What is Celebrex (celecoxib)?
Celebrex (celecoxib) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat arthritis, pain, menstrual cramps, and colonic polyps.
Prostaglandins are chemicals that are important contributors to the inflammation of arthritis that causes pain, fever, swelling and tenderness.
Celebrex blocks the enzyme that makes prostaglandins (cyclooxygenase 2), resulting in lower concentrations of prostaglandins. As a consequence, inflammation and its accompanying pain, fever, swelling and tenderness are reduced.
Celebrex differs from other NSAIDs in that it causes less inflammation and ulceration of the stomach and intestine (at least with short-term use) and does not interfere with the clotting of blood. NSAIDs have been found to prevent the formation and reduce the size of polyps in patients with the genetic disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
In FAP, patients develop large numbers of polyps in their colons, and the polyps invariably become malignant. The only cure of FAP is removal of the entire colon. Celebrex is approved as an adjunctive (secondary) treatment among patients with FAP.
Common side effects of Celebrex include headache, abdominal pain, indigestion, diarrhea, nausea, gas (flatulence), and insomnia.
Serious side effects of Celebrex include fainting, vomiting, kidney failure, heart failure, worsening high blood pressure (hypertension), chest pain, ringing in the ears, deafness, stomach and intestinal ulcers, bleeding, blurred vision, anxiety, photosensitivity, weight gain, water retention, flu-like symptoms, fever, cough, gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD), rash, drowsiness, weakness, allergic reactions; and increased risk of heart attacks, stroke, and related conditions (which can be fatal).
Drug interactions of Celebrex include aspirin or other NSAIDs (for example, ibuprofen, naproxen, etc.), which may increase the occurrence of stomach and intestinal ulcers. It may be used with low-dose aspirin.
- Fluconazole increases the concentration of Celebrex in the body by preventing the elimination of Celebrex in the liver.
- Celebrex increases the concentration of lithium in the blood by 17% and may promote lithium toxicity.
- Persons taking the anticoagulant (blood thinner) warfarin should have their blood tested when initiating or changing Celebrex treatment, particularly in the first few days, for any changes in the effects of the anticoagulant.
- NSAIDs may reduce the blood-pressure-lowering effects of drugs that are given to reduce blood pressure. This may occur because prostaglandins play a role in the regulation of blood pressure.
- Persons who drink more than three alcoholic beverages per day may be at increased risk of developing stomach ulcers when taking NSAIDs, and this also may be true with Celebrex.
Celebrex has not been studied in pregnant women. It should not be used in late pregnancy because there is a risk of heart defects in the newborn. Celebrex should only be used in pregnant women when the benefits outweigh the potential risk to the fetus.
Available evidence suggests Celebrex is secreted in breast milk. Nursing mothers should avoid Celebrex or discontinue breastfeeding.
What are the side effects of Celebrex?
RISK OF SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR AND GASTROINTESTINAL EVENTS
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in the treatment and may increase with duration of use.
- Celebrex is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation
- NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients and patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious (GI) events.
What are the common side effects of Celebrex?
The most common side effects of celecoxib include:
What are the serious side effects of Celebrex?
Other and more serious side effects of celecoxib include:
- Kidney failure
- Heart failure
- Aggravation of hypertension
- Chest pain
- Ringing in the ears
- Stomach and intestinal ulcers
- Blurred vision
- Weight gain
- Water retention
- Flu-like symptoms
- GERD (gastrointestinal reflux disease)
Celecoxib, like other NSAIDs may cause serious stomach and intestinal ulcers that may occur at any time during treatment. Celecoxib does not interfere with the function of the blood platelets and, as a result, does not reduce clotting and lead to increased bleeding time like other NSAIDs.
Allergic reactions can occur with celecoxib. Individuals who have developed allergic reactions (rash, itching, difficulty breathing) from sulfonamides (for example, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim [Bactrim]), aspirin or other NSAIDs may experience an allergic reaction to celecoxib and should not take celecoxib.
NSAIDs (except for low-dose aspirin) may increase the risk of heart attacks, stroke, and related conditions, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use and in patients who have underlying risk factors for heart and blood vessel conditions. NSAIDs should not be used for the treatment of pain resulting from coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious, even fatal, stomach and intestinal adverse reactions such as bleeding, ulcers, and perforation of the stomach or intestines. These events can occur at any time during treatment and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for these types of reactions.
What drugs interact with Celebrex?
See Table 3 for clinically significant drug interactions with celecoxib.
