related adverse events. Liver function should be tested before treatment and every 3 months during the first year of treatment, and yearly thereafter.
- Chest discomfort, dyspnea, and abnormal respiration may occur.
- Non-congenital lens opacities/cataracts have been reported in pediatric patients treated with ivacaftor. Baseline and follow-up eye examinations are recommended in pediatric patients treated with Orkambi.
What are the common side effects of Opdivo?
Common side effects Opdivo of include
- feeling tired,
- pain in muscles/bones/joints,
- shortness of breath,
- decreased appetite,
- upper respiratory tract infection,
- itchy skin,
- back pain,
- fever, and
- stomach pain.
What are the serious side effects of Opdivo?
Serious side effects of Opdivo include
What drugs interact with Opdivo?
Potential For Other Drugs To Affect Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor
Inhibitors Of CYP3A
Co-administration of lumacaftor/ivacaftor with itraconazole, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, did not impact the exposure of lumacaftor, but increased ivacaftor exposure by 4.3-fold. Due to the induction effect of lumacaftor on CYP3A, at steady-state, the net exposure of ivacaftor is not expected to exceed that when given in the absence of lumacaftor at a dose of 150 mg every 12 hours (the approved dose of ivacaftor monotherapy).
Therefore, no dose adjustment is necessary when CYP3A inhibitors are initiated in patients currently taking Orkambi. However, when initiating Orkambi in patients taking strong CYP3A inhibitors, reduce the Orkambi dose to 1 tablet daily or 1 packet of oral granules every other day (patients aged 2 through 5 years) for the first week of treatment to allow for the steady-state induction effect of lumacaftor. Following this period, continue with the recommended daily dose.
Examples of strong CYP3A inhibitors include:
No dose adjustment is recommended when used with moderate or weak CYP3A inhibitors.
Inducers Of CYP3A
Co-administration of lumacaftor/ivacaftor with rifampin, a strong CYP3A inducer, had minimal effect on the exposure of lumacaftor, but decreased ivacaftor exposure (AUC) by 57%. This may reduce the effectiveness of Orkambi.
Therefore, co-administration with strong CYP3A inducers, such as
- phenytoin, and
- St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), is not recommended.
No dose adjustment is recommended when used with moderate or weak CYP3A inducers.
Potential For Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor To Affect Other Drugs
Lumacaftor is a strong inducer of CYP3A. Co-administration of lumacaftor with ivacaftor, a sensitive CYP3A substrate, decreased ivacaftor exposure by approximately 80%. Administration of Orkambi may decrease systemic exposure of medicinal products which are substrates of CYP3A, thereby decreasing the therapeutic effect of the medicinal product.
Co-administration of Orkambi is not recommended with sensitive CYP3A substrates or CYP3A substrates with a narrow therapeutic index such as:
- Benzodiazepines: midazolam, triazolam (consider an alternative to these benzodiazepines).
- Immunosuppressants: cyclosporine, everolimus, sirolimus, and tacrolimus (avoid the use of Orkambi).
CYP2B6 And CYP2C Substrates
In vitro studies suggest that lumacaftor has the potential to induce CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19; inhibition of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 has also been observed in vitro. Additionally, in vitro studies suggest that ivacaftor may inhibit CYP2C9. Therefore, concomitant use of Orkambi with CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 substrates may alter the exposure of these substrates.
Digoxin And Other P-gp Substrates
Based on in vitro results which showed P-gp inhibition and pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) activation, lumacaftor has the potential to both inhibit and induce P-gp. Additionally, a clinical study with ivacaftor monotherapy showed that ivacaftor is a weak inhibitor of P-gp. Therefore, concomitant use of Orkambi with P-gp substrates may alter the exposure of these substrates.
Monitor the serum concentration of digoxin and titrate the digoxin dose to obtain the desired clinical effect.
Anti-allergics And Systemic Corticosteroids
Orkambi may decrease the exposure of montelukast, which may reduce its efficacy. No dose adjustment for montelukast is recommended. Employ appropriate clinical monitoring, as is reasonable, when co-administered with Orkambi.
