Does Januvia (sitagliptin) cause side effects?
Januvia (sitagliptin) is a DPP-4 inhibitor used in combination with exercise and diet to improve blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Following a meal, incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are released from the intestine, and their levels increase in the blood.
- GLP-1 and GIP reduce blood glucose by increasing the production and release of insulin from the pancreas.
- GLP-1 also reduces blood glucose by reducing the secretion by the pancreas of the hormone, glucagon, a hormone that increases the production of glucose by the liver and raises the blood level of glucose.
- The net effect of increased release of GLP-1 and GIP is to reduce blood glucose levels. Januvia inhibits the enzyme, DPP-4, that destroys GLP-1 and GIP and increases the levels and activity of both hormones.
- As a result, blood glucose levels fall. Januvia should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
Common side effects of Januvia include:
Serious side effects of Januvia include:
- acute pancreatitis,
- acute renal failure,
- increased risk of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), and
- serious allergic and hypersensitivity reactions.
Drug interactions of Januvia include digoxin, because Januvia may slightly increase the concentration of digoxin in the body.
The occurrence of low blood glucose increases when Januvia is combined with a sulfonylurea (for example, glyburide [Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab]) or insulin.
There are no adequate studies of Januvia in pregnant women. It is unknown if Januvia passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding.
What are the important side effects of Januvia (sitagliptin)?
- There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue sitagliptin.
- There have been postmarketing reports of acute renal failure, sometimes requiring dialysis. Dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate or severe renal insufficiency and in patients with ESRD. Assessment of renal function is recommended prior to initiating sitagliptin and periodically thereafter.
- There is an increased risk of hypoglycemia when sitagliptin is added to an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin therapy. Consider lowering the dose of the sulfonylurea or insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.
- There have been postmarketing reports of serious allergic and hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with sitagliptin such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. In such cases, promptly stop sitagliptin, assess for other potential causes, institute appropriate monitoring and treatment, and initiate alternative treatment for diabetes.
- There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with sitagliptin or any other anti-diabetic drug.
Common side effects
The most common side effects of sitagliptin are:
Other important side effects of sitagliptin include:
Januvia (sitagliptin) side effects list for healthcare professionals
Clinical Trials Experience
- Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
- In controlled clinical studies as both monotherapy and combination therapy with metformin, pioglitazone, or rosiglitazone and metformin, the overall incidence of adverse reactions, hypoglycemia, and discontinuation of therapy due to clinical adverse reactions with Januvia were similar to placebo.
- In combination with glimepiride, with or without metformin, the overall incidence of clinical adverse reactions with Januvia was higher than with placebo, in part related to a higher incidence of hypoglycemia (see Table 3); the incidence of discontinuation due to clinical adverse reactions was similar to placebo.
- Two placebo-controlled monotherapy studies, one of 18-and one of 24-week duration, included patients treated with Januvia 100 mg daily, Januvia 200 mg daily, and placebo. Five placebo-controlled add-on combination therapy studies were also conducted: one with metformin; one with pioglitazone; one with metformin and rosiglitazone; one with glimepiride (with or without metformin); and one with insulin (with or without metformin).
- In these trials, patients with inadequate glycemic control on a stable dose of the background therapy were randomized to add-on therapy with Januvia 100 mg daily or placebo.
- The adverse reactions, excluding hypoglycemia, reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with Januvia 100 mg daily and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo, are shown in Table 1 for the clinical trials of at least 18 weeks duration. Incidences of hypoglycemia are shown in Table 3.
Table 1: Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studies of Januvia Monotherapy or Add-on Combination Therapy with Pioglitazone, Metformin + Rosiglitazone, or Glimepiride +/-Metformin: Adverse Reactions (Excluding Hypoglycemia) Reported in ≥5% of Patients and More Commonly than in Patients Given Placebo, Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality*
|Monotherapy (18 or 24 weeks)||Number of Patients (%)|
|Januvia 100 mg||Placebo|
|N = 443||N = 363|
|Nasopharyngitis||23 (5.2)||12 (3.3)|
|Combination with Pioglitazone (24 weeks)||Januvia 100 mg + Pioglitazone||Placebo + Pioglitazone|
|N = 175||N = 178|
|Upper Respiratory Tract Infection||11 (6.3)||6 (3.4)|
|Headache||9 (5.1)||7 (3.9)|
|Combination with Metformin + Rosiglitazone (18 weeks)||Januvia 100 mg + Metformin + Rosiglitazone||Placebo + Metformin + Rosiglitazone|
|N = 181||N = 97|
|Upper Respiratory Tract Infection||10 (5.5)||5 (5.2)|
|Nasopharyngitis||11 (6.1)||4 (4.1)|
|Combination with Glimepiride (+/-Metformin) (24 weeks)||Januvia 100 mg + Glimepiride (+/-Metformin)||Placebo + Glimepiride (+/-Metformin)|
|N = 222||N = 219|
|Nasopharyngitis||14 (6.3)||10 (4.6)|
|Headache||13 (5.9)||5 (2.3)|
|* Intent-to-treat population|
- In the 24-week study of patients receiving Januvia as add-on combination therapy with metformin, there were no adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo.
