Does Glucotrol (glipizide) cause side effects?
Glucotrol (glipizide) is a sulfonylurea used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes.
Insulin is a hormone that is made in the pancreas that when released into the blood causes cells in the body to remove sugar (glucose) from the blood and reduces the formation of glucose by the liver.
Patients with type 2 diabetes have high glucose (sugar) levels in their blood because the cells in their bodies are resistant to the glucose-removing effect of the insulin, and the liver produces too much glucose. In addition, in type 2 diabetes the pancreas is unable to produce the increased amounts of insulin that are necessary to overcome the resistance.
Glucotrol reduces blood glucose by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin. Glucotrol is not a cure for diabetes.
Common side effects of Glucotrol include
- gas, and
- skin rashes (which may cause itching, hives, or a diffuse measles-like rash).
Serious side effects of Glucotrol include
- yellowing skin and eyes (jaundice),
- low blood sodium (hyponatremia), and
- low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).
Drug interactions of Glucotrol include alcohol, which may prolong the action of Glucotrol by delaying its absorption and elimination.
- Cholestyramine may reduce both the absorption and effects of Glucotrol.
- Fluconazole also can increase the absorption and effects of Glucotrol.
- Many drugs can potentially increase or decrease glucose levels thus increasing or decreasing the effects of Glucotrol.
- Drug interactions that cause low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) can occur with
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),
- sulfa drugs,
- MAO inhibitors,
- quinolone antibiotics, and
- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
- Drug interactions involving Glucotrol which can result in high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) can occur with
- thiazide diuretics,
- loop diuretics,
- danazol, and
- Rifampin may reduce the blood levels of Glucotrol and this may result in higher levels of sugar in the blood.
It is not recommended to use Glucotrol for the routine management of diabetes in pregnant women. Insulin is preferred. In the event that Glucotrol is used during pregnancy, the manufacturer recommends that it be stopped at least 1 month before the expected date of delivery.
Glucotrol is not found in breast milk. However, the risk of developing hypoglycemia in the nursing infant should be weighed against the potential benefit to the mother of taking Glucotrol and a decision should be made to discontinue the drug or to discontinue breastfeeding.
What are the side effects of Glucotrol (glipizide)?
Side effects include:
Skin rashes can occur and cause itching, hives, or a diffuse measles-like rash.
Rare but serious side effects include:
Glipizide also may cause hypoglycemia. The risk of hypoglycemia increases when glipizide is combined with other glucose reducing agents.
Glucotrol (glipizide) side effects list for healthcare professionals
In U.S. and foreign controlled studies, the frequency of serious adverse reactions reported was very low. Of 702 patients, 11.8% reported adverse reactions and in only 1.5% was Glucotrol discontinued.
- See prescribing information.
Gastrointestinal disturbances are the most common reactions. Gastrointestinal complaints were reported with the following approximate incidence:
- nausea and diarrhea, one in seventy;
- constipation and gastralgia, one in one hundred.
- They appear to be dose-related and may disappear on division or reduction of dosage.
- Cholestatic jaundice may occur rarely with sulfonylureas. Glucotrol should be discontinued if this occurs.
- Allergic skin reactions including erythema, morbilliform or maculopapular eruptions, urticaria, pruritus, and eczema have been reported in about one in seventy patients.
- These may be transient and may disappear despite continued use of Glucotrol; if skin reactions persist, the drug should be discontinued. Porphyria cutanea tarda and photosensitivity reactions have been reported with sulfonylureas.
- Leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, and pancytopenia have been reported with sulfonylureas.
- Hepatic porphyria and disulfiram-like reactions have been reported with sulfonylureas.
- In the mouse, Glucotrol pretreatment did not cause an accumulation of acetaldehyde after ethanol administration.
- Clinical experience to date has shown that Glucotrol has an extremely low incidence of disulfiram-like alcohol reactions.
- Cases of hyponatremia and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion have been reported with this and other sulfonylureas.
- Dizziness, drowsiness, and headache have each been reported in about one in fifty patients treated with Glucotrol. They are usually transient and seldom require discontinuance of therapy.
- The pattern of laboratory test abnormalities observed with Glucotrol was similar to that for other sulfonylureas.
- Occasional mild to moderate elevations of SGOT, LDH, alkaline phosphatase, BUN, and creatinine were noted.
