- HIV AIDS Myths and Facts Slideshow Pictures
- Take the HIV/AIDS Quiz
- AIDS Retrospective Slideshow Pictures
Does Hivid (zalcitabine) cause side effects?
During infection with HIV, the HIV virus multiplies within the body’s cells. The newly-formed viruses are and spread throughout the body where they infect other cells. This is how the infection spreads to new, uninfected cells, and HIV infection is perpetuated.
When producing new virus, the HIV virus must manufacture new DNA for each virus. Reverse transcriptase is the enzyme the virus uses to form this new DNA. Specifically, zalcitabine is converted within the body to its active form (dideoxycytidine triphosphate), which is similar to deoxycytidine triphosphate, a chemical used by the HIV virus to make new DNA.
The reverse transcriptase uses dideoxycytidine triphosphate instead of deoxycytidine triphosphate for making DNA, and the dideoxycytidine triphosphate interferes with the action of the reverse transcriptase. Hivid does not kill existing HIV virus, and it is not a cure for HIV. The brand name Hivid is discontinued.
Common side effects of Hivid include:
- abdominal pain,
- mouth ulcers,
- painful swallowing, and
- difficulty sleeping.
Serious side effects of Hivid include:
- inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis),
- liver failure,
- metabolic disturbance (lactic acidosis) and
- peripheral neuropathy (damage to sensory nerves of the extremities).
Hivid should not be used with drugs that have the potential to cause peripheral neuropathy such as:
- antiretroviral nucleoside analogues,
- ribavirin, and
Use of Hivid and intravenous pentamidine should be avoided due to the potential for pancreatitis.
Amphotericin, foscarnet, and aminoglycosides combined with Hivid may increase the risk of developing peripheral neuropathy.
Absorption of Hivid is moderately reduced when taken with magnesium/aluminum-containing antacid products or metoclopramide.
Women of reproductive potential should not receive Hivid unless they are using effective contraception during therapy. To monitor maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnant women exposed to Hivid, an Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry has been established. Physicians are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800-258-4263.
It is unknown if Hivid is excreted in breast milk. HIV-infected mothers should not breastfeed because of the potential risk of transmitting HIV to an infant that is not infected.
What are the important side effects of Hivid (zalcitabine)?
The most severe side effects are inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), liver failure, metabolic disturbance (lactic acidosis) and peripheral neuropathy (damage to sensory nerves of the extremities).
Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy are:
Other side effects are:
Hivid (zalcitabine) side effects list for healthcare professionals
Tables 2 and 3 summarize the clinical adverse events and laboratory abnormalities, respectively, that occurred in ≥ 1% of patients in the comparative monotherapy trial (CPCRA 002) of Hivid (zalcitabine) vs didanosine (ddI), and the comparative combination trial (ACTG 175) of zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy vs Hivid (zalcitabine) and zidovudine combination therapy, respectively.
Other studies have found a higher or lower incidence of adverse experiences depending upon disease status, generally being lower in patients with less advanced disease.
Table 2. Percentage of Patients With Clinical Adverse Experience ≥ Grade 3*† in ≥ 1% of Patients Receiving Hivid (zalcitabine)
|CPCRA 002* ZDV Intolerantor Failure||ACTG 175‡ ZDV Naive/Experienced|
|Hivid 0.750 mg q8h|
|ddI 250 mg q12h|
|ZDV 200 mg q8h|
|Hivid + ZDV 0.750 mg q8h + 200 mg q8h|
|Body System/Adverse Event|
|Abnormal Hepatic Function||8.9||7.0|||||||||
|Metabolic and Nutrition|
|* Grade 2 Adverse Events possibly or probably related to treatment or unassessable were included if study drug dosage was changed or interrupted.|
† Grade 3 severity: event possible hospitalization.
Grade 4 severity: completely disabling, unable to care for self, requiring active medical intervention, probable hospitalization or hospice care.
‡ All relationships.
§ Adverse experiences were combined to form this category.
|| See Table 3.
¶ CPCRA 002 included patients who were dose-adjusted for Grade 2 events; ACTG 175 required dose adjustment for Grade 2 peripheral neuropathy but recorded only Grade 3 events.