- In the 24-week study of patients receiving Januvia as add-on therapy to insulin (with or without metformin), there were no adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo, except for hypoglycemia (see Table 3).
- In the study of Januvia as add-on combination therapy with metformin and rosiglitazone (Table 1), through Week 54 the adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with Januvia and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo were: upper respiratory tract infection (Januvia, 15.5%; placebo, 6.2%), nasopharyngitis (11.0%, 9.3%), peripheral edema (8.3%, 5.2%), and headache (5.5%, 4.1%).
- In a pooled analysis of the two monotherapy studies, the add-on to metformin study, and the add-on to pioglitazone study, the incidence of selected gastrointestinal adverse reactions in patients treated with Januvia was as follows: abdominal pain (Januvia 100 mg, 2.3%; placebo, 2.1%), nausea (1.4%, 0.6%), and diarrhea (3.0%, 2.3%).
- In an additional, 24-week, placebo-controlled factorial study of initial therapy with sitagliptin in combination with metformin, the adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in ≥5% of patients are shown in Table 2.
Table 2: Initial Therapy with Combination of Sitagliptin and Metformin: Adverse Reactions Reported (Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality) in ≥5% of Patients Receiving Combination Therapy (and Greater than in Patients Receiving Metformin alone, Sitagliptin alone, and Placebo)*
|Number of Patients (%)|
(Januvia) 100 mg QD
500 or 1000 mg bid†
50 mg bid + Metformin 500 or 1000 mg bid†
|N = 176||N = 179||N = 364†||N = 372†|
|Upper Respiratory Infection||9 (5.1)||8 (4.5)||19 (5.2)||23 (6.2)|
|Headache||5 (2.8)||2 (1.1)||14 (3.8)||22 (5.9)|
|* Intent-to-treat population.|
† Data pooled for the patients given the lower and higher doses of metformin.
- In a 24-week study of initial therapy with Januvia in combination with pioglitazone, there were no adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given pioglitazone alone.
- No clinically meaningful changes in vital signs or in ECG (including in QTc interval) were observed in patients treated with Januvia.
- In a pooled analysis of 19 double-blind clinical trials that included data from 10,246 patients randomized to receive sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N=5429) or corresponding (active or placebo) control (N=4817), the incidence of acute pancreatitis was 0.1 per 100 patient-years in each group (4 patients with an event in 4708 patient-years for sitagliptin and 4 patients with an event in 3942 patient-years for control).
- In the above studies (N=9), adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia.
- A concurrent blood glucose measurement was not required although most (74%) reports of hypoglycemia were accompanied by a blood glucose measurement ≤70 mg/dL.
- When Januvia was coadministered with a sulfonylurea or with insulin, the percentage of patients with at least one adverse reaction of hypoglycemia was higher than in the corresponding placebo group (Table 3).
Table 3: Incidence and Rate of Hypoglycemia* in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studies when Januvia was used as Add-On Therapy to Glimepiride (with or without Metformin) or Insulin (with or without Metformin), Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality
|Add-On to Glimepiride|
(+/-Metformin) (24 weeks)
|Januvia 100 mg + Glimepiride (+/-Metformin)||Placebo + Glimepiride (+/-Metformin)|
|N = 222||N = 219|
|Overall (%)||27 (12.2)||4 (1.8)|
|Severe (%)‡||0 (0.0)||0 (0.0)|
|Add-On to Insulin|
(+/-Metformin) (24 weeks)
|Januvia 100 mg + Insulin (+/-Metformin)||Placebo + Insulin (+/-Metformin)|
|N = 322||N = 319|
|Overall (%)||50 (15.5)||25 (7.8)|
|Severe (%)‡||2 (0.6)||1 (0.3)|
|* Adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia; a concurrent glucose measurement was not required; intent-to-treat population.|
† Based on total number of events (i.e., a single patient may have had multiple events).