- One case of jaundice was reported. The relationship of these abnormalities to Glucotrol is uncertain, and they have rarely been associated with clinical symptoms.
The Following Adverse Events Have Been Reported In Post-Marketing Surveillance
- Cholestatic and hepatocellular forms of liver injury accompanied by jaundice have been reported rarely in association with glipizide; Glucotrol should be discontinued if this occurs.
What drugs interact with Glucotrol (glipizide)?
- The hypoglycemic action of sulfonylureas may be potentiated by certain drugs including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, some azoles, and other drugs that are highly protein bound, salicylates, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, probenecid, coumarins, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, quinolones and beta adrenergic blocking agents.
- When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving Glucotrol, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia.
- When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving Glucotrol, the patient should be observed closely for loss of control.
- In vitro binding studies with human serum proteins indicate that Glucotrol binds differently than tolbutamide and does not interact with salicylate or dicumarol.
- However, caution must be exercised in extrapolating these findings to the clinical situation and in the use of Glucotrol with these drugs.
- Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of control.
- These drugs include the thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blocking drugs, and isoniazid.
- When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving Glucotrol, the patient should be closely observed for loss of control.
- When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving Glucotrol, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia.
- A potential interaction between oral miconazole and oral hypoglycemic agents leading to severe hypoglycemia has been reported. Whether this interaction also occurs with the intravenous, topical, or vaginal preparations of miconazole is not known.
- The effect of concomitant administration of Diflucan (fluconazole) and Glucotrol has been demonstrated in a placebo-controlled crossover study in normal volunteers.
- All subjects received Glucotrol alone and following treatment with 100 mg of DIFLUCAN as a single daily oral dose for 7 days.
- The mean percentage increase in the Glucotrol AUC after fluconazole administration was 56.9% (range: 35 to 81).
- In studies assessing the effect of colesevelam on the pharmacokinetics of glipizide ER in healthy volunteers, reductions in glipizide AUC0-∞ and Cmax of 12% and 13%, respectively were observed when colesevelam was coadministered with glipizide ER.
- When glipizide ER was administered 4 hours prior to colesevelam, there was no significant change in glipizide AUC0-∞ or Cmax, -4% and 0%, respectively.
- Therefore, Glucotrol should be administered at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam to ensure that colesevelam does not reduce the absorption of glipizide.
Glucotrol (glipizide) is a sulfonylurea used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. Glucotrol reduces blood glucose by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin. Common side effects of Glucotrol include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, heartburn, gas, and skin rashes (which may cause itching, hives, or a diffuse measles-like rash). It is not recommended to use Glucotrol for the routine management of diabetes in pregnant women. Glucotrol is not found in breast milk.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Type 2 Diabetes: Signs, Symptoms, Treatments
Learn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Find out why thirst, headaches, and...
Diabetes: What Raises and Lowers Your Blood Sugar Level?
Want to lower your blood sugar? Learn to better control your glucose levels by preventing blood sugar spikes and swings to avoid...
Diabetes Nerve Pain: Improving Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Learn how to cope with the symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy through pain management exercises. Find relief for diabetic...
Diabetes: How Blood Sugar Levels Affect Your Body
High blood sugar can be a sign of diabetes or prediabetes. The drugs that treat it sometimes cause low blood sugar too. WebMD...
Foot Health: Reasons You Feel Burning in Your Feet
The feeling of burning in your feet isn't just an annoyance. It might also be a sign of a more serious condition. Find out more...
Diabetes Tips: Managing and Living With Diabetes
If you have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you need to approach life differently. Learn nutrition tips to control blood sugar,...
How Diabetes Can Affect Your Feet
Learn more about diabetes related foot problems. For people with diabetes, too much glucose in the blood can cause serious foot...
Prediabetes: You Can Turn It Around
Prediabetes can be a wake-up call. Click through to find out what you can do if you have it.
Diabetes: 12 Ways Too Much Sugar Harms Your Body
The bitter truth: How too much sugar can harm your physical and mental health.
Diabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
Discover the best and worst meals for diabetes-savvy dining. See how to avoid carbs and control your blood sugar with healthier...
Type 2 Diabetes: Test Your Medical IQ
What causes type 2 diabetes? Can it be prevented? Take this online quiz and challenge your knowledge of this common condition....
Diabetes Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Take the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do...