Concomitant use of Orkambi may reduce the exposure and effectiveness of prednisone and methylprednisolone. A higher dose of these systemic corticosteroids may be required to obtain the desired clinical effect.
Concomitant use of Orkambi may decrease the exposure of clarithromycin, erythromycin, and telithromycin, which may reduce the effectiveness of these antibiotics. Consider an alternative to these antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and levofloxacin.
Concomitant use of Orkambi may reduce the exposure and effectiveness of itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Concomitant use of Orkambi with these antifungals is not recommended. Monitor patients closely for breakthrough fungal infections if such drugs are necessary. Consider an alternative such as fluconazole.
Concomitant use of Orkambi may reduce the exposure and effectiveness of ibuprofen. A higher dose of ibuprofen may be required to obtain the desired clinical effect.
Concomitant use of Orkambi may reduce the exposure and effectiveness of citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline. A higher dose of these antidepressants may be required to obtain the desired clinical effect.
Orkambi may decrease hormonal contraceptive exposure, reducing the effectiveness. Hormonal contraceptives, including oral, injectable, transdermal, and implantable, should not be relied upon as an effective method of contraception when co-administered with Orkambi.
Concomitant use of Orkambi with hormonal contraceptives increased the menstrual abnormality events. Avoid concomitant use unless the benefit outweighs the risks.
Concomitant use of Orkambi may reduce the exposure and effectiveness of repaglinide, and may alter the exposure of sulfonylurea. A dose adjustment may be required to obtain the desired clinical effect. No dose adjustment is recommended for metformin.
Proton Pump Inhibitors, H2 Blockers, Antacids
Orkambi may reduce the exposure and effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole, esomeprazole, and lansoprazole, and may alter the exposure of ranitidine. A dose adjustment may be required to obtain the desired clinical effect. No dose adjustment is recommended for calcium carbonate antacid.
Orkambi may alter the exposure of warfarin. Monitor the international normalized ratio (INR) when warfarin co-administration with Orkambi is required.
Concomitant Drugs That Do Not Need Dose Adjustment
No dosage adjustment of Orkambi or concomitant drug is recommended when Orkambi is given with the following:
- dornase alfa,
- sulfamethoxazole and
- trimethoprim, tiotropium, and tobramycin.
Based on the metabolism and route of elimination, Orkambi is not expected to impact the exposure of these drugs.
Opdivo side effects list for healthcare professionals
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label:
- Use in Patients with Advanced Liver Disease
- Liver-related Events
- Respiratory Events
- Effect on Blood Pressure
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The overall safety profile of Orkambi is based on the pooled data from 1108 patients with CF 12 years and older who are homozygous for the F508del mutation in the CFTR gene and who received at least one dose of study drug in 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 clinical trials, each with 24 weeks of treatment (Trials 1 and 2).
In addition, the following clinical trials have been conducted:
- A 24-week open-label trial (Trial 3) in 58 patients with CF aged 6 through 11 years homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation.
- A 24-week, placebo-controlled trial (Trial 4) in 204 patients aged 6 through 11 years homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation.
- A 24-week, open label trial (Trial 5) in 46 patients aged 12 years and older homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation and with advanced lung disease (ppFEV1 <40).
- A 24-week, open-label trial (Trial 6) in 60 patients aged 2 through 5 years homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation.
Of the 1108 patients, in the pooled analyses of Trial 1 and Trial 2, 49% were female and 99% were Caucasian; 369 patients received Orkambi every 12 hours and 370 received placebo.
The proportion of patients who prematurely discontinued study drug due to adverse events was 5% for patients treated with Orkambi and 2% for patients who received placebo.
Serious adverse reactions, whether considered drug-related or not by the investigators, that occurred more frequently in patients treated with Orkambi included
These occurred in 1% or less of patients.
Table 3 shows adverse reactions occurring in ≥5% of patients with CF ages 12 years and older treated with Orkambi who are homozygous for the F508del mutation in the CFTR gene that also occurred at a higher rate than in patients who received placebo in the two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.