‡ Severe events of hypoglycemia were defined as those events requiring medical assistance or exhibiting depressed level/loss of consciousness or seizure.
- In a pooled analysis of the two monotherapy studies, the add-on to metformin study, and the add-on to pioglitazone study, the overall incidence of adverse reactions of hypoglycemia was 1.2% in patients treated with Januvia 100 mg and 0.9% in patients treated with placebo.
- In the study of Januvia as add-on combination therapy with metformin and rosiglitazone, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 2.2% in patients given add-on Januvia and 0.0% in patients given add-on placebo through Week 18. Through Week 54, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 3.9% in patients given add-on Januvia and 1.0% in patients given add-on placebo.
- In the 24-week, placebo-controlled factorial study of initial therapy with Januvia in combination with metformin, the incidence of hypoglycemia was 0.6% in patients given placebo, 0.6% in patients given Januvia alone, 0.8% in patients given metformin alone, and 1.6% in patients given Januvia in combination with metformin.
- In the study of Januvia as initial therapy with pioglitazone, one patient taking Januvia experienced a severe episode of hypoglycemia. There were no severe hypoglycemia episodes reported in other studies except in the study involving coadministration with insulin.
- In an additional, 30-week placebo-controlled, study of patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin comparing the maintenance of sitagliptin 100 mg versus withdrawal of sitagliptin when initiating basal insulin therapy, the event rate and incidence of documented symptomatic hypoglycemia (blood glucose measurement ≤70 mg/dL) did not differ between the sitagliptin and placebo groups.
- Across clinical studies, the incidence of laboratory adverse reactions was similar in patients treated with Januvia 100 mg compared to patients treated with placebo.
- A small increase in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed due to an increase in neutrophils. This increase in WBC (of approximately 200 cells/microL vs placebo, in four pooled placebo-controlled clinical studies, with a mean baseline WBC count of approximately 6600 cells/microL) is not considered to be clinically relevant.
- In a 12-week study of 91 patients with chronic renal insufficiency, 37 patients with moderate renal insufficiency were randomized to Januvia 50 mg daily, while 14 patients with the same magnitude of renal impairment were randomized to placebo. Mean (SE) increases in serum creatinine were observed in patients treated with Januvia [0.12 mg/dL (0.04)] and in patients treated with placebo [0.07 mg/dL (0.07)].
- The clinical significance of this added increase in serum creatinine relative to placebo is not known.
- Additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of Januvia as monotherapy and/or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents.
- Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
- Hypersensitivity reactions including
- cutaneous vasculitis, and
- exfoliative skin conditions including
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome;
- hepatic enzyme elevations;
- acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic and necrotizing pancreatitis;
- worsening renal function, including acute renal failure (sometimes requiring dialysis);
- severe and disabling arthralgia;
- bullous pemphigoid;
- pain in extremity;
- back pain;
- mouth ulceration;
What drugs interact with Januvia (sitagliptin)?
- There was a slight increase in the area under the curve (AUC, 11%) and mean peak drug concentration (Cmax, 18%) of digoxin with the coadministration of 100 mg sitagliptin for 10 days.
- Patients receiving digoxin should be monitored appropriately.
- No dosage adjustment of digoxin or Januvia is recommended.
Insulin Secretagogues Or Insulin
- Coadministration of Januvia with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin may require lower doses of the insulin secretagogue or insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.
Januvia (sitagliptin) is a DPP-4 inhibitor used in combination with exercise and diet to improve blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Common side effects of Januvia include upper respiratory tract infection, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. There are no adequate studies of Januvia in pregnant women. It is unknown if Januvia passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Type 2 Diabetes: Signs, Symptoms, Treatments
Learn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Find out why thirst, headaches, and...
Diabetes: What Raises and Lowers Your Blood Sugar Level?
Want to lower your blood sugar? Learn to better control your glucose levels by preventing blood sugar spikes and swings to avoid...
Diabetes Nerve Pain: Improving Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Learn how to cope with the symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy through pain management exercises. Find relief for diabetic...