Table 3: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Celecoxib
|Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients with concomitant use of Celebrex with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet drugs (e.g., aspirin), SSRIs, and SNRIs for signs of bleeding.|
|Clinical Impact:||Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone.|
|In two studies in healthy volunteers, and in patients with osteoarthritis and established heart disease respectively, celecoxib (200 mg to 400 mg daily) has demonstrated a lack of interference with the cardioprotective antiplatelet effect of aspirin (100 mg to 325 mg).|
|Intervention:||Concomitant use of Celebrex and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding.
Celebrex is not a substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection.
|ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers|
|Clinical Impact:||Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Celebrex with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects.|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of Celecoxib with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Celebrex and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.|
|Clinical Impact:||NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Celebrex and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).
Celebrex has no effect on methotrexate pharmacokinetics.
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Celebrex and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of Celebrex and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Celebrex and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.|
|NSAIDs and Salicylates|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of Celecoxib with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy.|
|Intervention:||The concomitant use of Celecoxib with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of Celebrex and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).|
|Intervention:||During concomitant use of Celebrex and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity.
NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed.In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.
|CYP2C9 Inhibitors or inducers|
|Clinical Impact:||Celecoxib metabolism is predominantly mediated via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 in the liver. Co-administration of celecoxib with drugs that are known to inhibit CYP2C9 (e.g., fluconazole) may enhance the exposure and toxicity of celecoxib whereas co-administration with CYP2C9 inducers (e.g., rifampin) may lead to compromised efficacy of celecoxib.|
|Intervention||Evaluate each patient's medical history when consideration is given to prescribing celecoxib. A dosage adjustment may be warranted when celecoxib is administered with CYP2C9 inhibitors or inducers.|
|Clinical Impact:||In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib, although not a substrate, is an inhibitor of CYP2D6. Therefore, there is a potential for an in vivo drug interaction with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 (e.g., atomoxetine), and celecoxib may enhance the exposure and toxicity of these drugs.|
|Intervention||Evaluate each patient's medical history when consideration is given to prescribing celecoxib. A dosage adjustment may be warranted when celecoxib is administered with CYP2D6 substrates.|
|Clinical Impact:||Concomitant use of corticosteroids with Celebrex may increase the risk of GI ulceration or bleeding.|
|Intervention||Monitor patients with concomitant use of Celebrex with corticosteroids for signs of bleeding.|
Celebrex side effects list for healthcare professionals
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
- GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation
- Heart Failure and Edema
- Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia
- Anaphylactic Reactions
- Serious Skin Reactions
- Hematologic Toxicity
Clinical Trials Experience
- Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
- The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.
- Of the Celebrex-treated patients in the pre-marketing controlled clinical trials, approximately 4,250 were patients with OA, approximately 2,100 were patients with RA, and approximately 1,050 were patients with post-surgical pain.
- More than 8,500 patients received a total daily dose of Celebrex of 200 mg (100 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily) or more, including more than 400 treated at 800 mg (400 mg twice daily).
- Approximately 3,900 patients received Celebrex at these doses for 6 months or more; approximately 2,300 of these have received it for 1 year or more and 124 of these have received it for 2 years or more.
Pre-Marketing Controlled Arthritis Trials
- Table 1 lists all adverse events, regardless of causality, occurring in ≥2% of patients receiving Celebrex from 12 controlled studies conducted in patients with OA or RA that included a placebo and/or a positive control group.
- Since these 12 trials were of different durations, and patients in the trials may not have been exposed for the same duration of time, these percentages do not capture cumulative rates of occurrence.
Table 1: Adverse Events Occurring in ≥2% of Celebrex Patients from Pre-marketing Controlled Arthritis Trials
|Body as a whole|
|Central, PeripheralNervous system|
|CBX = Celebrex 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily; NAP = Naproxen 500 mg twice daily;
DCF = Diclofenac 75 mg twice daily;
IBU = Ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily.
- In placebo-or active-controlled clinical trials, the discontinuation rate due to adverse events was 7.1% for patients receiving Celebrex and 6.1% for patients receiving placebo.
- Among the most common reasons for discontinuation due to adverse events in the Celebrex treatment groups were dyspepsia and abdominal pain (cited as reasons for discontinuation in 0.8% and 0.7% of Celebrex patients, respectively).
- Among patients receiving placebo, 0.6% discontinued due to dyspepsia and 0.6% withdrew due to abdominal pain.
