- Take the Pancreatitis Quiz
- Boost Digestive Health
- Digestive Distress Slideshow: Problem Foods to Avoid
- Does Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine) cause side effects?
- What are the important side effects of Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine)?
- Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine) side effects list for healthcare professionals
- What drugs interact with Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine)?
- Does Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine) cause addiction or withdrawal symptoms?
Does Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine) cause side effects?
Like other narcotics, diphenoxylate reduces diarrhea by interfering with the propulsion of intestinal contents through the intestines. Although diphenoxylate is chemically related to narcotics, it does not have pain- relieving (analgesic) actions like most other narcotics.
In higher doses, however, like other narcotics, diphenoxylate can cause euphoria (elevation of mood) and physical dependence. In order to prevent abuse of diphenoxylate for its mood-elevating effects, atropine is combined with diphenoxylate in small quantities. As a result, if Lomotil is taken in greater than recommended doses unpleasant side effects from too much atropine will occur.
Common side effects of Lomotil include
- dry mouth,
- numbness of extremities,
- loss of appetite, and
- abdominal pain.
Serious side effects of Lomotil include
- pancreatitis and
- toxic megacolon.
- Drugs which increase the propulsion of intestinal contents such as bethanechol, cisapride, metoclopramide, and erythromycin theoretically can reduce the effectiveness of diphenoxylate.
- Drugs which decrease the propulsion of intestinal contents such as hyoscyamine, antihistamines, opiate agonists, some phenothiazine antipsychotics, and some tricyclic antidepressants may exaggerate the effects of diphenoxylate and cause constipation.
- Taking diphenoxylate with alcohol or other chemicals or medications that can depress the central nervous system such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, zolpidem, narcotics, and tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation.
Diphenoxylic acid, a metabolite of diphenoxylate (that is, diphenoxylate that has been changed chemically by the body) is excreted into breast milk, as is atropine. Although there have not been problems reported in the infants of women who breastfeed, the benefits to the mother should be weighed against the potential risks to the nursing infant.
What are the important side effects of Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine)?
The most common side effects reported in persons taking diphenoxylate include:
Other important side effects include:
- numbness of extremities,
- loss of
- appetite, and
- abdominal pain.
Although the dose of atropine in Lomotil is too low to cause side effects when taken in the recommended doses, side effects of atropine (including dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, increased heart rate, urinary retention, and increased body temperature) have been reported, particularly in children under two years of age and children with Down syndrome. Pancreatitis and toxic megacolon also have been reported.
Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine) side effects list for healthcare professionals
The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in labeling:
- Respiratory and/or CNS depression
- Anticholinergic and opioid-toxicities, including atroponism
- Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
- GI Complications in patients with infectious diarrhea
- Toxic megacolon in patients with acute ulcerative colitis
At therapeutic doses of Lomotil, the following other adverse reactions have been reported; they are listed in decreasing order of severity, but not of frequency:
- Nervous system: numbness of extremities, euphoria, depression, malaise/lethargy, confusion, sedation/drowsiness, dizziness, restlessness, headache, hallucination
- Allergic: anaphylaxis, angioneurotic edema, urticaria, swelling of the gums, pruritus
- Gastrointestinal system: megacolon, paralytic ileus, pancreatitis, vomiting, nausea, anorexia, abdominal discomfort
The following adverse reactions related to atropine sulfate are listed in decreasing order of severity, but not of frequency:
What drugs interact with Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine)?
- Alcohol may increase the CNS depressant effects of Lomotil and may cause drowsiness. Avoid concomitant use of Lomotil with alcohol.
Other Drugs That Cause CNS Depression
- The concurrent use of Lomotil with other drugs that cause CNS depression (e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioids, buspirone, antihistamines, muscle relaxants), may potentiate the effects of Lomotil.
- Either Lomotil or the other interacting drug should be chosen, depending on the importance of the drug to the patient.
- If CNS-acting drugs cannot be avoided, monitor patients for CNS adverse reactions.
Does Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine) cause addiction or withdrawal symptoms?
Drug Abuse And Dependence
- Lomotil is classified as a Schedule V controlled substance by federal regulation. Diphenoxylate hydrochloride is chemically related to the narcotic analgesic meperidine.
Drug Abuse And Dependence
- In doses used for the treatment of diarrhea, whether acute or chronic, diphenoxylate has not produced addiction.
- Diphenoxylate hydrochloride is devoid of morphine-like subjective effects at therapeutic doses.
- At high doses it exhibits codeine-like subjective effects.
- The dose which produces antidiarrheal action is widely separated from the dose which causes central nervous system effects.
- The insolubility of diphenoxylate hydrochloride in commonly available aqueous media precludes intravenous self-administration.