Type 1 Diabetes (T1D): Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, Vs. Type 2
What is type 1 diabetes? There are new treatments for juvenile diabetes, and more people with diabetes can be treated than ever...
Diabetes: How Blood Sugar Levels Affect Your Body
High blood sugar can be a sign of diabetes or prediabetes. The drugs that treat it sometimes cause low blood sugar too. WebMD...
Foot Health: Reasons You Feel Burning in Your Feet
The feeling of burning in your feet isn't just an annoyance. It might also be a sign of a more serious condition. Find out more...
Diabetes Tips: Managing and Living With Diabetes
If you have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you need to approach life differently. Learn nutrition tips to control blood sugar,...
How Diabetes Can Affect Your Feet
Learn more about diabetes related foot problems. For people with diabetes, too much glucose in the blood can cause serious foot...
Prediabetes: You Can Turn It Around
Prediabetes can be a wake-up call. Click through to find out what you can do if you have it.
Diabetes: 12 Ways Too Much Sugar Harms Your Body
The bitter truth: How too much sugar can harm your physical and mental health.
Diabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
Discover the best and worst meals for diabetes-savvy dining. See how to avoid carbs and control your blood sugar with healthier...
Type 2 Diabetes: Test Your Medical IQ
What causes type 2 diabetes? Can it be prevented? Take this online quiz and challenge your knowledge of this common condition....
Type 1 Diabetes Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
What are the causes of type 1 diabetes? Take this quiz and challenge your knowledge of causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatments...
Diabetes Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do...
Diabetes Travel: Tips for Better Diabetes Control
Diabetes shouldn't stop you from traveling! Learn tips for packing diabetic supplies, controlling blood sugar while changing time...
Diabetes Diet: 11 Low-Sugar Drink Ideas
Searching for low-sugar drink ideas? This pictures slideshow has eleven beverages ideal for people with diabetes and those...
Diabetes: 15 Famous Celebrities With Diabetes
See pictures of celebrities that have been diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes including Mary Tyler Moore, Salma Hayek, and...
Slideshow: Diabetes Management in 10 Minutes
Learn 10 simple ways to better manage your diabetes. See tips for controlling blood sugar, diet and exercise and other helpful...
Diabetes: Guide to Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Diabetes can damage the nerves that help you feel pain, heat, and cold, especially in your feet. Learn about the symptoms of...
10 Muscle-Building Exercises for Diabetes
Watch this slideshow on Diabetes and Exercise. If you have diabetes, see how strengthening your muscles with these 10 weight...
Diabetes: Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Treatment
This nerve damage is a common complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Find out how to prevent it, slow its progression,...
Related Disease Conditions
Normal Blood Sugar Levels In Adults with Diabetes
People with diabetes can manage and prevent low or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia) by keeping a log of your blood sugar levels when you are eating and fasting and eat foods that are high in carbohydrates and sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary desserts, and fatty foods. Blood tests, for example, the hemoglobin A1c test (A1c test) and urinalysis can diagnose the type of diabetes the person has. Diabetes during pregnancy, called gestational diabetes, should be managed by you and your OB/GYN or another healthcare professional. Extremely high levels of blood glucose in the blood can be dangerous and life threatening if you have type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. If you or someone that you are with has extremely high blood glucose levels, call 911 or go to your nearest Urgent Care or Emergency Department immediately. To prevent and manage high blood glucose levels in people with diabetes keep a log of your blood sugar levels, eat foods that are high in carbohydrates sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary deserts, and fatty foods that you can share with your doctor and other healthcare professionals.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan
A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets.Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes.
Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that can occur during pregnancy. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes have not had the condition prior to becoming pregnant. Usually, gestational diabetes has no symptoms or signs and of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can cause insulin resistance, hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Treatment of gestational diabetes is managing the condition by checking your blood sugar as recommended, diet changes, getting enough exercise, and monitoring your baby's growth.
Diabetes-Related Dental Problems
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
Type 2 Diabetes: Diagnosing Diabetes
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
Diabetes Symptoms in Women
Diabetes symptoms in women include vaginal itching, pain, or discharge, loss of interest or pain after having sex, polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), and urinary tract infections or UTIs (which are more common in women. Symptoms of diabetes that are the same in women and men are excessive thirst and hunger, bad breath, and skin infections, darkening of skin in areas of body creases (acanthosis nigricans), breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or acetone, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, blurred vision, fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, wounds that heal slowly, irritability, and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Diabetes Symptoms in Men
Early symptoms of diabetes are different in men, such as low testosterone. In many cases, prediabetes that will progress to type 2 diabetes if it is not treated early.
