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Does Monopril (fosinopril) cause side effects?
Monopril (fosinopril) is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart failure and to prevent kidney failure due to high blood pressure and diabetes.
ACE is an enzyme in blood which controls the formation of angiotensin II, a chemical that circulates in blood and causes constriction of arteries and veins. Constriction of arteries and veins elevates blood pressure.
ACE inhibitors inhibit ACE and block the formation of angiotensin II. By blocking the formation of angiotensin II, Monopril relaxes the arteries and veins and lowers blood pressure. By reducing blood pressure, Monopril also reduces the work that the heart must do to pump blood through the arteries and veins. This improves the output of blood from the heart especially when the heart is failing.
Common side effects of Monopril include
- increased potassium levels,
- sexual dysfunction, and
- abnormal liver tests.
Serious side effects of Monopril include
- impaired kidney function,
- liver failure,
- low white blood cell counts (neutropenia), and
- angioedema (swelling of lips and throat that can obstruct breathing).
Drug interactions of Monopril include potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes, or potassium-conserving diuretics such as amiloride, spironolactone, and triamterene, because it can lead to dangerously high blood levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) since Monopril has a tendency to reduce the excretion of potassium.
- Monopril should not be taken at the same time as aluminum or magnesium-based antacids, such as simethicone or Maalox since these antacids bind Monopril and decrease the amount of Monopril absorbed from the intestine.
- Monopril can cause an increase in the amount of lithium in the body in patients taking lithium, sometimes causing lithium-associated side effects.
- Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, indomethacin, and naproxen may reduce the effects of ACE inhibitors on blood pressure.
- Combining Monopril or other ACE inhibitors with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with poor kidney function may result in reduced kidney function, including kidney failure.
- These effects usually are reversible. Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting, and hypotension) may occur when injectable gold sodium aurothiomalate, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is combined with ACE inhibitors, including Monopril.
What are the important side effects of Monopril (fosinopril)?
Fosinopril is generally well tolerated. The most common side effects are:
Other important and serious side effects, although rare, include:
- liver failure,
- low white blood cell counts (neutropenia) and
- angioedema (swelling of lips and throat that can obstruct breathing).
Monopril (fosinopril) side effects list for healthcare professionals
Monopril (fosinopril sodium) has been evaluated for safety in more than 2100 individuals in hypertension and heart failure trials, including approximately 530 patients treated for a year or more. Generally adverse events were mild and transient, and their frequency was not prominently related to dose within the recommended daily dosage range.
In placebo-controlled clinical trials (688 Monopril (fosinopril sodium) -treated patients), the usual duration of therapy was 2 to 3 months. Discontinuations due to any clinical or laboratory adverse event were 4.1% and 1.1% in Monopril (fosinopril sodium) -treated and placebo-treated patients, respectively.
The most frequent reasons (0.4 to 0.9%) were
Clinical adverse events probably or possibly related or of uncertain relationship to therapy, occurring in at least 1% of patients treated with Monopril (fosinopril sodium) alone and at least as frequent on Monopril (fosinopril sodium) as on placebo in placebo-controlled clinical trials are shown in the table below.
Clinical Adverse Events in Placebo-Controlled Trails (Hypertension)
|Monopril (fosinopril sodium)|
|Cough||2.2 (0.4)||0.0 (0.0)|
|Dizziness||1.6 (0.0)||0.0 (0.0)|
|Nausea/Vomiting||1.2 (0.4)||0.5 (0.0)|
The following events were also seen at > 1% on Monopril (fosinopril sodium) but occurred in the placebo group at a greater rate:
Other clinical events probably or possibly related, or of uncertain relationship to therapy occurring in 0.2 to 1.0% of patients (except as noted) treated with Monopril (fosinopril sodium) in controlled or uncontrolled clinical trials (N=1479) and less frequent, clinically significant events include (listed by body system):
- General: Chest pain, edema, weakness, excessive sweating.
- Cardiovascular: Angina/myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, hypertensive crisis, rhythm disturbances, palpitations, hypotension, syncope, flushing, claudication.
- Orthostatic: hypotension occurred in 1.4% of patients treated with fosinopril monotherapy. Hypotension or orthostatic hypotension was a cause for discontinuation of therapy in 0.1% of patients.
- Dermatologic: Urticaria, rash, photosensitivity, pruritus.
- Endocrine/Metabolic: Gout, decreased libido.
- Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis, hepatitis, dysphagia, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, flatulence, constipation, heartburn, appetite/weight change, dry mouth.
- Hematologic: Lymphadenopathy.
- Immunologic: Angioedema.
- Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, musculoskeletal pain, myalgia/muscle cramp.
- Nervous/Psychiatric: Memory disturbance, tremor, confusion, mood change, paresthesia, sleep disturbance, drowsiness, vertigo.
- Respiratory: Bronchospasm, pharyngitis, sinusitis/rhinitis, laryngitis/hoarseness, epistaxis. A symptom-complex of cough, bronchospasm, and eosinophilia has been observed in two patients treated with fosinopril.
- Special Senses: Tinnitus, vision disturbance, taste disturbance, eye irritation.
- Urogenital: Renal insufficiency, urinary frequency.
In placebo-controlled clinical trials (361 Monopril (fosinopril sodium) -treated patients), the usual duration of therapy was 3-6 months. Discontinuations due to any clinical or laboratory adverse event, except for heart failure, were 8.0% and 7.5% in Monopril (fosinopril sodium) -treated and placebo-treated patients, respectively.
The most frequent reason for discontinuation of Monopril (fosinopril sodium) was angina pectoris (1.1%). Significant hypotension after the first dose of Monopril (fosinopril sodium) occurred in 14/590 (2.4%) of patients; 5/590 (0.8%) patients discontinued due to first dose hypotension.
Clinical adverse events probably or possibly related or of uncertain relationship to therapy, occurring in at least 1% of patients treated with Monopril (fosinopril sodium) and at least as common as the placebo group, in placebo-controlled trials are shown in the table below.
Clinical Adverse Events in Placebo-Controlled Trails (Heart Failure)
|Monopril (fosinopril sodium)|
|Dizziness||11.9 (0.6)||5.4 (0.3)|
|Cough||9.7 (0.8)||5.1 (0.0)|
|Hypotension||4.4 (0.8)||0.8 (0.0)|
|Musculoskeletal Pain||3.3 (0.0)||2.7 (0.0)|
|Nausea/Vomiting||2.2 (0.6)||1.6 (0.3)|
|Diarrhea||2.2 (0.0)||1.3 (0.0)|
|Chest Pain (non-cardiac)||2.2 (0.0)||1.6 (0.0)|
|Upper Respiratory Infection||2.2 (0.0)||1.3 (0.0)|
|Orthostatic Hypotension||1.9 (0.0)||0.8 (0.0)|
|Subjective Cardiac Rhythm Disturbance||1.4 (0.6)||0.8 (0.3)|
|Weakness||1.4 (0.3)||0.5 (0.0)|
The following events also occurred at a rate of 1% or more on Monopril (fosinopril sodium) (fosinopril sodium tablets) but occurred on placebo more often:
The incidence of adverse events in the elderly ( ≥ 65 years old) was similar to that seen in younger patients.
Other clinical events probably or possibly related, or of uncertain relationship to therapy occurring in 0.4 to 1.0% of patients (except as noted) treated with Monopril (fosinopril sodium) in controlled clinical trials (N=516) and less frequent, clinically significant events include (listed by body system):
- General: Fever, influenza, weight gain, hyperhidrosis, sensation of cold, fall, pain.
- Cardiovascular: Sudden death, cardiorespiratory arrest, shock (0.2%), atrial rhythm disturbance, cardiac rhythm disturbances, non-anginal chest pain, edema lower extremity, hypertension, syncope, conduction disorder, bradycardia, tachycardia.
- Dermatologic: Pruritus.
- Endocrine/Metabolic: Gout, sexual dysfunction.
- Gastrointestinal: Hepatomegaly, abdominal distention, decreased appetite, dry mouth, constipation, flatulence.
- Immunologic: Angioedema (0.2%).
- Musculoskeletal: Muscle ache, swelling of an extremity, weakness of an extremity.
- Nervous/Psychiatric: Cerebral infarction, TIA, depression, numbness, paresthesia, vertigo, behavior change, tremor.
- Respiratory: Abnormal vocalization, rhinitis, sinus abnormality, tracheobronchitis, abnormal breathing, pleuritic chest pain.
- Special Senses: Vision disturbance, taste disturbance.
- Urogenital: Abnormal urination, kidney pain.
- Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality: See product labeling.
Potential Adverse Effects Reported with ACE Inhibitors
- Body as a whole: Anaphylactoid reactions.
- Other medically important adverse effects reported with ACE inhibitors include:
- Cardiac arrest;
- eosinophilic pneumonitis;
- neutropenia/agranulocytosis, pancytopenia, anemia (including hemolytic and aplastic), thrombocytopenia;
- acute renal failure;
- hepatic failure, jaundice (hepatocellular or cholestatic);
- symptomatic hyponatremia;
- bullous pemphigus, exfoliative dermatitis;
- a syndrome which may include:
Laboratory Test Abnormalities
- Serum Electrolytes: Hyperkalemia; hyponatremia.