Table 3: Incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions in ≥5% of Orkambi-Treated Patients Ages 12 Years and Older Who are Homozygous for the F508del Mutation in the CFTR Gene in 2 Placebo-Controlled Phase 3 Clinical Trials of 24 Weeks Duration
|Adverse Reaction (Preferred Term)||Orkambi
|Dyspnea||48 (13)||29 (8)|
|Upper respiratory tract infection||37 (10)||20 (5)|
|Fatigue||34 (9)||29 (8)|
|Respiration abnormal||32 (9)||22 (6)|
|Blood creatine phosphokinase increased||27 (7)||20 (5)|
|Rash||25 (7)||7 (2)|
|Flatulence||24 (7)||11 (3)|
|Rhinorrhea||21 (6)||15 (4)|
|Influenza||19 (5)||8 (2)|
The safety profile from two pediatric trials in CF patients aged 6 through 11 years who are homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation, a 24-week, open-label, multicenter Phase 3 safety trial in 58 patients (Trial 3) and a 24-week, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 clinical trial (Trial 4) in 204 patients (103 received lumacaftor 200 mg/ivacaftor 250 mg every 12 hours and 101 received placebo), was similar to that observed in Trials 1 and 2.
Adverse reactions that are not listed in Table 3, and that occurred in ≥5% of lumacaftor/ivacaftor-treated patients with an incidence of ≥3% higher than placebo included:
- productive cough (17.5% vs 5.9%),
- nasal congestion (16.5% vs 7.9%),
- headache (12.6% vs 8.9%),
- abdominal pain upper (12.6% vs 6.9%), and
- sputum increased (10.7% vs 2.0%).
In a 24-week, open-label, multicenter Phase 3 study in 60 patients aged 2 through 5 years with CF who are homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation (Trial 6) the safety profile was similar to that observed in studies in patients aged 6 years and older.
Additional information on selected adverse reactions from trials is detailed below.
Description Of Selected Adverse Drug Reactions
Liver-Related Adverse Reactions
In Trials 1 and 2, the incidence of maximum transaminase (ALT or AST) levels >8, >5, and >3 x ULN elevations was similar between patients treated with Orkambi and those who received placebo. Three patients who received Orkambi had liver-related serious adverse reactions, including 2 reported as transaminase elevations and 1 as hepatic encephalopathy, compared to none in the placebo group.
Of these three, one had elevated transaminases (>3 x ULN) associated with bilirubin elevation >2 x ULN. Following discontinuation or interruption of Orkambi, transaminases decreased to <3 x ULN.
Among 6 patients with pre-existing cirrhosis and/or portal hypertension who received Orkambi, worsening liver function with increased ALT, AST, bilirubin, and hepatic encephalopathy was observed in one patient. The event occurred within 5 days of the start of dosing and resolved following discontinuation of Orkambi.
During the 24-week, open-label Phase 3 clinical trial in 58 patients aged 6 through 11 years (Trial 3), the incidence of maximum transaminase (ALT or AST) levels >8, >5, and >3 x ULN was 5%, 9%, and 19%. No patients had total bilirubin levels > 2 x ULN. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor dosing was maintained or successfully resumed after interruption in all patients with transaminase elevations, except 1 patient who discontinued treatment permanently.
During the 24 week, placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trial in 204 patients aged 6 through 11 years (Trial 4), the incidence of maximum transaminase (ALT or AST) levels >8, >5, and >3 x ULN was 1%, 5%, and 13% in the lumacaftor/ivacaftor patients, and 2%, 3%, and 8% in the placebo treated patients. No patients had total bilirubin levels > 2 x ULN. Two patients in the lumacaftor/ivacaftor group and two patients in the placebo group discontinued treatment permanently due to transaminase elevations.
During the 24-week, open-label Phase 3 clinical study in 60 patients aged 2 through 5 years (Trial 6), the incidence of maximum transaminase (ALT or AST) levels >8, >5, and >3 x ULN was 8.3% (5/60), 11.7% (7/60), and 15.0% (9/60). No patients had total bilirubin levels > 2 x ULN. Three patients discontinued lumacaftor/ivacaftor treatment permanently due to transaminase elevations.
