- Osteoarthritis Overview Slideshow Pictures
- Osteoarthritis Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
- Exercises for OA of the Knee Slideshow
Does Bextra (valdecoxib) cause side effects?
Bextra (valdecoxib tablets) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to relieve the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and adult rheumatoid arthritis and to treat painful menstrual cramps (primary dysmenorrhea). The brand name Bextra has been discontinued.
Common side effects of Bextra include
- abdominal pain,
- upper respiratory tract infection,
- gas (flatulence),
- flu-like symptoms,
- abdominal fullness, and
- sinus infection.
Serious side effects of Bextra include
- serious gastrointestinal toxicity such as bleeding, ulceration and perforation of the stomach, small intestine or large intestine;
- serious skin reactions, including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis; and
- hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylactic reactions and angioedema)
Bextra may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors.
Anticonvulsants may reduce the effectiveness of Bextra.
Bextra when combined with oral contraceptives may increase concentrations of the contraceptives and the safety is not known.
Diazepam’s sedative side effects are increased when taken with Bextra.
There are no studies of Bextra in pregnant women. In late pregnancy, Bextra should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus. Bextra should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is unknown if Bextra is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants from Bextra, a decision should be made whether to discontinue breastfeeding or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother and the importance of nursing to the infant.
What are the important side effects of Bextra (valdecoxib)?
Bextra can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, more serious GI side effects, which may result in hospitalization and even fatal outcomes.
Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up.
Patients should be instructed to discontinue treatment and seek medical attention at the first signs of a skin reaction (pruritus, rash, erythema, or mucosal lesions).
Patients should also be instructed to seek immediate emergency help in the case of an anaphylactoid reaction.
Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity such as
If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical attention.
In late pregnancy, Bextra should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.
Bextra (valdecoxib) side effects list for healthcare professionals
More than 4000 patients have received a chronic total daily dose of Bextra 10 mg or more.
More than 2800 patients have received Bextra 10 mg/day, or more, for at least 6 months and 988 of these have received Bextra for at least 1 year.
Osteoarthritis And Rheumatoid Arthritis
Table 4 lists all adverse events, regardless of causality, that occurred in ≥2.0% of patients receiving Bextra 10 and 20 mg/day in studies of three months or longer from 7 controlled studies conducted in patients with OA or RA that included a placebo and/or a positive control group.
Table 4 Adverse Events with Incidence ≥2.0% in Valdecoxib Treatment Groups : Controlled Arthritis Trials of Three Months or Longer
|(Total Daily Dose)|
|Autonomic Nervous System Disorders|
|Body as a Whole|
|Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders|
|Gastrointestinal System Disorders|
|Musculoskeletal System Disorders|
|Respiratory System Disorders|
|Upper respiratory tract infection||6.0||6.7||5.7||6.3||4.3||6.4|
|Skin and Appendages Disorders|
In these placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials, the discontinuation rate due to adverse events was 7.5% for arthritis patients receiving valdecoxib 10 mg daily, 7.9% for arthritis patients receiving valdecoxib 20 mg daily and 6.0%for patients receiving placebo.
In the seven controlled OA and RA studies, the following adverse events occurred in 0.1–1.9% of patients treated with Bextra 10–20 mg daily, regardless of causality.
Gastrointestinal: Abnormal stools, constipation, diverticulosis, dry mouth, duodenal ulcer, duodenitis, eructation, esophagitis, fecal incontinence, gastric ulcer, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux, hematemesis, hematochezia, hemorrhoids, hemorrhoids bleeding, hiatal hernia, melena, stomatitis, stool frequency increased, tenesmus, tooth disorder, vomiting
General: Allergy aggravated, allergic reaction, asthenia, chest pain, chills, cyst NOS, edema generalized, face edema, fatigue, fever, hot flushes, halitosis, malaise, pain, periorbital swelling, peripheral pain
Heart rate and rhythm: Bradycardia, palpitation, tachycardia
Male reproductive: Impotence, prostatic disorder
Metabolic and nutritional: Alkaline phosphatase increased, BUN increased, CPK increased, creatinine increased, diabetes mellitus, glycosuria, gout, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyperlipemia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, LDH increased, thirst increased, weight decrease, weight increase, xerophthalmia
Skin and appendages: Acne, alopecia, dermatitis, dermatitis fungal, eczema, photosensitivity allergic reaction, pruritus, rash erythematous, rash maculopapular, rash psoriaform, skin dry, skin hypertrophy, skin ulceration, sweating increased, urticaria
Special senses: Taste perversion
White cell and RES disorders: Eosinophilia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, lymphadenopathy, lymphangitis, lymphopenia
Other serious adverse events that were reported rarely (estimated <0.1%) in clinical trials, regardless of causality, in patients taking Bextra:
Autonomic nervous system disorders: Hypertensive encephalopathy, vasospasm
Cardiovascular: Abnormal ECG, aortic stenosis, atrial fibrillation, carotid stenosis, coronary thrombosis, heart block, heart valve disorders, mitral insufficiency, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, pericarditis, syncope, thrombophlebitis, unstable angina, ventricular fibrillation
Central, peripheral nervous system: Convulsions
Female reproductive: Cervical dysplasia
Hemic: Lymphoma-like disorder, pancytopenia
Liver and biliary system: Cholelithiasis
Musculoskeletal: Pathological fracture, osteomyelitis
Neoplasm: Benign brain neoplasm, bladder carcinoma, carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, pulmonary carcinoma
Platelets (bleeding or clotting): Embolism, pulmonary embolism, thrombosis
Psychiatric: Manic reaction, psychosis
Renal: Acute renal failure
Resistance mechanism disorders: Sepsis
Urinary system: Pyelonephritis, renal calculus
Vision: Retinal detachment
The following reactions have been identified during postmarketing use of Bextra. These reactions have been chosen for inclusion either due to their seriousness, reporting frequency, possible causal relationship to Bextra, or a combination of these factors.