The Following Adverse Reactions Occurred In 0.1% To 1.9% Of Patients Treated With Celebrex (100 mg To 200 mg Twice Daily Or 200 mg Once Daily)
- Gastrointestinal: Constipation, diverticulitis, dysphagia, eructation, esophagitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux, hemorrhoids, hiatal hernia, melena, dry mouth, stomatitis, tenesmus, vomiting
- Cardiovascular: Aggravated hypertension, angina pectoris, coronary artery disorder, myocardial infarction
- General: Hypersensitivity, allergic reaction, chest pain, cyst NOS, edema generalized, face edema, fatigue, fever, hot flushes, influenza-like symptoms, pain, peripheral pain
- Central, peripheral nervous system: Leg cramps, hypertonia, hypoesthesia, migraine, paresthesia, vertigo
- Hearing and vestibular: Deafness, tinnitus
- Heart rate and rhythm: Palpitation, tachycardia
- Liver and biliary: Hepatic enzyme increased (including SGOT increased, SGPT increased)
- Metabolic and nutritional: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) increased, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) increased, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, NPN increased, creatinine increased, alkaline phosphatase increased, weight increased
- Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, arthrosis, myalgia, synovitis, tendinitis
- Platelets (bleeding or clotting): Ecchymosis, epistaxis, thrombocythemia,
- Psychiatric: Anorexia, anxiety, appetite increased, depression, nervousness, somnolence
- Hemic: Anemia
- Respiratory: Bronchitis, bronchospasm, bronchospasm aggravated, cough, dyspnea, laryngitis, pneumonia
- Skin and appendages: Alopecia, dermatitis, photosensitivity reaction, pruritus, rash erythematous, rash maculopapular, skin disorder, skin dry, sweating increased, urticaria
- Application site disorders: Cellulitis, dermatitis contact
- Urinary: Albuminuria, cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, micturition frequency, renal calculus
The Following Serious Adverse Events (Causality Not Evaluated) Occurred In <0.1% Of Patients
- Cardiovascular: Syncope, congestive heart failure, ventricular fibrillation, pulmonary embolism, cerebrovascular accident, peripheral gangrene, thrombophlebitis
- Gastrointestinal: Intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding, colitis with bleeding, esophageal perforation, pancreatitis, ileus
- General: Sepsis, sudden death
- Liver and biliary: Cholelithiasis
- Hemic and lymphatic: Thrombocytopenia
- Nervous: Ataxia, suicide
- Renal: Acute renal failure
The Celecoxib Long-Term Arthritis Safety Study
See prescribing information.
- The incidence of clinically significant decreases in hemoglobin (>2 g/dL) was lower in patients on Celebrex 400 mg twice daily (0.5%) compared to patients on either diclofenac 75 mg twice daily (1.3%) or ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily 1.9%.
- The lower incidence of events with Celebrex was maintained with or without aspirin use.
Withdrawals/Serious Adverse Events
- Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates at 9 months for withdrawals due to adverse events for Celebrex, diclofenac and ibuprofen were 24%, 29%, and 26%, respectively.
- Rates for serious adverse events (i.e., causing hospitalization or felt to be life-threatening or otherwise medically significant), regardless of causality, were not different across treatment groups (8%, 7%, and 8%, respectively).
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Study
- In a 12-week, double-blind, active-controlled study, 242 JRA patients 2 years to 17 years of age were treated with celecoxib or naproxen; 77 JRA patients were treated with celecoxib 3 mg/kg twice daily, 82 patients were treated with celecoxib 6 mg/kg twice daily, and 83 patients were treated with naproxen 7.5 mg/kg twice daily.
- The most commonly occurring (≥5%) adverse events in celecoxib treated patients were
- The most commonly occurring (≥5%) adverse experiences for naproxen-treated patients were
- Compared with naproxen, celecoxib at doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg twice daily had no observable deleterious effect on growth and development during the course of the 12-week double-blind study.
- There was no substantial difference in the number of clinical exacerbations of uveitis or systemic features of JRA among treatment groups.
- In a 12-week, open-label extension of the double-blind study described above, 202 JRA patients were treated with celecoxib 6 mg/kg twice daily.
- The incidence of adverse events was similar to that observed during the double-blind study; no unexpected adverse events of clinical importance emerged.