- BUN/Serum Creatinine: Elevations, usually transient and minor, of BUN or serum creatinine have been observed. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, there were no significant differences in the number of patients experiencing increases in serum creatinine (outside the normal range or 1.33 times the pre-treatment value) between the fosinopril and placebo treatment groups. Rapid reduction of longstanding or markedly elevated blood pressure by any antihypertensive therapy can result in decreases in the glomerular filtration rate, and in turn, lead to increases in BUN or serum creatinine.
- Hematology: In controlled trials, a mean hemoglobin decrease of 0.1 g/dL was observed in fosinopril-treated patients. In individual patients decreases in hemoglobin or hematocrit were usually transient, small, and not associated with symptoms. No patient was discontinued from therapy due to the development of anemia.
- Other: Neutropenia, leukopenia and eosinophilia.
- Liver Function Tests: Elevations of transaminases, LDH, alkaline phosphatase, and serum bilirubin have been reported. Fosinopril therapy was discontinued because of serum transaminase elevations in 0.7% of patients. In the majority of cases, the abnormalities were either present at baseline or were associated with other etiologic factors. In those cases which were possibly related to fosinopril therapy, the elevations were generally mild and transient and resolved after discontinuation of therapy.
- The adverse experience profile for pediatric patients is similar to that seen in adult patients with hypertension.
- The long-term effects of Monopril (fosinopril sodium) on growth and development have not been studied.
What drugs interact with Monopril (fosinopril)?
- Diuretics: Patients on diuretics, especially those with intravascular volume depletion, may occasionally experience an excessive reduction of blood pressure after initiation of therapy with Monopril (fosinopril sodium tablets). The possibility of hypotensive effects with Monopril (fosinopril sodium) can be minimized by either discontinuing the diuretic or increasing salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with Monopril (fosinopril sodium) . If this is not possible, the starting dose should be reduced and the patient should be observed closely for several hours following an initial dose and until blood pressure has stabilized.
- Potassium supplements and potassium-sparing diuretics: Monopril (fosinopril sodium) can attenuate potassium loss caused by thiazide diuretics. Potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene, and others) or potassium supplements can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Therefore, if concomitant use of such agents is indicated, they should be given with caution, and the patient's serum potassium should be monitored frequently.
- Lithium: Increased serum lithium levels and symptoms of lithium toxicity have been reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors during therapy with lithium. These drugs should be coadministered with caution, and frequent monitoring of serum lithium levels is recommended. If a diuretic is also used, the risk of lithium toxicity may be increased.
- Antacids: In a clinical pharmacology study, coadministration of an antacid (aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and simethicone) with fosinopril reduced serum levels and urinary excretion of fosinoprilat as compared with fosinopril administrated alone, suggesting that antacids may impair absorption of fosinopril. Therefore, if concomitant administration of these agents is indicated, dosing should be separated by 2 hours.
- Gold: Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting, and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including Monopril (fosinopril sodium) .
- Other: Neither Monopril (fosinopril sodium) nor its metabolites have been found to interact with food. In separate single or multiple dose pharmacokinetic interaction studies with chlorthalidone, nifedipine, propranolol, hydrochlorothiazide, cimetidine, metoclopramide, propantheline, digoxin, and warfarin, the bioavailability of fosinoprilat was not altered by coadministration of fosinopril with any one of these drugs. In a study with concomitant administration of aspirin and Monopril (fosinopril sodium) , the bioavailability of unbound fosinoprilat was not altered.
- Warfarin: In a pharmacokinetic interaction study with warfarin, bioavailability parameters, the degree of protein binding, and the anticoagulant effect (measured by prothrombin time) of warfarin were not significantly changed.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interaction
- Fosinopril may cause a false low measurement of serum digoxin levels with the Digi-Tab RIA Kit for Digoxin. Other kits, such as the Coat-A-Count RIA Kit, may be used.
Monopril (fosinopril) is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart failure and to prevent kidney failure due to high blood pressure and diabetes. Common side effects of Monopril include headache, cough, dizziness, diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, increased potassium levels, sexual dysfunction, and abnormal liver tests. ACE inhibitors, including Monopril, can be harmful to the fetus and should not be taken by pregnant women. Monopril is secreted in breast milk and is not recommended for breastfeeding mothers.
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Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2)
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms. Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure. The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater. If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which the patient has frequent urination. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus include irritable, listless, fever, vomiting, or diarrhea due to the loss of large volumes of urine. There are three types of diabetes insipidus, central, nephrogenic, dipsogenic, and gestational. Treatment depends upon the type of diabetes insipidus.
