- Bacterial Infections 101 Pictures Slideshow
- Take the Tummy Trouble Quiz
- Hepatitis C Slideshow Pictures
What is Gantanol (sulfamethoxazole)?
Gantanol (sulfamethoxazole) is an anti-bacterial sulfonamide used to treat bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), meningitis, ear infections, and eye infections. It prevents the formation of dihydrofolic acid, a compound that bacteria must be able to make in order to survive.
Although it was once a very useful antibiotic, it is almost obsolete as a single agent today due to the development of bacterial resistance to its effects. Sulfamethoxazole is now used primarily in combination with trimethoprim (Bactrim or Septra). According to the FDA database, all brand and generic formulations of sulfamethoxazole have been discontinued.
Common side effects of Gantanol include:
Serious side effects of Gantanol include:
- severe skin rash [including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (aching joints and muscles; redness, blistering, and peeling of the skin)];
- toxic epidermal necrolysis (difficulty in swallowing; peeling, redness, loosening, and blistering of the skin),
- liver damage,
- low white blood cell count,
- low platelet count (thrombocytopenia),
- anemia, and
- crystals in the urine which may damage the kidney and cause bleeding into the urine.
Sulfonamides such as sulfamethoxazole can increase the metabolism of cyclosporine, causing loss of effectiveness of cyclosporine, and can add to the kidney damage caused by cyclosporine. All sulfonamides can crystallize in urine when the urine is acidic.
Since methenamine causes an acidic urine, it should not be used with sulfonamides. The effects of the sulfonamide class of antibiotics on the fetus have not been adequately studied. Physicians may use them if the benefits are deemed to outweigh potential risks.
Use of sulfonamides near term may cause bilirubin to be displaced from proteins in the infant's blood. Displacement of bilirubin can lead to a dangerous condition called kernicterus in which the bilirubin damages the brain. For this reason, sulfonamides should not be used near term birth.
What are the important side effects of Gantanol (sulfamethoxazole)?
Common side effects of sulfamethoxazole are:
Sulfamethoxazole should be stopped at the first appearance of a skin rash since the rash may become severe.
Serious rashes include:
- Stevens-Johnson syndrome (aching joints and muscles; redness, blistering, and peeling of the skin);
- toxic epidermal necrolysis (difficulty in swallowing; peeling, redness, loosening, and blistering of the skin).
Other important rare side effects include:
Sulfamethoxazole may form crystals in the urine which may damage the kidney and cause bleeding into the urine. It is important to drink additional liquids during sulfonamide therapy to prevent these side effects.
Gantanol (sulfamethoxazole) side effects list for healthcare professionals
Included in the listing that follows are adverse reactions that have not been reported with this specific drug; however, the pharmacologic similarities among the sulfonamides require that each of the reactions be considered with Gantanol (sulfamethoxazole) administration.
Allergic Reactions: Anaphylaxis, allergic myocarditis, serum sickness, conjunctival and scleral injection, generalized allergic reactions. In addition, periarteritis nodosa and systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported.
Genitourinary: Creatinine elevation, toxic nephrosis with oliguria and anuria. The frequency of renal complications is considerably lower in patients receiving the more soluble sulfonamides.
Endocrine: The sulfonamides bear certain chemical similarities to some goitrogens, diuretics (acetazolamide and the thiazides) and oral hypoglycemic agents. Cross-sensitivity may exist with these agents. Diuresis and hypoglycemia have occurred rarely in patients receiving sulfonamides.
Respiratory: Pulmonary infiltrates.
What drugs interact with Gantanol (sulfamethoxazole)?
In elderly patients concurrently receiving certain diuretics, primarily thiazides, an increased incidence of thrombopenia with purpura has been reported.
It has been reported that sulfamethoxazole may prolong the prothrombin time in patients who are receiving the anticoagulant warfarin. This interaction should be kept in mind when Gantanol (sulfamethoxazole) is given to patients already on anticoagulant therapy, and the coagulation time should be reassessed.
Sulfamethoxazole may inhibit the hepatic metabolism of phenytoin. At a 1.6-g dose, sulfamethoxazole produced a slight but significant increase in the half-life of phenytoin but did not produce a corresponding decrease in the metabolic clearance rate. When administering these drugs concurrently, one should be alert for possible excessive phenytoin effect.
Sulfonamides can also displace methotrexate from plasma protein-binding sites, thus increasing free methotrexate concentrations.
The presence of sulfamethoxazole may interfere with the Jaffe alkaline picrate reaction assay for creatinine, resulting in overestimations of about 10% in the range of normal values.
Gantanol (sulfamethoxazole) is an anti-bacterial sulfonamide used to treat bacterial infections. It prevents the formation of dihydrofolic acid, a compound that bacteria must be able to make in order to survive. Common side effects of Gantanol include dizziness, headache, lethargy, diarrhea, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and rash. Use of sulfonamides near term may cause bilirubin to be displaced from proteins in the infant's blood. Displacement of bilirubin can lead to a dangerous condition called kernicterus in which the bilirubin damages the brain. For this reason, sulfonamides should not be used near term birth. Gantanol is excreted in breast milk and should not be used in women who are breastfeeding. Sulfonamides can cause kernicterus in nursing newborns.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Ear Infection Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
Learn about the causes and symptoms of ear infections and how they are diagnosed and treated. Read about treatments such as ear...
