Does Meruvax II (rubella vaccine) cause side effects?
Rubella is a highly contagious viral disease. In children, the disease is usually mild with fever and a rash. However, rubella is especially dangerous during pregnancy as it can cause miscarriage or serious birth defects. Rubella can be prevented with vaccination.
The vaccine works by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against the rubella virus. Meruvax II is no longer available in the U.S. and has been replaced with the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). The measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine is a single injection that contains all three vaccines, providing protection from all three infections.
Common side effects of Meruvax II include:
- decreased platelet count,
- increased white blood cell count,
- allergic reactions,
- muscle pain,
- joint pain,
- rash, and
- eye problems.
Serious side effects of Meruvax II include:
- brain infection,
- Guillain-Barré syndrome,
- deafness, and
Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to gelatin should not receive Meruvax II.
Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to the antibiotic neomycin should not receive Meruvax II because neomycin is used in the production process.
What are the important side effects of Meruvax II (rubella vaccine)?
Meruvax II (rubella vaccine) side effects list for healthcare professionals
The following adverse reactions are listed in decreasing order of severity, without regard to causality, within each body system category and have been reported during clinical trials, with use of the marketed vaccine, or with use of polyvalent vaccine containing rubella:
Body as a Whole
Diarrhea; vomiting; nausea.
Hemic and Lymphatic System
Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions have been reported as well as related phenomena such as angioneurotic edema (including peripheral or facial edema) and bronchial spasm in individuals with or without an allergic history.
- Chronic arthritis has been associated with natural rubella infection and has been related to persistent virus and/or viral antigen isolated from body tissues. Only rarely have vaccine recipients developed chronic joint symptoms.
- Following vaccination in children, reactions in joints are uncommon and generally of brief duration.
- In women, incidence rates for arthritis and arthralgia are generally higher than those seen in children (children: 0-3%; women: 12-26%) and the reactions tend to be more marked and of longer duration. Symptoms may persist for a matter of months or on rare occasions for years.
- In adolescent girls, the reactions appear to be intermediate in incidence between those seen in children and in adult women.
- Even in women older than 35 years, these reactions are generally well tolerated and rarely interfere with normal activities. Myalgia and paresthesia have been reported rarely after administration of Meruvax (rubella virus vaccine live) II.
Encephalitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS); polyneuritis; polyneuropathy; paresthesia.
Local reactions including burning/stinging at injection site; wheal and flare; redness (erythema); pain; induration.
Special Senses — Ear
Nerve deafness; otitis media.
Special Senses — Eye
- Death from various, and in some cases unknown, causes has been reported rarely following vaccination with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines; however, a causal relationship has not been established. No deaths or permanent sequelae were reported in a published post-marketing surveillance study in Finland involving 1.5 million children and adults who were vaccinated with M-M-R II during 1982-1993.
- Under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986, health-care providers and manufacturers are required to record and report certain suspected adverse events occurring within specific time periods after vaccination.
- However, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has established a Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) which will accept all reports of suspected events.
- A VAERS report form as well as information regarding reporting requirements can be obtained by calling VAERS 1-800-822-7967. 31. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System — United States, MMWR 39(41): 730-733, October 19, 1990.
What drugs interact with Meruvax II (rubella vaccine)?
- The immune status of patients about to undergo immunosuppressive therapy should be evaluated so that the physician can consider whether vaccination prior to the initiation of treatment is indicated.
- The ACIP has stated that "patients with leukemia in remission who have not received chemotherapy for at least 3 months may receive live-virus vaccines.
- Short-term ( < 2 weeks), low- to moderate-dose systemic corticosteroid therapy, topical steroid therapy (e.g., nasal, skin), long-term alternate-day treatment with low to moderate doses of short-acting systemic steroid, and intra-articular, bursal, or tendon injection of corticosteroids are not immunosuppressive in their usual doses and do not contraindicate the administration of rubella vaccine."
- Administration of immune globulins concurrently with Meruvax (rubella virus vaccine live) II may interfere with the expected immune response.
Meruvax II (rubella vaccine) is a live attenuated (weakened) vaccine of the rubella virus used to prevent rubella infection (German measles). Meruvax II is no longer available in the U.S. and has been replaced with the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). Common side effects of Meruvax II include fever, headache, dizziness, tiredness, irritability, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, decreased platelet count, increased white blood cell count, allergic reactions, muscle pain, joint pain, numbness, rash, and eye problems. It is unknown if Meruvax II can cause birth defects. It should be avoided during pregnancy. Meruvax II passes into breast milk and should be used cautiously in breastfeeding mothers.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Picture of Rubella 1
The constellation of abnormalities caused by infection with the rubella (German measles) virus before birth. See a picture of...
Picture of Measles
An acute and highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, runny nose, cough, red eyes, and a spreading skin rash. See...
Picture of Rubella 2
Petechiae on the hard palate of the same individual (Forchheimer's sign). See a picture of Rubella and learn more about the...
Childhood Diseases: Measles, Mumps, & More
Is your child at risk for these childhood diseases? Know what to look for and when to call the doctor for conditions such as...
Related Disease Conditions
Second Source article from Government
German Measles (Rubella)
German measles is a disease that's caused by a virus. Symptoms include rash and fever for two to three days. The MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine prevents this disease.
Mumps is an acute viral illness caused by the mumps virus. Symptoms of mumps include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and loss of appetite, followed by swelling of the salivary glands.
Measles (rubeola) is a highly contagious disease that's caused by a virus. Symptoms include a rash, high fever, cough, runny nose, and red eyes. Treatment focuses on symptom relief. The disease can be prevented with the measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox (varicella) vaccine (MMRV).
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.