Tips for Managing Type 1 and 2 Diabetes at Home
Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
Eye Problems and Diabetes
Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems in a person with diabetes include glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. Examples of symptoms include blurred vision, headaches, eye aches, pain, halos around lights, loss of vision, watering eyes. Treatment for eye problems in people with diabetes depend on the type of eye problem. Prevention of eye problems include reducing blood pressure, cholesterol levels, quitting smoking, and maintaining proper blood glucose levels.
Diabetes Foot Problems
Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
Gestational Diabetes (Diabetes during Pregnancy))
Learning how to avoid gestational diabetes is possible and maintaining a healthy weight and diet before and during pregnancy can help. Discover risk factors, tests and treatments for, and signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that may be reversible with diet and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, and an unusual odor to your urine. Most people don't know they have type 2 diabetes until they have a routine blood test. Treatment options include medications, a type 2 diabetes diet, and other lifestyle changes.
Type 1 Diabetes (Symptoms, Causes, Diet, Treatment, Life Expectancy)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (juvenile) is an auto-immune disease with no known cause at this time, although there are a few risk factors. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include frequent urination, unintentional weight loss, dry and itchy skin, vision problems, wounds that heal slowly, and excessive thirst. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed with blood tests. A healthy lifestyle and controlling blood glucose levels can improve life expectancy.
Type 2 Diabetes Medications (Side Effects, Differences)
Type 2 diabetes oral medications are prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjuction with lifestyle changes like diet and exercise. There are nine classes of drugs approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Examples of type 2 oral diabetes medications include acarbose (Precose), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), and metformin (Glucophage). Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, dosage, and breastfeeding and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
How to Prevent Diabetes Naturally
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has early symptoms of diabetes, but has not yet fully developed the condition. If prediabetes is not treated with lifestyle changes, the person could develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes can be prevented with lifestyle changes, for example, eating a healthy diet, getting more exercise, reducing stress, quitting smoking, reducing or managing blood pressure and cholesterol, and managing any other health conditions or risk factors that you may have for developing type 2 diabetes.
Sex, Urinary, and Bladder Problems of Diabetes
Having diabetes can mean early onset and increased severity of bladder symptoms (urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections) and changes in sexual function. Men may have erectile dysfunction; and women may have problems with sexual response and vaginal lubrication. Keep your diabetes under control, and you can lower your risk of sexual and urologic problems.
Diabetes Treatment: Medication, Diet, and Insulin
The major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with: insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with: weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugar, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
High Blood Pressure Treatment (Natural Home Remedies, Diet, Medications)
High blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include lifestyle modifications (alcohol, smoking, coffee, salt, diet, exercise), drugs and medications such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), alpha blockers, clonidine, minoxidil, and Exforge.
Diabetes and Kidney Disease
In the United States diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. High blood pressure and high levels of blood glucose increase the risk that a person with diabetes will eventually progress to kidney failure. Kidney disease in people with diabetes develops over the course of many years. albumin and eGFR are two key markers for kidney disease in people with diabetes. Controlling high blood pressure, blood pressure medications, a moderate protein diet, and compliant management of blood glucose can slow the progression of kidney disease. For those patients who's kidneys eventually fail, dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only option.
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Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan
A type 2 diabetes diet or a type 2 diabetic diet is important for blood sugar (glucose) control in people with diabetes to prevent complications of diabetes. There are a variety of type 2 diabetes diet eating plans such as the Mediterranean diet, Paleo diet, ADA Diabetes Diet, and vegetarian diets.Learn about low and high glycemic index foods, what foods to eat, and what foods to avoid if you have type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes (Similarities and Differences)
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: Increased urination Increased hunger Increased thirst Unexplained weight loss. However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Diabetes Symptoms in Women (Early and Late)
Diabetes symptoms in women include vaginal itching, pain, or discharge, loss if interest or pain after having sex, polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), and urinary tract infections or UTIs (which are more common in women. Symptoms of diabetes that are the same in women and men are excessive thirst and hunger, bad breath, and skin infections, darkening of skin in areas of body creases (acanthosis nigricans), breath odor that is fruity, sweet, or acetone, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, blurred vision, fatigue, tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, wounds that heal slowly, irritability, and weight loss or gain. Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, for example, skin, eye, and circulation problems, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), ketoacidosis, and amputation. If diabetes is not managed a person may not survive.