Table 3. Percentage of Patients With Laboratory Abnormalities — Protocol Grade 3/4
|CPCRA 002* ZDV Intolerant or Failure||ACTG 175 ZDV Naive/Experienced|
|Hivid 0.750 mg q8h|
|ddI 250 mg q12h|
|ZDV 200 mg q8h|
|Hivid (zalcitabine) +ZDV|
0.750 mg q8h+200 mg q8h
|Anemia (<7.5 gm/dL)||8.4||7.4||1.8||3.1|
|Leukopenia (<1500 cells/mm3)||13.1||9.6||N/A||N/A|
|Eosinophilia (>1000 cells/mm3 or 25%)||2.5||1.7||N/A||N/A|
|Neutropenia (<750 cells/mm3)||16.9||11.7||1.9||4.2|
|Thrombocytopenia (<50,000 cells/mm3)||1.3||4.8||1.1||1.8|
|CPK Elevation* (>4 x ULN)||0.8||0.0||5.8||5.7|
|ALT (SGPT) (>5 x ULN)||N/A||N/A||3.6||5.0|
|AST (SGOT) (>5 x ULN)||7.6||5.7||2.9||4.1|
|Bilirubin (>2.5 x ULN)||0.8||0.9||0.5||1.0|
|GGT (>5 x ULN)||N/A||N/A||0.5||1.0|
|Amylase (>2 x ULN)||5.1||3.9||1.0||1.5|
|Hyperglycemia* (>250 mg/dL)||0.0||1.7||0.8||2.0|
|*Grade 3 or higher reported for CPCRA 002.|
N/A Not available.
Additional clinical adverse experiences associated with Hivid (zalcitabine) that occurred in < 1% of patients in CPCRA 002 (at least possibly related, Grade 3 or higher), ACTG 175 (any relationship, Grade 3/4) or in other clinical studies are listed below by body system. Several of these events occurred in slightly higher rates in other studies. The incidence of adverse experiences varied in different studies, generally being lower in patients with less-advanced disease.
Body as a Whole: abnormal weight loss, asthenia, cachexia, chest tightness or pain, chills, cutaneous/allergic reaction, debilitation, difficulty moving, dry eyes/mouth, edema, facial pain or swelling, flank pain, flushing, increased sweating, lymphadenopathy, hypersensitivity reactions, malaise, night sweats, pain, pelvic/groin pain, rigors, redistribution/accumulation of body fat.
Cardiovascular: abnormal cardiac movement, arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, cardiac failure, cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, heart racing, hypertension, palpitation, subarachnoid hemorrhage, syncope, tachycardia, ventricular ectopy.
Endocrine/Metabolic: abnormal triglycerides, abnormal lipase, altered serum glucose, decreased bicarbonate, diabetes mellitus, glycosuria, gout, hot flushes, hypercalcemia, hyperkalemia, hyperlipemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia, increased nonprotein nitrogen, lactic acidosis.
Gastrointestinal: abdominal bloating or cramps, acute pancreatitis, anal/rectal pain, anorexia, bleeding gums, bloody or black stools, colitis, dental abscess, dry mouth, dyspepsia, dysphagia, enlarged abdomen, epigastric pain, eructation, esophageal pain, esophageal ulcers, esophagitis, flatulence, gagging with pills, gastritis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gingivitis, glossitis, gum disorder, heartburn, hemorrhagic pancreatitis, hemorrhoids, increased saliva, left quadrant pain, melena, mouth lesion, odynophagia, painful sore gums, painful swallowing, pancreatitis, rectal hemorrhage, rectal mass, rectal ulcers, salivary gland enlargement, sore tongue, sore throat, tongue disorder, tongue ulcer, toothache, unformed/loose stools, vomiting.
Hematologic: absolute neutrophil count alteration, anemia, epistaxis, decreased hematocrit, granulocytosis, hemoglobinemia, leukopenia, neutrophilia, platelet alteration, purpura, thrombus, unspecified hematologic toxicity, white blood cell alteration.
Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, arthritis, arthropathy, arthrosis, back pain, backache, bone pains/aches, bursitis, cold extremities, extremity pain, joint inflammation, leg cramps, muscle aches, muscle weakness, muscle disorder, muscle stiffness, muscle cramps, myalgia, myopathy, myositis, neck pain, rib pain, stiff neck.
Neurological: abnormal coordination, aphasia, ataxia, Bell's palsy, confusion, decreased concentration, decreased neurological function, disequilibrium, dizziness, dysphonia, facial nerve palsy, focal motor seizures, grand mal seizure, hyperkinesia, hypertonia, hypokinesia, memory loss, migraine, neuralgia, neuritis, paralysis, seizures, speech disorder, status epilepticus, stupor, tremor, twitch, vertigo.
Psychological: acute psychotic disorder, acute stress reaction, agitation, amnesia, anxiety, confusion, decreased motivation, decreased sexual desire, depersonalization, emotional lability, euphoria, hallucination, impaired concentration, insomnia, manic reaction, mood swings, nervousness, paranoid state, somnolence, suicide attempt, dementia.
Respiratory: acute nasopharyngitis, chest congestion, coughing, cyanosis, difficulty breathing, dry nasal mucosa, dyspnea, flu-like symptoms, hemoptysis, nasal discharge, pharyngitis, rales/rhonchi, respiratory distress, sinus congestion, sinus pain, sinusitis, wheezing.
Skin: acne, alopecia, bullous eruptions, carbuncle/furuncle, cellulitis, cold sore, dermatitis, dry skin, dry rash desquamation, erythematous rash, exfoliative dermatitis, finger inflammation, follicular rash, impetigo, infection, itchy rash, lip blisters/lesions, macular/papular rash, maculopapular rash, moniliasis, mucocutaneous/skin disorder, nail disorder, photosensitivity reaction, pruritic disorder, pruritus, skin disorder, skin lesions, skin fissure, skin ulcer, urticaria.
Special Senses: abnormal vision, blurred vision, burning eyes, decreased taste, decreased vision, ear pain/problem, ear blockage, eye abnormality, eye inflammation, eye itching, eye pain, eye irritation, eye redness, eye hemorrhage, fluid in ears, hearing loss, increased tears, loss of taste, mucopurulent conjunctivitis, parosmia, photophobia, smell dysfunction, taste perversion, tinnitus, unequal-sized pupils, xerophthalmia, yellow sclera.
Urogenital: abnormal renal function, acute renal failure, albuminuria, bladder pain, dysuria, frequent urination, genital lesion/ulcer, increased blood urea nitrogen, increased creatinine, micturition frequency, nocturia, painful penis sore, pain on urination, penile edema, polyuria, renal cyst, renal calculus, testicular swelling, toxic nephropathy, urinary retention, vaginal itch, vaginal ulcer, vaginal pain, vaginal/cervix disorder, vaginal discharge.
What drugs interact with Hivid (zalcitabine)?
Zidovudine: There is no significant pharmacokinetic interaction between ZDV and zalcitabine which has been confirmed clinically. Zalcitabine also has no significant effect on the intracellular phosphorylation of ZDV, as shown in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in two other cell lines (U937 and Molt-4). In the same study it was shown that didanosine and stavudine had no significant effect on the intracellular phosphorylation of zalcitabine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Lamivudine: In vitro studies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, U937 and Molt-4 cells revealed that lamivudine significantly inhibited zalcitabine phosphorylation in a dose dependent manner. Effects were already seen with doses corresponding to relevant plasma levels in humans, and the intracellular phosphorylation of zalcitabine to its three metabolites (including the active zalcitabine triphosphate metabolite) was significantly inhibited.
Zalcitabine inhibited lamivudine phosphorylation at high concentration ratios (10 and 100); however, it is considered to be unlikely that this decrease of phosphorylated lamivudine concentration is of clinical significance, as lamivudine is a more efficient substrate for deoxycytidine kinase than zalcitabine.
These in vitro studies suggest that concomitant administration of zalcitabine and lamivudine in humans may result in sub-therapeutic concentrations of active phosphorylated zalcitabine, which may lead to a decreased antiretroviral effect of zalcitabine. It is unknown how the effect seen in these in vitro studies translates into clinical consequences.