Respiratory Adverse Reactions
In Trials 1 and 2, the incidence of respiratory symptom-related adverse reactions (e.g., chest discomfort, dyspnea, and respiration abnormal) was more common in patients treated with Orkambi (22%) compared to patients who received placebo (14%). The incidence of these adverse reactions was more common in patients treated with Orkambi with lower pre-treatment FEV1. In patients treated with Orkambi, the majority of the events began during the first week of treatment .
Duringa 24-week, open label, Phase 3b clinicaltrialin 46 patients aged 12 yearsand older (Trial 5) with advanced lungdisease(ppFEV1<40) [mean ppFEV129.1at baseline (range: 18.3 to 42.0)], the incidence of respiratory symptom-related adverse reactions was 65%.
During the 24-week, open-label Phase 3 clinical trial (Trial 3) in 58 patients aged 6 through 11 years (mean baseline ppFEV1 was 91.4), the incidence of respiratory symptom-related adverse reactions was 3% (2/58).
During the 24 week, placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trial (Trial 4) in patients aged 6 through 11 years (mean ppFEV1 89.8 at baseline [range: 48.6 to 119.6]), the incidence of respiratory symptom-related adverse reactions was 11% in lumacaftor/ivacaftor patients and 9% in placebo patients. A decline in ppFEV1 at initiation of therapy was observed during serial post dose spirometry assessments. The absolute change from pre-dose at 4-6 hours post-dose was -7.7 on Day 1 and -1.3 on Day 15 in lumacaftor/ivacaftor patients. The post-dose decline was resolved by Week 16.
In Trials 1 and 2, the incidence of combined menstrual abnormality adverse reactions (e.g., amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, menstrual irregular) was more common in female patients treated with Orkambi (10%) compared to placebo (2%). These events occurred more frequently in the subset of female patients treated with Orkambi who were using hormonal contraceptives (27%) compared to those not using hormonal contraceptives (3%).
Increased Blood Pressure
In Trials 1 and 2, adverse reactions related to increases in blood pressure (e.g., hypertension, blood pressure increased) were reported in 1.1% (4/369) of patients treated with Orkambi and in no patients who received placebo.
The proportion of patients who experienced a systolic blood pressure value >140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg on at least two occasions was 3.6% and 2.2% in patients treated with Orkambi, respectively, compared with 1.6% and 0.5% in patients who received placebo.
Because post-marketing reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Post-marketing cases of liver function decompensation including liver failure leading to death have been reported in CF patients with pre-existing cirrhosis with portal hypertension who were treated with Orkambi.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Lung Cancer: Early Signs, Symptoms, Stages
Learn about lung cancer early warning signs, symptoms and treatments. What causes stage IV lung cancer? Get more information on...
Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Signs, Screening, Stages
Colorectal cancer (colon cancer) is the cause of many cancer deaths. Learn about the warning signs, symptoms, screening process,...
Bladder Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Treatments
Bladder cancer occurs when cancerous cells, often from the lining of the bladder, begin to multiply. Find more information about...
Head and Neck Cancers: Symptoms and Treatments
Head and neck cancers include cancers of the throat, lips, nose, mouth, larynx, and salivary glands. They are more likely to...
Lung Cancer Risks: Myths and Facts
Learn about lung cancer myths and facts. Explore how cigar smoke, menthol, and pollution can increase your risk of lung cancer...
Colon Cancer: How Your Diet Can Affect Colorectal Cancer
Diet, including nutrient, antioxidant, and vitamin intake, affects colon cancer risk. Certain dietary factors either decrease or...
Melanoma (Skin Cancer) Quiz: Symptoms & Signs
What causes skin cancer? Take our Skin Cancer Quiz to learn about the risks, symptoms, causes, and treatments for this common...
Lung Cancer Quiz: Signs and Symptoms
Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the U.S. and worldwide. Get the facts about lung...
Head and Neck Cancer Quiz
Learn the facts about head and neck cancers.
Picture of Lentigo Maligna Melanoma
One of the four clinical types of malignant melanoma and the slowest growing one. See a picture of Lentigo Maligna Melanoma and...
Picture of Lung Cancer
Cancer of the lung, like all cancers, results from an abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, the cell. See a picture of...
Picture of Malignant Melanoma
Less than 2 percent of all melanomas occur during childhood. Nonetheless, attention must be paid to signs and symptoms suggestive...