Because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
General: Hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylactic reactions and angioedema)
Skin and appendages: Erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis
What drugs interact with Bextra (valdecoxib)?
The drug interaction studies with valdecoxib were performed both with valdecoxib and a rapidly hydrolyzed intravenous prodrug form. The results from trials using the intravenous prodrug are reported in this section as they relate to the role of valdecoxib in drug interactions.
- In humans, valdecoxib metabolism is predominantly mediated via CYP 3A4 and 2C9 with glucuronidation being a further (20%) route of metabolism.
- In vitro studies indicate that valdecoxib is a moderate inhibitor of CYP 2C19 (IC50 = 6 μg/mL or 19 μM) and 2C9 (IC50 = 13 μg/mL or 41 μM), and a weak inhibitor of CYP 2D6 (IC50 = 31 μg/mL or 100 μM) and 3A4 (IC50 = 44 μg/mL or 141 μM).
- Concomitant administration of aspirin with valdecoxib may result in an increased risk of GI ulceration and complications compared to valdecoxib alone.
- Because of its lack of anti-platelet effect valdecoxib is not a substitute for aspirin for cardiovascular prophylaxis.
- In a parallel group drug interaction study comparing the intravenous prodrug form of valdecoxib at 40 mg BID (n=10) vs placebo (n=9), valdecoxib had no effect on in vitro aspirin-mediated inhibition of arachidonate- or collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation.
- Valdecoxib 10 mg BID did not show a significant effect on the plasma exposure or renal clearance of methotrexate.
- Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors.
- This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking Bextra concomitantly with ACEinhibitors.
- Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, have shown that NSAIDs can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients.
- This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
- Steady-state plasma exposure (AUC) of valdecoxib (40 mg BID for 12 days) was decreased by 27% when coadministered with multiple doses (300 mg QD for 12 days) of phenytoin (a CYP 3A4 inducer).
- Patients already stabilized on valdecoxib should be closely monitored for loss of symptom control with phenytoin coadministration.
- Valdecoxib did not have a statistically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin (a CYP 2C9 and CYP 2C19 substrate).
- Drug interaction studies with other anticonvulsants have not been conducted.
- Routine monitoring should be performed when therapy with Bextra is either initiated or discontinued in patients on anticonvulsant therapy.
- Dextromethorphan is primarily metabolized by CYP 2D6 and to a lesser extent by 3A4.
- Coadministration with valdecoxib (40 mg BID for 7 days) resulted in a significant increase in dextromethorphan plasma levels suggesting that, at these doses, valdecoxib is a weak inhibitor of 2D6.
- Even so, dextromethorphan plasma concentrations in the presence of high doses of valdecoxib were almost 5- fold lower than those seen in CYP 2D6 poor metabolizers suggesting that dose adjustment is not necessary.
- Valdecoxib 40 mg BID for 7 days produced significant decreases in lithium serum clearance (25%) and renal clearance (30%) with a 34% higher serum exposure compared to lithium alone.
- Lithium serum concentrations should be monitored closely when initiating or changing therapy with Bextra in patients receiving lithium.
- Lithium carbonate (450 mg BID for 7 days) had no effect on valdecoxib pharmacokinetics.
- The effect of valdecoxib on the anticoagulant effect of warfarin (1–8 mg/day) was studied in healthy subjects by coadministration of Bextra 40 mg BID for 7 days.
- Valdecoxib caused a statistically significant increase in plasma exposures of R-warfarin and S-warfarin (12% and 15%, respectively), and in the pharmacodynamic effects (prothrombin time, measured as INR) of warfarin.
- While mean INR values were only slightly increased with coadministration of valdecoxib, the day-to-day variability in individual INR values was increased. Anticoagulant therapy should be monitored, particularly during the first few weeks, after initiating therapy with Bextra in patients receiving warfarin or similar agents.
Fluconazole And Ketoconazole
- Ketoconazole and fluconazole are predominantly CYP 3A4 and 2C9 inhibitors, respectively.
- Concomitant single dose administration of valdecoxib 20 mg with multiple doses of ketoconazole and fluconazole produced a significant increase in exposure of valdecoxib.