Table 2: Adverse Events Occurring in ≥5% of JRA Patients in Any Treatment Group, by System Organ Class (% of patients with events)
|System Organ Class
|All Doses Twice Daily|
|Abdominal pain NOS||4||7||7|
|Abdominal pain upper||8||6||10|
|Injury and Poisoning||4||6||5|
|Dizziness (excl vertigo)||1||1||7|
|Skin & Subcutaneous||10||7||18|
|* Abnormal laboratory tests, which include: Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, Bacteriuria NOS present, Blood creatine phosphokinase increased, Blood culture positive, Blood glucose increased, Blood pressure increased, Blood uric acid increased, Hematocrit decreased, Hematuria present, Hemoglobin decreased, Liver function tests NOS abnormal, Proteinuria present, Transaminase NOS increased, Urine analysis abnormal NOS|
Other Pre-Approval Studies
Adverse Events from Ankylosing Spondylitis Studies
- A total of 378 patients were treated with Celebrex in placebo-and active-controlled AS studies.
- Doses up to 400 mg once daily were studied.
- The types of adverse events reported in the AS studies were similar to those reported in the OA/RA studies.
Adverse Events from Analgesia and Dysmenorrhea Studies
- Approximately 1,700 patients were treated with Celebrex in analgesia and dysmenorrhea studies.
- All patients in post-oral surgery pain studies received a single dose of study medication.
- Doses up to 600 mg/day of Celebrex were studied in primary dysmenorrhea and post-orthopedic surgery pain studies.
- The types of adverse events in the analgesia and dysmenorrhea studies were similar to those reported in arthritis studies.
- The only additional adverse event reported was post-dental extraction alveolar osteitis (dry socket) in the post-oral surgery pain studies.
The APC And PreSAP Trials
Adverse Reactions From Long-term, Placebo-controlled Polyp Prevention Studies
- Exposure to Celebrex in the APC and PreSAP trials was 400 mg to 800 mg daily for up to 3 years.
- Some adverse reactions occurred in higher percentages of patients than in the arthritis pre-marketing trials (treatment durations up to 12 weeks; see Adverse events from Celebrex pre-marketing controlled arthritis trials, above). The adverse reactions for which these differences in patients treated with Celebrex were greater as compared to the arthritis pre-marketing trials were as follows:
(400 to 800 mg daily)
|N = 2285||N = 1303|
|Gastroesophageal reflux disease||4.7%||3.1%|
The following additional adverse reactions occurred in ≥0.1% and <1% of patients taking Celebrex, at an incidence greater than placebo in the long-term polyp prevention studies, and were either not reported during the controlled arthritis pre-marketing trials or occurred with greater frequency in the long-term, placebo-controlled polyp prevention studies:
- Nervous system disorders: Cerebral infarction
- Eye disorders: Vitreous floaters, conjunctival hemorrhage
- Ear and labyrinth: Labyrinthitis
- Cardiac disorders: Angina unstable, aortic valve incompetence, coronary artery atherosclerosis, sinus bradycardia, ventricular hypertrophy
- Vascular disorders: Deep vein thrombosis
- Reproductive system and breast disorders: Ovarian cyst
- Investigations: Blood potassium increased, blood sodium increased, blood testosterone decreased
- Injury, poisoning, and procedural complications: Epicondylitis, tendon rupture
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of Celebrex. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure
- Cardiovascular: Vasculitis, deep venous thrombosis
- General: Anaphylactoid reaction, angioedema
- Liver and biliary: Liver necrosis, hepatitis, jaundice, hepatic failure
- Hemic and lymphatic: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, leucopenia
- Metabolic: Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia
- Nervous: Aseptic meningitis, ageusia, anosmia, fatal intracranial hemorrhage
- Renal: Interstitial nephritis
Celebrex (celecoxib) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat arthritis, pain, menstrual cramps, and colonic polyps. Common side effects of Celebrex include headache, abdominal pain, indigestion, diarrhea, nausea, gas (flatulence), and insomnia. Celebrex has not been studied in pregnant women. It should not be used in late pregnancy because there is a risk of heart defects in the newborn. Nursing mothers should avoid Celebrex or discontinue breastfeeding.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)? Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis
What is rheumatoid arthritis (RA)? Learn about treatment, diagnosis, and the symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Discover...
Osteoarthritis (OA): Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease most often affecting major joints such as knees, hands, back, or hips....
Rheumatoid Arthritis: Alternative RA Therapies
Learn which alternative treatments show promise for rheumatoid arthritis.
Arthritis: Supplements for Joint Pain
Can supplements help relieve joint pain and swelling? Find out how certain compounds may aid your stiff, tender joints.