- A dose of 100 to 300 mg/day, which is equivalent to 40 to 120 tablets, administered to humans for 40 to 70 days, produced opiate withdrawal symptoms.
- Since addiction to diphenoxylate hydrochloride is possible at high doses, the recommended dosage should not be exceeded.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Digestive Disorders: Visual Guide to Stomach Ulcers
Learn about the causes and symptoms of stomach ulcers, and find out which kinds of treatment can help.
Abdominal Pain: Common Causes of Stomach Pain in Children
Abdominal pain in children can be more than just a tummy ache. What are the common causes of abdominal pain in children? Learn...
Digestive Disorders: Worst Foods for Digestion
Discover which foods to avoid in order to prevent diarrhea and digestive problems. Find out which foods can trigger diarrhea and...
Gastric (Stomach) Cancer: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment
What are the common signs and symptoms of stomach cancer? Learn about gastric cancer diagnosis, treatment, and their risks, how...
Stomach Pain Quiz: Nausea & Other Causes
Tummy Troubles? Get a better idea of what's causing the nausea, vomiting, bloating, gas, constipation, diarrhea, pain, and other...
Picture of Stomach
The stomach is a muscular sac located on the left side of the upper abdomen. See a picture of the Stomach and learn more about...
Related Disease Conditions
Peptic Ulcer (Stomach Ulcer)
Peptic or stomach ulcers are ulcers are an ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Ulcer formation is related to H. pylori bacteria in the stomach, use of anti-inflammatory medications, and cigarette smoking. Symptoms of peptic or stomach ulcers include abdominal burning or hunger pain, indigestion, and abdominal discomfort after meals. Treatment for stomach ulcers depends upon the cause.
Diarrhea is a change is the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Symptoms associated with diarrhea are cramping, abdominal pain, and the sensation of rectal urgency. Causes of diarrhea include viral, bacterial, or parasite infection, gastroenteritis, food poisoning, and drugs. Absorbents and anti-motility medications are used to treat diarrhea.
Stomach Flu (Gastroenteritis) Symptoms Signs, Treatment Remedies, Diet
Stomach flu (gastroenteritis) is a term referred used to describe a variety of gastrointestinal problems. The most common signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The most common cause of gastroenteritis in the United States is Norovirus. Other causes of gastroenteritis include Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Adenovirus, and Sapovirus. There are bacterial causes of gastroenteritis such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter Aeromonas, E. coli, Clostridium, Vibrio, Campylobacter, and Yersinia spp. Parasites that cause gastroenteritis include Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Entamoeba. Treatment for gastroenteritis is generally home remedies such as keeping hydrated to prevent dehydration. At times, hospitalization may be necessary if dehydration occurs.
How Do You Get Rid of a Stomach Ache in 5 Minutes?
Stomachache or abdominal pain can occur due to several different causes and the intensity may vary. It may not always be possible to get rid of a stomach ache in five minutes, but there are several over the counter (OTC) treatments and natural remedies to get rid of a stomach ache fairly quickly.
Is the Stomach Flu Contagious?
The stomach flu (gastroenteritis) refers to variety infections that occur in the GI (gastrointestinal tract). The stomach flu is caused by viruses (for example, Norovirus or "Cruise Ship Virus), bacteria (for example, Salmonella and E. coli), parasites (for example, Giardiasis or Giardia lamblia), medications like antibiotics, food allergies, and toxins. Common symptoms of the stomach flu include vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain. Generally, the stomach flu is treated at home by treating symptoms with home remedies and OTC medication.
IBS-D (Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea)
IBS-D or irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea refers to IBS with diarrhea. Symptoms of IBS-D include intestinal gas (flatulence), loose stools, frequent stools, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea. New non-FDA approved IBS tests may help diagnose IBS and IBS-D. Treatment of IBS-D is geared to toward managing symptoms with diet, medication, and lifestyle changes.
Travelers' diarrhea is generally contracted by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Food is the primary source of travelers' diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli is the cause of up to 70% of all cases of travelers' diarrhea. There are five unique classes of E. coli that causes gastroenteritis. Other bacteria responsible for travelers' diarrhea include Campylobacter, jejuni, shigella, and salmonella. Viruses such as rotavirus and Norwalk virus (norovirus) and giardia lamblia a parasite may cause travelers' diarrhea. Prevention is careful eating and drinking of water.
Why Do I Have Stomach Pain at Night?
Stomach pains are a common human ailment, but stomach pains that wake you up at night should be taken seriously. Learn about stomach pains, their causes, and how to treat them.
Are Sharp Pains in Your Stomach Normal During Pregnancy?