Diabetes: Best Diets When You Have Diabetes
Which popular eating plans are safe and effective? The right diet will help you control your blood sugar, get a handle on your...
Diabetes Travel: Tips for Better Diabetes Control
Diabetes shouldn't stop you from traveling! Learn tips for packing diabetic supplies, controlling blood sugar while changing time...
Diabetes Diet: 11 Low-Sugar Drink Ideas
Searching for low-sugar drink ideas? This pictures slideshow has eleven beverages ideal for people with diabetes and those...
Diabetes: 15 Famous Celebrities With Diabetes
See pictures of celebrities that have been diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes including Mary Tyler Moore, Salma Hayek, and...
Slideshow: Diabetes Management in 10 Minutes
Learn 10 simple ways to better manage your diabetes. See tips for controlling blood sugar, diet and exercise and other helpful...
Diabetes: Guide to Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Diabetes can damage the nerves that help you feel pain, heat, and cold, especially in your feet. Learn about the symptoms of...
10 Muscle-Building Exercises for Diabetes
Watch this slideshow on Diabetes and Exercise. If you have diabetes, see how strengthening your muscles with these 10 weight...
Diabetes: Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Treatment
This nerve damage is a common complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Find out how to prevent it, slow its progression,...
Related Disease Conditions
Normal Blood Sugar Levels In Adults with Diabetes
People with diabetes can manage and prevent low or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia) by keeping a log of your blood sugar levels when you are eating and fasting and eat foods that are high in carbohydrates and sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary desserts, and fatty foods. Blood tests, for example, the hemoglobin A1c test (A1c test) and urinalysis can diagnose the type of diabetes the person has. Diabetes during pregnancy, called gestational diabetes, should be managed by you and your OB/GYN or another healthcare professional. Extremely high levels of blood glucose in the blood can be dangerous and life threatening if you have type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. If you or someone that you are with has extremely high blood glucose levels, call 911 or go to your nearest Urgent Care or Emergency Department immediately. To prevent and manage high blood glucose levels in people with diabetes keep a log of your blood sugar levels, eat foods that are high in carbohydrates sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary deserts, and fatty foods that you can share with your doctor and other healthcare professionals.
Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan
A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets.Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes.
Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that can occur during pregnancy. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes have not had the condition prior to becoming pregnant. Usually, gestational diabetes has no symptoms or signs and of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can cause insulin resistance, hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Treatment of gestational diabetes is managing the condition by checking your blood sugar as recommended, diet changes, getting enough exercise, and monitoring your baby's growth.
Diabetes-Related Dental Problems
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
Type 2 Diabetes: Diagnosing Diabetes
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
Diabetes Symptoms in Women
Diabetes symptoms in women include vaginal itching, pain, or discharge, loss of interest or pain after having sex, polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), and urinary tract infections or UTIs (which are more common in women. Symptoms of diabetes that are the same in women and men are excessive thirst and hunger, bad breath, and skin infections, darkening of skin in areas of body creases (acanthosis nigricans), breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or acetone, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, blurred vision, fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, wounds that heal slowly, irritability, and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Diabetes Symptoms in Men
Early symptoms of diabetes are different in men, such as low testosterone. In many cases, prediabetes that will progress to type 2 diabetes if it is not treated early.
Prediabetes is a situation where a person's blood sugar levels are higher than they should be, but aren't high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. There are no signs or symptoms of prediabetes. Some of the risk factors for prediabetes are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, smoking, family history, poor diet, and lack of activity. Diet changes along with other healthy lifestyle changes are important in treating prediabetes.
Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes: Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: Increased urination Increased hunger Increased thirst Unexplained weight loss. However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Diabetes and Safe Medications for Colds & Flu
If you have diabetes and catch a cold or the flu, can be more difficult to recover from infections and their complications, for example, pneumonia. Home remedies and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs used for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of colds and the flu may affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.Some medications are OK to take if you have diabetes get a cold or the flu include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, like acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Motrin) to control symptoms of fever and pain. Most cough syrups are safe to take; however, check with your pediatrician to see what medications are safe to give your child if he or she has type 1 or 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes and are sick with a cold or flu, you need to check your blood sugar levels more frequently. Continue taking your regular medications. Eat a diabetic low-glycemic index diet rich in antioxidants. To prevent colds and the flu drink at least eight 8 ounce glasses of water a day. To replenish fluids, drink sports drinks like Gatorade and Pedialyte to replenish electrolytes. Avoid people who are sick, sneezing, coughing, or have other symptoms of a cold or flu.