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Symptoms, Diagnosis, Medication
Bladder infections can be painful and often require medical treatment. Get the latest information on urinary tract infections...
Ear Infections: All About Ear Conditions
What's that? I can't hear you. Maybe it's tinnitus, or impacted ear wax, or cauliflower ear (yup, that's a thing). Find out what...
Bladder Infections: UTI Causes, Symptoms, Treatments
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI's) can happen to anyone. Learn about symptoms, causes and home remedy treatments for bladder and...
Meningitis Quiz: Test Your Infectious Disease IQ
What is meningitis and what causes it? Take our Meningitis Quiz to learn the causes, symptoms, treatments, and complications of...
Ear Infection Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Is it possible to prevent ear infections? Take the Ear Infection (Otitis Media) Quiz to learn the risks, causes, symptoms and...
Urinary Tract Infection Quiz
How would you know if you had urinary tract infection (UTI)? Take the Urinary Tract Infection in Adult Quiz to learn the causes,...
Related Disease Conditions
Inner Ear Infection
An inner ear infection or otitis interna is caused by viruses or bacteria and can occur in both adults and children. An inner ear infection can cause symptoms and signs, for example, a severe ear, dizziness, vertigo, nausea and vomiting, and vertigo. An inner ear infection also may cause inflammation of the inner ear or labyrinthitis. Inner ear infections are not contagious; however, the bacteria and viruses that cause the infection can be transmitted to other people. Good hygiene practices will help decrease the chances of the infection spreading to others. Inner ear infection symptoms and signs like ear pain and nausea may be relieved with home remedies or over-the-counter (OTC) medication. Some inner ear infections will need to be treated and cured with antibiotics or prescription pain or antinausea medication.
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or urethra. E. coli, a type of bacteria that lives in the bowel and near the anus, causes most UTIs. UTI symptoms include pain, abdominal pain, mild fever, urinary urgency, and frequency. Treatment involves a course of antibiotics.
Inner Ear Infection (Labyrinthitis)
Labyrinthitis occurs when there is inflammation of the part of the ear responsible for balance and hearing), usually due to viral infections of the inner ear. Learn about causes, symptoms, and treatment.
Middle Ear Infection (Otitis Media)
A middle ear infection (otitis media) can cause earache, temporary hearing loss, and pus drainage from the ear. It is most common in babies, toddlers, and young children. Learn about causes and treatment.
Bladder Infection (Cystitis)
Bladder infection is an infection of the bladder, usually caused by bacteria or, rarely, by Candida. Certain people, including females, the elderly, men with enlarged prostates, and those with chronic medical conditions are at increased risk for bladder infection. Bladder infections are treated with antibiotics, but cranberry products and adequate hydration may help prevent bladder infections.
Ear Infection Home Treatment
Infections of the outer, middle, and inner ear usually are caused by viruses. Most outer (swimmer's ear) and middle ear (otitis media) infections can be treated at home with remedies like warm compresses for ear pain relief, tea tree, ginger, or garlic oil drops. Symptoms of an outer ear (swimmer's ear) and middle ear infection include mild to severe ear pain, pus draining from the ear, swelling and redness in the ear, and hearing problems. Middle and inner ear infections may cause fever, and balance problems. Inner ear infections also may cause nausea, vomiting, vertigo, ringing in the ear, and labyrinthitis (inflammation of the inner ear). Most outer and middle ear infections do not need antibiotics. Inner ear infections should be treated by a doctor specializing in ear and hearing problems.
Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes that cover the spinal cord and brain. Symptoms include fever, headache, and a stiff neck. Treatment of meningitis depends upon the cause of the infection and may include antibiotics or antiviral medications.
Is a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Contagious?
Bacteria such as E. coli or Pseudomonas can cause a urinary tract infection (UTI). The incubation period for a UTI ranges from three to eight days.
Urinary Tract Infection in Adults
Second Source article from Government
Is Meningitis Contagious?
Meningitis, inflammation of the meninges, symptoms and signs include neck stiffness, headache, and fever. There are five types of meningitis: viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and noninfectious.
Fungal meningitis is a rare disease that is not contagious. Symptoms include fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment involves administering high doses of antifungal medications.
Urinary Tract Infections in Children
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very common in children. Symptoms and signs include fever and abdominal pain. Associated symptoms and signs include flank pain, vomiting, and blood in the urine. Treatment for a UTI involves antibiotic therapy.
Yeast Infection vs. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Candida albicans typically causes vaginal yeast infections. Bacterial infections typically cause urinary tract infections (UTIs). Thick white cottage-cheese like vaginal discharge characterizes vaginal yeast infections. Painful, frequent urination characterize urinary tract infections. Antifungal medications treat yeast infections while prescription antibiotics treat UTIs.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Urinary Tract Infection FAQs
- Ear Infection FAQs
- Meningitis FAQs
- What Is the Difference Between a Bladder Infection vs. UTI?
- What Causes an Ear Infection?
- How Do You Get an Ear Infection?
- Do You Get More UTIs During Menopause?
- Is there Over-the-Counter Ear Infection Medicine?
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Symptoms
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Treatment
- Fungal Meningitis and Steroid Injections: a Health-Care Disease
Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.