Diabetes Symptoms in Men
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which a person's blood sugar (blood glucose) is either too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia) due to problems with insulin regulation in the body. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs during childhood, while type 2 diabetes usually occurs during adulthood, however, rates of both types of diabetes in children, adolescents, and teens is increasing. More men than women have diabetes in the US, and the disease can affect men differently than women.Warning symptoms of diabetes that men have and women do not include low testosterone (low-t), sexual problems, impotence (erectile dysfunction), decreased interest in sex, and retrograde ejaculation. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes symptoms and signs that are the same in men and women include skin infections, numbness or tingling in the feet or hands, nausea, excessive thirst or hunger, fatigue, irritability, blurred vision, weight gain, weight loss, urinary tract infections (URIs), and kidney problems. Treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin, and treatment for type 2 diabetes are lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, getting exercise daily, and if necessary, diabetes medications.
Diabetes and Safe Medications for Colds and the Flu: OTC Medication Guide
If you have diabetes and catch a cold or the flu, can be more difficult to recover from infections and their complications, for example, pneumonia. Home remedies and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs used for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of colds and the flu may affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.Some medications are OK to take if you have diabetes get a cold or the flu include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, like acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Motrin) to control symptoms of fever and pain. Most cough syrups are safe to take; however, check with your pediatrician to see what medications are safe to give your child if he or she has type 1 or 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes and are sick with a cold or flu, you need to check your blood sugar levels more frequently. Continue taking your regular medications. Eat a diabetic low-glycemic index diet rich in antioxidants. To prevent colds and the flu drink at least eight 8 ounce glasses of water a day. To replenish fluids, drink sports drinks like Gatorade and Pedialyte to replenish electrolytes. Avoid people who are sick, sneezing, coughing, or have other symptoms of a cold or flu.
Normal Blood Sugar Levels (Ranges) In Adults with Diabetes
People with diabetes can manage and prevent low or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia) by keeping a log of your blood sugar levels when you are eating and fasting and eat foods that are high in carbohydrates and sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary desserts, and fatty foods. Blood tests, for example, the hemoglobin A1c test (A1c test) and urinalysis can diagnose the type of diabetes the person has. Diabetes during pregnancy, called gestational diabetes, should be managed by you and your OB/GYN or another healthcare professional. Extremely high levels of blood glucose in the blood can be dangerous and life threatening if you have type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. If you or someone that you are with has extremely high blood glucose levels, call 911 or go to your nearest Urgent Care or Emergency Department immediately. To prevent and manage high blood glucose levels in people with diabetes keep a log of your blood sugar levels, eat foods that are high in carbohydrates sugar, for example, buttered potatoes, candy, sugary deserts, and fatty foods that you can share with your doctor and other healthcare professionals.
What Are the Early Signs of Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by increased blood sugar (glucose) level. Type 2 Diabetes is caused by either insufficient insulin secretion or resistance to that hormone’s action. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and helps process the glucose in the blood. Thus, with inadequate insulin, the bodies can’t burn all the blood sugar for energy in an efficient way. This means the glucose level in the blood rises, causing a variety of symptoms and when severe may even lead to death.
Can Type 2 Diabetes be Cured?
Type 2 diabetes is a long-term medical condition in which the body is not able to regulate blood sugar (glucose) level because of the inability of the body to properly use insulin. An individual can get type 2 diabetes because of a number of factors that reduce insulin action or quantity in the body. The goals of diabetes management are to eliminate symptoms and prevent the development of complications. Many drugs, both oral and injectable, are available for diabetes management.
What Are the Early Signs of Diabetes?
The early signs of diabetes depend on if one has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children, whereas type 2 diabetes is prevalent in adults.
What Is High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)?
High blood pressure or hypertension is when the blood pressure readings consistently range from 140 or higher for systolic or 90 or higher for diastolic. Blood pressure readings above 180/120 mmHg are dangerously high and require immediate medical attention.
High Blood Pressure Symptoms
Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms, even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels. In some patients, symptoms may include fatigue, headaches, dizziness, confusion, sweating, chest pain and vision problems.
Hypoglycemia Without Diabetes: Causes and Diet
Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar level) is a condition most seen in patients with diabetes, who are on insulin or medications. Hypoglycemia is uncommon to happen in people without diabetes.
Is Diabetes Insipidus Life-Threatening?
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon disease that manifests as a frequent urge for urination and extreme thirst. It has nothing to do with blood sugar levels. Although in both diabetes mellitus and insipidus, patients experience a large volume of urine production, the cause is completely different.
Treatment & Diagnosis
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- High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
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- Diabetes FAQs
- Type 2 Diabetes FAQs
- Type 1 Diabetes FAQs
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Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.