Rheumatoid Arthritis: RA Food Myths and Facts
Is there really an RA diet? Learn the truth from WebMD about which foods can ease your symptoms and which you should avoid.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Exercises: Joint-Friendly Workouts
Regular exercise boosts fitness and helps reverse joint stiffness for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). WebMD demonstrates...
RA Home Remedies
People try all sorts of things to relieve rheumatoid arthritis pain. WebMD debunks some of the common ones and lets you know what...
Psoriatic Arthritis Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis
Psoriatic arthritis pain can be treated. Get more information on the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and medications for psoriatic...
Arthritis: Reasons Why Your Hips Hurt
You use them to sit, stand, dance, kick, and run. Find out from WebMD's slide show what makes your hips hurt, and what you can do...
Exercises for Knee Osteoarthritis and Joint Pain
Learn about osteoarthritis and exercises that relieve knee osteoarthritis pain, stiffness and strengthen the knee joint and...
Osteoarthritis Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
How does osteoarthritis differ from other types of arthritis? Learn about osteoarthritis with this quiz.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Quiz: What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?
How is rheumatoid arthritis different from other forms of arthritis, such as osteoarthritis and gout? Take the Rheumatoid...
Psoriatic Arthritis Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
How is psoriatic arthritis related to psoriasis? Take this quiz to find out!
Picture of Psoriatic Arthritis
Psoriatic arthritis is a specific condition in which a person has both psoriasis and arthritis. See a picture of Psoriatic...
Picture of Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that is caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more...
Tips for Healthy Joints: Exercise, Nutrition, & More
Dealing with joint pain and arthritis? Learn why weight matters--and why NOT to stretch before exercise. See these solutions for...
Arthritis: 16 Bad Habits That Cause Joint Pain
Being overweight, wearing uncomfortable shoes, or carrying a heavy purse can make joint pain and arthritis symptoms worse. Some...
Famous Faces With Rheumatoid Arthritis
Learn more about the famous faces of rheumatoid arthritis such as Lucille Ball, Glenn Frey, and more.
Osteoarthritis: 15 Tips to Improve Daily Living With OA
Have arthritis in the knee? Osteoarthritis joint pain can make it hard to carry out activities of daily living. Cartilage...
Arthritis: Causes and Treatment for Joint Stiffness and Pain
Arthritis and injuries can leave your joints swollen, tender, and damaged. Discover treatments for morning stiffness, sore...
Arthritis: Ways to Ease Hip Pain
Health habits, home remedies, and other ways you can find relief when your hips hurt.
Osteoarthritis: Guide to Hip Replacement
Ready for a hip replacement? Find out what to expect, from the day of hip surgery until months after your hip replacement.
Fun With Kids? Don't Let Arthritis Stop You
You can still have lots of fun with children despite arthritis. Our experts uncover ways to spend time with your kids or...
Active Living with Osteoarthritis
Check out this slideshow on Active Living From Day to Night with Osteoarthritis. Even with arthritis you can keep your active...
Related Disease Conditions
Buildup of uric acid crystals in a joint causes gouty arthritis. Symptoms and signs include joint pain, swelling, heat, and redness, typically of a single joint. Gout may be treated with diet and lifestyle changes, as well as medication.
Which Foods Make Arthritis Worse?
Foods that may worsen arthritis include processed foods, salt, red meat, and alcohol. Check out the center below for more medical references on arthritis, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related disease conditions, treatment and diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. Early RA signs and symptoms include anemia, both sides of the body affected (symmetric), depression, fatigue, fever, joint deformity, joint pain, joint redness, joint stiffness, joint swelling, joint tenderness, joint warmth, limping, loss of joint function, loss of joint range of motion, and polyarthritis.
Pain Management and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Second Source article from WebMD
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints. Also known as degenerative arthritis, osteoarthritis can be caused by aging, heredity, and injury from trauma or disease.
Arthritis (Joint Inflammation)
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, warmth, swelling, redness and pain. There are over 100 types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus, gout, and pseudogout.
14 Early Signs of Arthritis in the Legs
Leg arthritis affects the joints of the hips, knees, ankles or feet. The early signs and symptoms of arthritis in the legs include pain, swelling, stiffness, decreased range of motion, trouble walking, fever, bump-like swelling, and other symptoms.
Psoriatic arthritis is a disease that causes skin and joint inflammation. Symptoms and signs include painful, stiff, and swollen joints, tendinitis, and organ inflammation. Treatment involves anti-inflammatory medications and exercise.