Concomitant use of zalcitabine and lamivudine is not recommended.
Saquinavir: The combination of Hivid (zalcitabine) , saquinavir, and ZDV has been studied (as triple combination) in adults. Pharmacokinetic data suggest that absorption, metabolism, and elimination of each of these drugs are unchanged when they are used together.
Drugs Associated With Peripheral Neuropathy: The concomitant use of Hivid (zalcitabine) with drugs that have the potential to cause peripheral neuropathy should be avoided where possible. Drugs that have been associated with peripheral neuropathy include antiretroviral nucleoside analogues, chloramphenicol, cisplatin, dapsone, disulfiram, ethionamide, glutethimide, gold, hydralazine, iodoquinol, isoniazid, metronidazole, nitrofurantoin, phenytoin, ribavirin, and vincristine. Concomitant use of Hivid (zalcitabine) with didanosine is not recommended.
Intravenous Pentamidine: Treatment with Hivid (zalcitabine) should be interrupted when the use of a drug that has the potential to cause pancreatitis is required. Death due to fulminant pancreatitis possibly related to intravenous pentamidine and Hivid (zalcitabine) has been reported. If intravenous pentamidine is required to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, treatment with Hivid should be interrupted.
Amphotericin, Foscarnet, and Aminoglycosides: Drugs such as amphotericin, foscarnet, and aminoglycosides may increase the risk of developing peripheral neuropathy or other Hivid (zalcitabine) -associated adverse events by interfering with the renal clearance of zalcitabine (thereby raising systemic exposure). Patients who require the use of one of these drugs with Hivid (zalcitabine) should have frequent clinical and laboratory monitoring with dosage adjustment for any significant change in renal function.
Probenecid or Cimetidine: Concomitant administration of probenecid or cimetidine decreases the elimination of zalcitabine, most likely by inhibition of renal tubular secretion of zalcitabine. Patients receiving these drugs in combination with zalcitabine should be monitored for signs of toxicity and the dose of zalcitabine reduced if warranted.
Magnesium/Aluminum-containing Antacid Products: Absorption of zalcitabine is moderately reduced (approximately 25%) when coadministered with magnesium/aluminum-containing antacid products. The clinical significance of this reduction is not known, hence zalcitabine is not recommended to be ingested simultaneously with magnesium/aluminum-containing antacids.
Metoclopramide: Bioavailability is mildly reduced (approximately 10%) when zalcitabine and metoclopramide are coadministered.
Doxorubicin: Doxorubicin caused a decrease in zalcitabine phosphorylation ( > 50% inhibition of total phosphate formation) in U937/Molt 4 cells. Although there may be decreased zalcitabine activity because of lessened active metabolite formation, the clinical relevance of these in vitro results are not known.
Hivid (zalcitabine) is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Common side effects of Hivid include headache, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rash, mouth ulcers, painful swallowing, and difficulty sleeping. Women of reproductive potential should not receive Hivid unless they are using effective contraception during therapy. It is unknown if Hivid is excreted in breast milk.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
HIV AIDS: Myths and Facts
What is HIV versus AIDS? What are the symptoms of HIV? Is there an HIV cure? Discover myths and facts about living with HIV/AIDS....
Picture of HIV Lipodystrophy
HIV lipodystrophy describes a constellation of changes in subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution in patients on...
What Are HIV & AIDS? Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Learn about HIV symptoms, HIV test, HIV...
HIV & AIDS Quiz: HIV Testing & Symptoms
Now, more than ever, you should know about HIV/AIDS, especially its causes, symptoms treatments, and complications. Take the...
Picture of HIV Lipodystrophy Treatment
HIV lipodystrophy describes a constellation of changes in subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution in patients on...
Related Disease Conditions
HIV Early Signs and Stages
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) weakens your immune system. Some people with HIV don’t have any symptoms, but those that do may experience mononucleosis-like or flu-like symptoms. There are 3 stages of HIV.
HIV and AIDS
Second Source article from WebMD
What Are the Four Stages of HIV?