Picture of Desmoplastic Melanoma
A flat nodule with bluish-red and brown portion in an elderly malea. See a picture of Desmoplastic Melanoma and learn more about...
Related Disease Conditions
Liver cancer is cancer of the liver cells (hepatocellular carcinoma) or of the ducts in the liver (cholangiocarcinoma). Liver cancer often arises due to liver damage, cirrhosis (scarring) caused by alcohol use/abuse, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. Liver cancer may not cause any symptoms. Liver cancer is diagnosed with blood tests, imaging tests, and a liver biopsy. Treatment for liver cancer may include surgery, ablation, embolization, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.
What Is Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma?
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is cancer of the lymphatic system, a vital part of the body's immune system. Symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, coughing, weakness, chest pain, unexplained weight loss, and abdominal pain.
Second Source article from Government
Second Source article from Government
Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is not known what causes MCL. MCL signs and symptoms include fever, enlarged spleen and liver, fatigue, and weight loss. Treatment of MCL incorporates radiotherapy and chemotherapy. MCL has a poor prognosis as it typically is diagnosed in a late stage.
Second Source article from Government
Lung cancer kills more men and women than any other form of cancer. Eight out of 10 lung cancers are due to tobacco smoke. Lung cancers are classified as either small-cell or non-small-cell lung cancers.
Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the grade of the tumor, and the type of bladder cancer. Options for treatment include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.
Melanoma (Skin Cancer)
Melanoma is a type of skin cancer which begins in skin cells called melanocytes and affects more than 53,600 people in the United States each year. These melanocytes can grow together to form benign moles which, after a change in size, shape, or color can be a sign of melanoma. Caused by sun exposure, early detection becomes extremely important to avoid a spread to other areas of the body. Diagnosis is confirmed through a biopsy of the abnormal skin and treatment depends on the extent and characteristics of the patient. Metastatic melanoma is melanoma that has spread to various organs.
What Happens if Melanoma Gets Into Lymph Nodes?
Melanoma is a rapidly progressive type of skin cancer. The treatment of melanoma depends on the stage of the disease. Lymph nodes are small glands that are part of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is involved in the formations of the white blood cells or WBCs. It is also the site where lymph, a clear fluid containing the white blood cells, is filtered.
What Percentage of Smokers Get Lung Cancer?
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), lung cancer develops in around 10 to 20 percent of all smokers. Scientists believe that smoking is responsible for over 80 percent of lung cancers.
There are several types of kidney cancer, including renal cell cancer (renal adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma), transitional cell carcinoma, and Wilms tumor. Symptoms of kidney cancer include blood in the urine, an abdominal lump or mass, chronic pain in the side, and tiredness. Treatment of kidney cancer -- which may include surgery, arterial embolization, radiation therapy, biological therapy or chemotherapy -- depends upon the stage of the disease and the patient's overall health.
Ocular Melanoma (Intraocular Melanoma or Uveal Melanoma)
Ocular melanoma is cancer that begins in the eye tissue. Risk factors include being Caucasian, older age, having light eyes and fair skin. Ocular melanoma symptoms and signs include blurry vision and a dark spot on the iris. Treatment may involve surgery, thermotherapy, photocoagulation, radiation therapy, and watchful waiting.
Can You Survive Metastatic Lung Cancer?
Once cancer spreads to other parts of the body (metastasis), it is much harder to treat, which means metastatic lung cancer typically has a five-year survival rate of seven percent.
Hodgkin's vs. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Both Hodgkin's disease (sometimes referred to as Hodgkin's lymphoma) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are cancers that originate in a type of white blood cell known as a lymphocyte, an important component of the body's immune system.
What Is Burkitt Lymphoma?
There are multiple types of Burkitt lymphoma. Burkitt lymphomas are types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that affect the bone marrow and central nervous system. Symptoms of Burkitt lymphoma may include nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, enlarged lymph nodes, and many other symptoms. Diagnosis involves lab testing, imaging studies, patient history, and cytogenic evaluation. There are multiple staging systems used to stage Burkitt lymphoma. Treatment consists of chemotherapy. The prognosis tends to be more favorable in children than in adults.