16 Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Signs & Symptoms
Early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) symptoms and signs vary differently from person to person. The most common body parts that are initially affected by RA include the small joints of the hands, wrists, and feet, and the knees and hip joints. Joint inflammation causes stiffness. Warmth, redness, and pain may vary in degree.
What Is the Best Infusion for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)?
Learn the four most effective DMARDs for rheumatoid arthritis infusion therapy, which aim to control RA symptoms, reduce complications, and improve quality of life and lifespan.
Early Signs and Symptoms of Arthritis in Knuckles
Pain, swelling, and tenderness are usually considered as early signs and symptoms of knuckle arthritis. Tiny bumps pop out on the top knuckles of some of the fingers, and fingers become stiff.
12 Early Signs of Arthritis in Hands
Hand arthritis occurs when there is inflammation in one or more joints of the hand and wrist. A few of the common types of arthritis that affect the hands are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, post-traumatic arthritis (arthritis as a result of an injury), psoriatic arthritis and gout.
Osteoarthritis vs. Osteoporosis Differences and Similarities
Arthritis is defined as painful inflammation and joint stiffness. Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis and the most common cause of chronic joint pain, affecting over 25 million Americans. Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that involves the entire joint. Osteoporosis is not a type of arthritis. It is a disease that mainly is caused by a loss of bone tissue that is not limited to the joint areas. It is possible for one person to have both osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. The differences in the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis include; pain, stiffness, and joint swelling, joint deformity, crackle sounds when the joint is moving, and walking with a limp. Osteoporosis is called the "silent disease" because it can progress for years without signs and symptoms before it is diagnosed, severe back pain, bone fractures, height loss, and difficulty or inability to walk. The differences in the causes of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are that osteoarthritis usually is caused by wear and tear on the joints. Osteoporosis usually is caused by one or more underlying problems, for example, calcium and vitamin D deficiencies. Treatment for osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are not the same. There is no cure for osteoarthritis or osteoporosis.
Fungal arthritis is inflammation of a joint by a fungus that has invaded the body and is growing in the normally sterile joint. Fungal arthritis symptoms and signs include pain, redness, loss of range of motion, and swelling. Fungal arthritis treatment includes antibiotics, adequate drainage of the joint, and sometimes surgery.
Septic arthritis, or infectious arthritis, is infection of one or more joints by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Symptoms and signs of septic arthritis include fever, joint pain, chills, swelling, redness, warmth, and stiffness. Treatment involves antibiotics and the drainage of the infected joint.
What Are the 7 Diagnostic Criteria for Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Defined in 1987 and followed until 2010, the seven diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis are no longer in use. Instead, doctors rely on a new set of classification criteria for diagnosing RA.
Reactive arthritis is a chronic, systemic rheumatic disease characterized by three conditions, including conjunctivitis, joint inflammation, and genital, urinary, or gastrointestinal system inflammation. Inflammation leads to pain, swelling, warmth, redness, and stiffness of the affected joints. Non-joint areas may experience irritation and pain. Treatment for reactive arthritis depends on which area of the body is affected. Joint inflammation is treated with anti-inflammatory medications.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Lupus: Differences and Similarities
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and lupus are two varieties of autoimmune diseases that cause flare-ups. While RA attacks the immune system on the joints, lupus involves many other parts of the body besides the joints. Common RA symptoms involve warm, swollen, and painful joints; morning stiffness in the joints or stiffness after inactivity, joint deformity, fever, fatigue, etc. Lupus symptoms include Malar rash (butterfly-shaped rash involving the cheeks and bridge of the nose), fever, joint pain in the absence of joint deformity, etc.
11 Home Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term disorder that progressively affects many parts of the body. Home remedies, diet, and lifestyle changes can help reduce pain and discomfort associated with RA alongside medical treatment. Home remedies alone cannot effectively treat RA or prevent the progression of the disease.
Arthritis in Knee: 4 Stages of Osteoarthritis
Painful joint swelling is called arthritis. Osteoarthritis is due to wear and tear of the joints over many years. Arthritis maye develop in any joint, including the fingers, hips and knees. Usually, patients with arthritis feel pain in their joints even after moderate movements. There are four stages of osteoarthritis of the knee.
17 Early Signs of Arthritis in the Back
Arthritis in the back arises due to the inflammation of facet joints in the spine or sacroiliac joints between the spine and the pelvis. Some of the early signs of arthritis in the back include back pain, stiffness, swelling, bone grinding, loss of flexibility, fatigue, muscle spasms and other symptoms.
Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Be Caused by Stress?
Rheumatoid arthritis can be caused by and result in stress, as well as other conditions such as gastrointestinal problems (IBD).
Do Steroids Help With Arthritis?
Arthritis is the inflammation of one or more joints in the body. The disease is one of the most common chronic health conditions in the United States. Steroids are a class of drugs that reduce inflammation and have a suppressing effect on the immune system.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Fibromyalgia
Though rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia have similar symptoms, RA is an autoimmune disease and fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome. RA symptoms include joint redness, swelling, and pain that lasts more than 6 weeks. Fibromyalgia symptoms include widespread pain, tingling feet or hands, depression, and bowel irritability. Home remedies for both include stress reduction, exercise, and getting enough sleep.
What Are the Four Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease categorized into the following four stages and classifications. Learn the causes, symptoms, and complications of RA below.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Arthritis
Arthritis is a general term used to describe joint disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a type of arthritis in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the joints, causing chronic inflammation.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) annually affects one child in every thousand. There are six types of JRA. Treatment of juvenile arthritis depends upon the type the child has and should focus on treating the symptoms that manifest.
How Serious Is Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that typically affects the joints and other body parts. If not diagnosed early and appropriately treated, RA can lead to permanent deformities, disabilities, and serious systemic complications.
What Is the Life Expectancy of Someone With Psoriatic Arthritis?
Psoriatic arthritis is not life-threatening, but it can reduce a patient’s life expectancy by three years. Here is how to properly manage the disease.
Early Signs of Arthritis in the Fingers
The earliest signs of arthritis are pain, swelling and stiffness. If these symptoms are experienced in the fingers, it is likely because of rheumatoid arthritis. The signs and symptoms of arthritis in the fingers include popping sounds, joint deformity, warmth, mucus cysts and bone spurs.
Early Signs of Arthritis in the Feet
There are more than 30 joints in the ankle and feet. Arthritis can affect one or multiple joints in the feet. Excess weight, hereditary tendencies, old injuries, and poor footwear are a few predisposing factors of arthritis.
Is Crohn's Disease Related to Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Since Crohn’s disease causes inflammation of the body, including the joints, sufferers are at a greater risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.
Safest Rheumatoid Arthritis Drugs During Pregnancy
None of the drugs used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is completely safe during pregnancy. You must discuss with your physician regarding the decision to use, modify, or stop any medications.
Will Psoriatic Arthritis Cripple Me?
Psoriatic arthritis is a long-standing inflammatory disorder that affects three out of every 10 people with psoriasis. It cannot be cured, but some treatments may prevent it from worsening. There is no way to predict whose psoriatic arthritis may destroy their joints.
Breastfeeding With Rheumatoid Arthritis
You can breastfeed your baby even if you have rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, you must always consult your doctor before you start the process.
What Is the Most Common Cause of Septic Arthritis in Kids?
Septic arthritis can be caused by bacterial, fungal or viral infections. Staphylococcus aureus, a type of bacteria, is the most common cause of septic arthritis in infants. Septic arthritis is a general term for any joint pain caused by infection of the joint.
Osteoarthritis vs. Rheumatoid Arthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are chronic joint disorders. RA is also an autoimmune disease. OA and RA symptoms and signs include joint pain, warmth, and tenderness. Over-the-counter pain relievers treat both diseases. There are several prescription medications that treat RA.
Early Signs of Arthritis in the Knee
Arthritis refers to the redness and swelling of the joints. It usually develops slowly over 10 to 15 years, interfering with daily life activities. Knowing the early signs of arthritis can help you take appropriate treatment and incorporate modifications in your diet and lifestyle.
What Are the Five Types of Psoriatic Arthritis?
Understanding the five types of psoriatic arthritis can help you identify the first signs and symptoms, which can then lead to a proper diagnosis and treatment from your doctor.
Does Rheumatoid Arthritis Run in Families?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that tends to run in families. Your likelihood of getting RA, however, is not determined by family history of the disease alone. It is also influenced by environmental factors such as age, obesity and smoking.
Early Signs of Arthritis in Shoulder
Early signs and symptoms of arthritis in the shoulder include pain in the shoulder joint that's worse when lifting heavy objects, pain that radiates down the arm and shoulder joint sounds like grinding, clicking, and crackling.
Non-Radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA)
Non-radiographic spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) is an inflammatory arthritis that mainly affects the joints of the spine. Morning stiffness and back pain are the usual symptoms of nr-axSpA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, exercise, and biologics are treatments for nr-axSpA.