Many women experience sharp pains in their stomach during pregnancy. Learn the signs of normal stomach pains in pregnancy, what causes them, what you can do to treat them, and when you should see a doctor for sharp stomach pains during pregnancy.
Stomach Flu vs. Food Poisoning
The stomach flu (viral gastroenteritis) and food poisoning are not the same infections. However, they do have a few similar symptoms, for example: Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Fever Abdominal (stomach) pain and cramping. Symptoms and signs of food poisoning show up earlier (2 hours up to a couple of days) in comparison to the stomach flu in which symptoms may take 4 hours up to 48 hours (2 days) before symptoms begin. Medical treatment for the stomach flu and food poisoning generally is not necessary. A bland diet, drinking plenty of fluids, and rest may be the only treatment necessary.
How Long Does the Stomach Flu Last?
Stomach flu or viral gastroenteritis is an infection caused by a virus that infects your stomach. Although the term has flu in it, it is not a true flu. Symptoms that include vomiting and diarrhea, fever and stomach pain can last for one to three days depending on the cause. Diarrhea may persist longer, for up to 10 days, after the disappearance of other symptoms.
Is It a Stomach Virus or Food Poisoning?
A stomach virus is also called stomach flu or gastroenteritis. It is a viral infection that infects the tummy and the gut. Food poisoning is also often called gastroenteritis and may present symptoms like stomach virus/stomach flu. However, food poisoning is caused by consuming food or drinks that may be contaminated with bacteria.
How Do You Know if You Have the Stomach Flu?
What is stomach flu and how do you know when you have it? Learn what causes stomach flu and how it is treated.
What Causes Bloating in the Stomach?
What is bloating in the stomach? Learn the signs and causes of stomach bloating and what to do if your abdomen is distended.
3 Effective Home Remedies for Diarrhea
Diarrhea is generally a self-limiting illness and specific treatment is not generally necessary. Treatments are generally directed to prevent it from worsening and restore the fluid and electrolyte (like sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) losses from the body. Here are three home remedies that may help in resolving mild diarrhea.
How Do You Know if You Have a Stomach Ulcer?
Stomach ulcer or gastric ulcer is a painful open sore that develops on the lining of your stomach due to the damage to the inner stomach lining. This is a type of peptic ulcer disease. Stomach ulcers often can be easily cured; however, it can be fatal if not treated properly. It occurs mostly in men are than in women.
How Do You Stop Stomach Cramps?
Try following these home care steps to alleviate stomach cramps including resting, drinking water, eating bland foods and avoiding offending foods. Exercise, safe food handling and stress reduction may also help alleviate stomach cramps.
Stomach Pain: Causes, Types and Prevention
Sometimes, you may have pain/discomfort in a particular part of your belly or all over the belly for a short or long period of time. Stomach pain may result from a variety of conditions including irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, food allergies, constipation, stomach flu, gallstones, kidney stones and a variety of other conditions.
How Do You Get Rid of Diarrhea?
Diarrhea is characterized as loose or runny stools that happen an abnormally high number of times throughout the day. Diarrhea can be linked to autoimmune diseases like Crohn’s or irritable bowel syndrome but is more often a sign of food intolerance (lactose is common), viral infection, food poisoning or other infectious diseases of varying severity.
What Can Diarrhea Be a Sign Of?
Diarrhea is a common condition and usually goes away without intervention.
When Stomach Pain Is and Is Not an Emergency
Most stomach pains are harmless. They may be caused by overeating, gas, or indigestion. If your pain is short term, goes away after passing gases or stools, and with over-the-counter products (laxative and antacids) or home remedies, there is nothing to worry about. If your belly pain is severe, doesn't go away, or keeps coming back, talk to your doctor.
How Do I Get Rid of the Stomach Flu?
The medical treatment for stomach flu is based on maintaining adequate hydration and body sodium-potassium levels. The treatment for stomach flu initially consists of self-care measures such as drinking fluids, replacing lost electrolytes, resting, eating a bland diet and seeking medical attention if you need to.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Tummy Trouble FAQs
- IBS diarrhea treatment: Questran and Colestid
- Diarrhea: On The Go Diarrhea
- 9 Tips to Prevent Travelers' Diarrhea
- Diarrhea: Moms Uninformed About Rotavirus Illness
- What Does Bloody Diarrhea in Toddlers Mean?
- Can You Develop Lactose Intolerance as You Age?
- How to Stop Diarrhea
- How to Stop Diarrhea
- Does Stress Cause Diarrhea or Constipation?
- How Do I Get Rid of Diarrhea from Gallbladder Removal?
- When to Call the Doctor for Fever, Nausea, Diarrhea, Colds, and Coughs
Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects, drug interactions, and addiction sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.