How Can You Tell the Difference Between Melanoma and Seborrheic Keratosis?
Learn the difference between melanoma and seborrheic keratosis and how to treat each condition.
How Long Can You Live With Stage IV Lung Cancer?
While stage IV lung cancer is hard to cure, advancements in cancer treatments may help improve your lifespan and survival rate, depending on your overall state of health.
What Should I Do After an Unwanted Pregnancy?
There are a variety of options that may help you handle your situation. It might help you to visualize each option and decide how you feel about it. Consider reaching out to trained professionals or close friends if you get overwhelmed.
Head and Neck Cancer
Head and neck cancer is cancer of the oral cavity, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, or lymph nodes in the upper part of the neck. These cancers account for 3% to 5% of cancers in the U.S. Tobacco and alcohol use are important risk factors. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy.
What Is 5-Year Survival Rates for Lung Cancer?
The 5-year survival rate for lung cancer is about 17% overall. However, more than half of lung cancer patients die within one year of being diagnosed because the cancer is often only detected at the advanced stages.
Small Cell Lung Cancer vs. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) consist of large cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) usually starts in the bronchi and typically appears in those who smoke. SCLC and NSCLC are staged in different manners, and SCLC tends to metastasize more quickly than NSCLC. Signs and symptoms of NSCLC and SCLC include shortness of breath, coughing up blood, recurring lung infections, and chest pain. Treatment may involve radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.
What Is the Main Cause of Primary Lymphoma of Bone?
Primary lymphoma of bone (PLB) is a rare type of cancer that starts in the bone instead of the lymph nodes. PLB accounts for less than 5% of all bone tumors. PLB is also known as reticulum cell sarcoma, malignant lymphoma of bone or osteolymphoma, and it is a type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Pain is the most common symptom of PLB.
How Do You Test Yourself for Lung Cancer?
Lung cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. It is hard to detect in the early stages because it does not cause obvious signs and symptoms. Signs and symptoms most often appear when lung cancer has grown deep and extensively inside the lung tissue and/or spread to other organs.
What Do the Early Signs of Melanoma Look Like?
Malignant melanoma is a one of the subtypes of skin cancer, a highly aggressive one that tends to spread to other parts of the body. Non-melanoma skin cancers are comparatively less aggressive. Self-examination of the skin for suspicious changes, changes in existing moles, non-healing inflammation, ulcers or other abnormalities can help detect skin cancer at its earliest stages.
Can Pancoast Lung Cancer Be Cured?
Pancoast tumors are a rare type of lung cancer that forms at the extreme top of either of the lungs. Due to their location at the top of the lung, there’s a high chance that cancer might attack the adjacent tissue and produce typical symptoms.
How Long Will You Live With Stage III Lung Cancer?
The lifespan and survival rate of patients diagnosed with stage III lung cancer depends on the type and subtype of the cancerous tumor.
Hodgkin's disease is a cancer of the lymphatic system with symptoms that include unexplained, recurring fevers, unexplained weight loss, itchy skin, and painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, and groin. Treatment for adult Hodgkin's disease depends on the staging of the disease, the size of the lymph nodes, and the health of the patient.
What Is the Survival Rate for Stage I Lung Cancer?
Typically, the survival rate for stage I lung cancer is anywhere from 70 to 92 percent, depending on the type. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the outlook.
What Are the Four Types of Lung Cancer?
The four types of lung cancer are classified by what kind of cells the cancer affects and what the tumor cells look like under a microscope. Lung cancers can be small-cell or non-small cell, further classified as squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma.
What Does Lung Cancer Feel Like When It Starts?
Lung cancer refers to the uncontrolled growth of cells that starts in the lungs. Lung cancer occurs when any of the several cells in the lungs undergo an abnormal change in its genetic code. This change is called a mutation.
Can You Smoke When You Have Lung Cancer?
Continuing to smoke after the diagnosis or during the treatment of lung cancer is usually not recommended because it may decrease the survival rate and even interfere with the treatment process.
How Do You Get Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is cancer that affects the lymphatic system, a part of the body’s immune system. The lymphatic system helps in filtering foreign cells and microorganisms. The lymphatic system is comprised of lymph fluid, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, and the spleen.