The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into four stages. Stage 1 (HIV infection): The CD4+ cell count is at least 500 cells per microliter. Stage 2 (HIV infection): The CD4+ cell count is 350 to 499. Stage 3 (advanced HIV disease or AHD): The CD4+ cell count is 200 to 349. Stage 4 (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]): The CD4+ cell count is less than 200.
HIV vs. AIDS
Human immunodeficiency virus causes HIV infection. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition that results after HIV has extensively damaged a person's immune system. Risk factors for HIV and AIDS include use of contaminated needles or syringes, unprotected sex, STDs, receiving a blood transfusion prior to 1985 in the United States, having many sex partners, and transmission from a mother to her child.
How Do You Feel When You Have HIV?
About four weeks after contracting HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), you may experience flu-like symptoms including fever, rash, sore throat, nausea, swollen glands and achy joints. You may remain symptomless for some time, however. That doesn't mean you don't need treatment; HIV can quickly progress into AIDS, in which the immune system collapses and you die of a secondary cancer or infection.
HIV/AIDS Testing: Diagnosis and Monitoring
HIV/AIDS diagnosis and monitoring have come a long way from the days when a diagnosis was a death sentence. Crucial parts of the effective treatment regimens developed in the last 40 years are consistent monitoring of the viral load (the amount of virus in the blood), and the immune cell count, which function as biological markers of the disease’s progression. Doctors also must test for drug resistance.
HIV/AIDS Facts: What Is HIV?
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the precursor infection to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). HIV is transmitted through blood and genital secretions; most people get it through sexual contact or sharing needles for illegal IV drug use. HIV can be controlled by a strict drug regimen, but left unchecked, it leads to AIDS. In AIDS, the immune system collapses and the body falls prey to secondary, opportunistic infections and cancers that typically kill the person.
HIV Medications List and Drug Charts
The ultimate goal of HIV treatment is getting the viral load down below detectable levels. As long as those viral load and antibody levels are below a proscribed range, people with HIV can stave off AIDS and other serious symptoms. Antiviral treatment options usually include combinations of two NRTIs, often referred to as "nucs," and a third drug, typically being a boosted protease inhibitor, a NNRTI, often called "non-nucs," and integrase strand transfer inhibitors.
HIV/AIDS Infection Transmission and Prevention
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is spread through contact with genital fluids or blood of an infected person. The spread of HIV can occur when these secretions come in contact with tissues such as those lining the vagina, anal area, mouth, eyes (the mucus membranes), or with a break in the skin, such as from a cut or puncture by a needle.
When should you start HIV medication?
Nearly everyone who is infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) should start antiviral medication therapy as soon as they are diagnosed. Older guidelines recommended delaying treatment to help reduce the potential for drug side effects and viral resistance to treatment. Current thinking theorizes that early treatment may preserve more of the body's immune function.
What Are the Side Effects of HIV Medications?
It’s important to know the potential side effects of all the drugs you take to control your HIV infection, as well as potential drug interactions. All of the NNRTIs (nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors), for example, are associated with important drug-drug interactions so they must be used with caution in patients on other medications. Learn more about the side effects of the drugs in standard treatment regimens.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- HIV-AIDS FAQs
- HIV Treatment, Medications, and Prevention
- HIV / AIDS Conference Update 2005 - Index
- Retrovirus & Opportunistic Infections Part II
- HIV Transmission and Progression to AIDS Continues
- Physical and Biochemical Changes in HIV Disease
- Babies On The Breast Of HIV Moms
- HIV Urine Test Approved
- HIV Treatment - To Interrupt or Not
- Unprotected Sex Between HIV-Infected Partners: What's the Harm?
- Can HIV Cause Kaposi's Sarcoma?
- Do You Need Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV with No Symptoms?
- Does HIV Cause Colorectal Cancer?
- Does Anti-Retroviral Therapy for HIV Cause Diabetes?
- How Long Should You Wait to Get an HIV Test?
- What Liver Problems Does HIV Cause?
- Does Circumcision Prevent HIV and AIDS?
- HIV Infection Facts, History, Causes, and Risk Factors
- HIV Tests, Symptoms, Signs, and Stages of Infection
- Baby "Cured" of HIV Infection
Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.