Prediabetes is a situation where a person's blood sugar levels are higher than they should be, but aren't high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. There are no signs or symptoms of prediabetes. Some of the risk factors for prediabetes are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, smoking, family history, poor diet, and lack of activity. Diet changes along with other healthy lifestyle changes are important in treating prediabetes.
Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: Increased urination Increased hunger Increased thirst Unexplained weight loss. However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Diabetes and Safe Medications for Colds & Flu
If you have diabetes and catch a cold or the flu, can be more difficult to recover from infections and their complications, for example, pneumonia. Home remedies and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs used for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of colds and the flu may affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.Some medications are OK to take if you have diabetes get a cold or the flu include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, like acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Motrin) to control symptoms of fever and pain. Most cough syrups are safe to take; however, check with your pediatrician to see what medications are safe to give your child if he or she has type 1 or 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes and are sick with a cold or flu, you need to check your blood sugar levels more frequently. Continue taking your regular medications. Eat a diabetic low-glycemic index diet rich in antioxidants. To prevent colds and the flu drink at least eight 8 ounce glasses of water a day. To replenish fluids, drink sports drinks like Gatorade and Pedialyte to replenish electrolytes. Avoid people who are sick, sneezing, coughing, or have other symptoms of a cold or flu.
Type 1 Diabetes (Symptoms, Causes, Diet, Treatment, Life Expectancy)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (juvenile) is an auto-immune disease with no known cause at this time, although there are a few risk factors. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include frequent urination, unintentional weight loss, dry and itchy skin, vision problems, wounds that heal slowly, and excessive thirst. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed with blood tests. A healthy lifestyle and controlling blood glucose levels can improve life expectancy.
Gestational Diabetes (Diabetes during Pregnancy))
Learning how to avoid gestational diabetes is possible and maintaining a healthy weight and diet before and during pregnancy can help. Discover risk factors, tests and treatments for, and signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes.
How to Prevent Diabetes Naturally
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has early symptoms of diabetes, but has not yet fully developed the condition. If prediabetes is not treated with lifestyle changes, the person could develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes can be prevented with lifestyle changes, for example, eating a healthy diet, getting more exercise, reducing stress, quitting smoking, reducing or managing blood pressure and cholesterol, and managing any other health conditions or risk factors that you may have for developing type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Foot Problems
Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
Eye Problems and Diabetes
Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems in a person with diabetes include glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. Examples of symptoms include blurred vision, headaches, eye aches, pain, halos around lights, loss of vision, watering eyes. Treatment for eye problems in people with diabetes depend on the type of eye problem. Prevention of eye problems include reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, quitting smoking, and maintaining proper blood glucose levels.
Types of Diabetes Type 2 Medications
Type 2 diabetes oral medications are prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjuction with lifestyle changes like diet and exercise. There are nine classes of drugs approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Examples of type 2 oral diabetes medications include acarbose (Precose), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), and metformin (Glucophage). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, dosage, and breastfeeding and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
What Are the Early Signs of Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by increased blood sugar (glucose) level. Type 2 Diabetes is caused by either insufficient insulin secretion or resistance to that hormone’s action. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and helps process the glucose in the blood. Thus, with inadequate insulin, the bodies can’t burn all the blood sugar for energy in an efficient way. This means the glucose level in the blood rises, causing a variety of symptoms and when severe may even lead to death.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Diabetes FAQs
- Type 2 Diabetes FAQs
- Type 1 Diabetes FAQs
- What if I get COVID-19 with Diabetes?
- What Foods to Eat to Reverse Diabetes
- What Will Happen if Type 1 Diabetes Is Left Untreated?
- Can You Get Diabetes from Stress?
- Can oral diabetes medications cause impotence?
- What Is the Treatment for Diabetes Eye Damage?
- 6 Frequently Asked Diabetes Question
- What Kind of Candy Can You Eat With Diabetes?
- Can Diabetes Cause Muscle Pain?
- 11 Diabetes Diet Tips for the Holidays
- Diabetes Diet
- Diabetes: What Can I Eat?
Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.