What Is the Survival Rate for Ocular Melanoma?
If your doctor treats ocular melanoma (a kind of eye cancer) before it spreads to other organs, you have an 85% chance of surviving five years after diagnosis. If it’s metastasized to distant organs (as opposed to nearby lymph nodes, for example), the five-year survival rate drops to 13%.
Six Early Signs of Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. It may not show its signs and symptoms in its early stages. Signs and symptoms typically appear in the advanced stage of the disease.
How Bad Is Lymphoma Cancer Of Bone?
Lymphoma is a cancer of infection-fighting cells (lymphocytes), white blood cells of the immune system. These cells are normally found in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and bone marrow.
How Aggressive Is Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer?
NSCLC is slow-growing and less aggressive than SCLC, which means the survival rate and lifespan are better compared to other types of lung cancer.
Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma
Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can spread to the surrounding organs and cause death. A sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is done in patients with melanoma to investigate the spread of the disease.
What Is the Survival Rate of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer?
There are two main types of lung cancers, namely, small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC accounts for 85% of all lung cancer cases in the United States. It must be noted that medical science is progressing with leaps and bounds, and treatment for lung cancer must be initiated and maintained despite the stage of diagnosis.
What Are The Main Causes Of Lung Cancer?
Lung cancer refers to an uncontrolled growth of cells that starts in the lungs. The cells then cluster together to form a tumor that can spread to other sites in the body. Lung cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States (skin cancer being the first and prostate and breast cancer being the second most common cancer in men and women, respectively).
Where Do You Feel Lung Cancer Pain?
In its early stages, lung cancer typically does not produce any signs and symptoms. However, if it does, you will experience coughing and wheezing that do not go away within three weeks.
How Does Smoking Affect Lung Cancer?
Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate substances, and many of these are potential carcinogens. More than 4000 individual components have been identified in cigarette smoke. Some of these are carcinogens (substances that contribute to the development of cancer), such as benzene and nitrosamines.
Liver Cancer (Hepatocellular Cancer) Prevention
Avoiding certain risk factors (such as hepatitis B and C, cirrhosis, and aflatoxin) can lower one's risk of developing liver cancer. Getting the hepatitis B vaccine is a protective factor against liver cancer.
What Is Lung Cancer Pain Like?
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is defined as an uncontrolled growth of tumor cells in the lungs. The principal role of the lungs is to allow gaseous exchange between the air and blood and facilitate the availability of oxygen for cellular functions.
Is There a Screening Test for Lung Cancer?
A screening test is generally performed as a preventative measure to detect a potential health problem or disease in a person who is yet to have signs or symptoms. There is a screening test for lung cancer, however it is only deemed necessary for people at risk for lung cancer.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Skin Cancer Melanoma FAQs
- Lung Cancer FAQs
- Head and Neck Cancer FAQs
- Melanoma Skin Cancer of U.S. Senator John McCain
- Chronic Viral Hepatitis, Alcoholism, Cirrhosis Linked to Liver Cancer
- Sensitive to Smoke, Lung Cancer Gene
- Lung Cancer Signs and Symptoms
- 5 Causes of Lung Cancer in Non-Smokers
- Dana Reeve Dies of Lung Cancer by Dr. Stoppler
- Lung Cancer and Chemotherapy
- Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL)
- Can a CAT Scan Falsely Diagnose Liver Cancer?
- What Is the Survival Rate for Lung Cancer Nodules?
- Does HIV Cause Colorectal Cancer?
- Are All Tumors in the Bladder Cancerous?
- How Do Melanomas Form?
- Does Hepatitis B Cause Liver Cancer?
- Why Does Lung Cancer Spread So Fast?
- Can You Get Lung Cancer After Quitting Smoking?
- Liver Cancer Diagnosis
- Liver Cancer Treatment
- Psoriasis PUVA Therapy Can Increase Melanoma Risk
- Stage IV Lung Cancer With ALK (Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase) Rearrangement
- Bladder Cancer Causes, Symptoms, and Signs
- Lung Cancer - Health Beat Audio Segment
Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.