Gestational Diabetes (Diabetes during Pregnancy))
Learning how to avoid gestational diabetes is possible and maintaining a healthy weight and diet before and during pregnancy can help. Discover risk factors, tests and treatments for, and signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes.
How to Prevent Diabetes Naturally
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has early symptoms of diabetes, but has not yet fully developed the condition. If prediabetes is not treated with lifestyle changes, the person could develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes can be prevented with lifestyle changes, for example, eating a healthy diet, getting more exercise, reducing stress, quitting smoking, reducing or managing blood pressure and cholesterol, and managing any other health conditions or risk factors that you may have for developing type 2 diabetes.
What Are the Early Signs of Diabetes?
The early signs of diabetes depend on if one has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children, whereas type 2 diabetes is prevalent in adults.
Diabetes Foot Problems
Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
Eye Problems and Diabetes
Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems in a person with diabetes include glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. Examples of symptoms include blurred vision, headaches, eye aches, pain, halos around lights, loss of vision, watering eyes. Treatment for eye problems in people with diabetes depend on the type of eye problem. Prevention of eye problems include reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, quitting smoking, and maintaining proper blood glucose levels.
Is Diabetes Insipidus Life-Threatening?
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon disease that manifests as a frequent urge for urination and extreme thirst. It has nothing to do with blood sugar levels. Although in both diabetes mellitus and insipidus, patients experience a large volume of urine production, the cause is completely different.
Types of Diabetes Type 2 Medications
Type 2 diabetes oral medications are prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjuction with lifestyle changes like diet and exercise. There are nine classes of drugs approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Examples of type 2 oral diabetes medications include acarbose (Precose), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), and metformin (Glucophage). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, dosage, and breastfeeding and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
Hypoglycemia Without Diabetes: Causes and Diet
Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar level) is a condition most seen in patients with diabetes, who are on insulin or medications. Hypoglycemia is uncommon to happen in people without diabetes.
Can Type 2 Diabetes be Cured?
Type 2 diabetes is a long-term medical condition in which the body is not able to regulate blood sugar (glucose) level because of the inability of the body to properly use insulin. An individual can get type 2 diabetes because of a number of factors that reduce insulin action or quantity in the body. The goals of diabetes management are to eliminate symptoms and prevent the development of complications. Many drugs, both oral and injectable, are available for diabetes management.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
What Are the Early Signs of Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by increased blood sugar (glucose) level. Type 2 Diabetes is caused by either insufficient insulin secretion or resistance to that hormone’s action. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and helps process the glucose in the blood. Thus, with inadequate insulin, the bodies can’t burn all the blood sugar for energy in an efficient way. This means the glucose level in the blood rises, causing a variety of symptoms and when severe may even lead to death.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Diabetes: Dealing with the Complications
- Diabetes: Monitoring Your Sugar Levels
- Diabetes: Meeting the Diabetes Challenge
- Diabetes- Keeping Watch: Daily Diabetes Monitoring
- Diabetes: Maintaining Control
- Diabetes and Your Heart
- Diabetes and Diet: What Do I Eat?
- Diabetes: Maintaining Control with Nutrition
- Diabetes & Fitness: Get Moving!
- Diabetes Alert Day
- Diabetes: Dealing with Your New Diagnosis
- Diabetes: Psychological Challenges
- Diabetes FAQs
- Type 2 Diabetes FAQs
- What if I get COVID-19 with Diabetes?
- Diabetes Mellitus - The Work Pays Off
- Diabetes - Foot Care: A Walking Matter
- Diabetes - An Aspirin A Day
- Diabetes and Eye Disease...See No Evil
- Rheumatoid Arthritis & Diabetes Gene (PTPN22)
- What Foods to Eat to Reverse Diabetes
- What Will Happen if Type 1 Diabetes Is Left Untreated?
- Can You Get Diabetes from Stress?
- Can oral diabetes medications cause impotence?
- What Is the Treatment for Diabetes Eye Damage?
- 6 Frequently Asked Diabetes Question
- What Kind of Candy Can You Eat With Diabetes?
- Can Diabetes Cause Muscle Pain?
- 11 Diabetes Diet Tips for the Holidays
- Diabetes Diet
Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.