How Is Psoriatic Arthritis Diagnosed?
Psoriatic arthritis is a painful joint condition associated with psoriasis that is diagnosed through imaging and blood tests when accompanying symptoms are present.
What Is The First Line Treatment For Psoriatic Arthritis
The treatment of psoriatic arthritis aims at controlling the inflammation of the joint. The first-line therapy differs in psoriatic arthritis as per severities. In mild psoriatic arthritis, the mainstay of treatment includes anti-inflammatory agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Apart from NSAIDs, the following drugs are also effective as a first-line treatment for mild psoriatic arthritis
Early Signs of Arthritis in the Wrist
Wrist arthritis is inflammation (swelling) of one or more joints of the wrist. Wrist arthritis is long-lasting or permanent and eventually causes severe joint damage. The early signs of arthritis in the wrist include morning stiffness, redness, tenderness, pain, swelling, weakness, warmth and other symptoms.
Early Signs and Symptoms of Arthritis in Thumb
The earliest sign and symptom of thumb arthritis is pain, swelling, and tenderness with activities that involve pinching action. The pain may be dull, achy, or sharp at the base of the thumb. The pain can occur when we grip, grasp, or pinch an object or use the thumb to apply force.
Quackery of Arthritis
Arthritis patients are sometimes vulnerable to quackery (the business of promoting unproven remedies). These "quick fix" treatments are promoted as cure-alls, but they really have no right to such claims. Consumers should be wary of products that have marketing claims like "will cure," "ancient remedy," "has no side effects," and "revolutionary new scientific breakthrough." Read about arthritis remedies and tests that have no scientific proof of benefits.
What Is the Main Cause of Osteoarthritis?
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease of the joints affecting middle-aged and elderly people. It involves the breakdown of cartilage and associated inflammatory changes in the adjacent bone. It is a leading cause of chronic disability, affecting 30 million people in the United States alone.
Osteoarthritis and Treatment
Painful swelling of the joints due to wear and tear over many years is called osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis may develop in any joint that includes the fingers, hips, and knees. There are many treatment options available to curb the complications of arthritis.
What Are 5 Common Risk Factors to Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder (the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own cells). Certain factors increase the risk of RA.
Do Anti-Inflammatories Help Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder. Anti-inflammatory medications can help address symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Rheumatoid Arthritis FAQs
- Psoriatic Arthritis FAQs
- Osteoarthritis FAQs
- Will Rheumatoid Arthritis Nodules Go Away?
- Is Inflammatory Arthritis the Same as Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- What if I get COVID-19 with Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Why Does Pregnancy Affect the Course of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)?
- Are Corticosteroids Safe for Pregnant and Nursing Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Treatment Update on Rheumatoid Arthritis
- 5 Surprising Facts About Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Osteoarthritis - Vitamin D May Prevent Progression
- Arava Approved For Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Celebrex - New Arthritis Drug
- Arthritis Roller Coaster
- Arthritis - Whether Weather Affects Arthritis
- Arthritis Medications
- What Not to Eat When You Have Arthritis
- Ultrasound Imaging of Joints in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
- What Causes Arthritis and Baker's Cyst?
- What Kind of Doctor Treats Ankylosing Spodylitis & Reactive Arthritis?
- Do NSAIDs Interact With Coumadin?
- What Is Meant by Seronegative Arthritis?
- What Causes Early Onset of Hip Osteoarthritis?
- What Is the Prognosis for Osteoarthritis?
- What Are the Side Effects of Remicade for Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- What Is a Triple Arthrodesis Surgical Procedure?
- What Kind of Joint Injections Treat Osteoarthritis?
- Does Magnetic Therapy for Arthritis Work?
- What Are the Side Effects of Glucosamine?
- Can You Get a Cartilage Transplant?
- What Is Cervical Osteoarthritis?
- Does Glucosamine Cream Work for Arthritis?
- Are Women More Susceptible to Osteoarthritis?
- Can Glucosamine Treat Arthritis?
- Does Crohn's Disease Cause Arthritis?
- Osteoarthritis of the Hands
- Are Hidradenitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis Related?
- What Are the Different Types of Psoriatic Arthritis?
- Can You Prevent Osteoarthritis?
- Does Lipitor Help Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Can My Diet Improve Arthritis?
- What's the Rheumatoid Arthritis Prognosis?
- What Are Home Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Osteoarthritis Symptoms
Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.