- Plasma exposure (AUC) to valdecoxib was increased 62% when coadministered with fluconazole and 38% when coadministered with ketoconazole.
- Glyburide is a CYP 2C9 substrate. Coadministration of valdecoxib (10 mg BID for 7 days) with glyburide (5 mg QD or 10 mg BID) did not affect the pharmacokinetics (exposure) of glyburide.
- Coadministration of valdecoxib (40 mg BID (day 1) and 40 mg QD (days 2–7)) with glyburide (5 mg QD) did not affect either the pharmacokinetics (exposure) or the pharmacodynamics (blood glucose and insulin levels) of glyburide.
- Coadministration of valdecoxib (40 mg BID (day 1) and 40 mg QD (days 2– 7)) with glyburide (10 mg glyburide BID) resulted in 21% increase in glyburide AUC(0–12hr) and a 16% increase in glyburide Cmax leading to a 16%decrease in glucose AUC(0–24hr).
- Insulin parameters were not affected. Because changes in glucose concentrations with valdecoxib coadministration were within the normal variability and individual glucose concentrations were above or near 70 mg/dL, dose adjustment for glyburide (5 mg QD and 10 mg BID) with valdecoxib coadministration (up to 40 mg QD) is not indicated.
- Coadministration of glyburide with doses higher than 40 mg valdecoxib (e.g., 40 mg BID) has not been studied.
- Omeprazole is a CYP 3A4 substrate and CYP 2C19 substrate and inhibitor. Valdecoxib steady state plasma concentrations (40 mg BID) were not affected significantly with multiple doses of omeprazole (40 mg QD).
- Coadministration with valdecoxib increased exposure of omeprazole (AUC) by 46%.
- Drugs whose absorption is sensitive to pH may be negatively impacted by concomitant administration of omeprazole and valdecoxib.
- However, because higher doses (up to 360 mg QD) of omeprazole are tolerated in Zollinger-Ellison (ZE) patients, no dose adjustment for omeprazole is recommended at current doses.
- Coadministration of valdecoxib with doses higher than 40 mg QD omeprazole has not been studied.
- Valdecoxib (40 mg BID) did not induce the metabolism of the combination oral contraceptive norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol (1 mg/0.035 mg combination, Ortho-Novum 1/35).
- Coadministration of valdecoxib and Ortho-Novum 1/35 increased the exposure of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol by 20% and 34%, respectively.
- Although there is little risk for loss of contraceptive efficacy, the clinical significance of these increased exposures in terms of safety is not known.
- These increased exposures of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol should be taken into consideration when selecting an oral contraceptive for women taking valdecoxib.
- Diazepam (Valium) is a CYP 3A4 and CYP 2C19 substrate.
- Plasma exposure of diazepam (10 mg BID) was increased by 28% following administration of valdecoxib (40 mg BID) for 12 days, while plasma exposure of valdecoxib (40 mg BID) was not substantially increased following administration of diazepam (10 mg BID) for 12 days.
- Although the magnitude of changes in diazepam plasma exposure when coadministered with valdecoxib were not sufficient to warrant dosage adjustments, patients may experience enhanced sedative side effects caused by increased exposure of diazepam under this circumstance.
- Patients should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous activities requiring complete mental alertness such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)? Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis
What is rheumatoid arthritis (RA)? Learn about treatment, diagnosis, and the symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Discover...
25 Ways to Relieve Menstrual Cramps
Menstrual cramps happen when prostaglandins force the uterus to contract. Dysmenorrhea, or period pain, may be relieved by...
Osteoarthritis (OA): Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease most often affecting major joints such as knees, hands, back, or hips....
Rheumatoid Arthritis Exercises: Joint-Friendly Workouts
Regular exercise boosts fitness and helps reverse joint stiffness for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). WebMD demonstrates...
Exercises for Knee Osteoarthritis and Joint Pain
Learn about osteoarthritis and exercises that relieve knee osteoarthritis pain, stiffness and strengthen the knee joint and...
Osteoarthritis Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
How does osteoarthritis differ from other types of arthritis? Learn about osteoarthritis with this quiz.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Quiz: What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?
How is rheumatoid arthritis different from other forms of arthritis, such as osteoarthritis and gout? Take the Rheumatoid...
Osteoarthritis: 15 Tips to Improve Daily Living With OA
Osteoarthritis joint pain can make it hard to carry out activities of daily living. Cartilage destruction can cause symptoms like...
Picture of Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that is caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more...
Famous Faces With Rheumatoid Arthritis
Learn more about the famous faces of rheumatoid arthritis such as Lucille Ball, Glenn Frey, and more.
Tips for Healthy Joints: Exercise, Nutrition, & More in Pictures
Dealing with joint pain and arthritis? Learn why weight matters--and why NOT to stretch before exercise. See these solutions for...
Fun With Kids? Don't Let Arthritis Stop You
You can still have lots of fun with children despite arthritis. Our experts uncover ways to spend time with your kids or...
Exercises for Osteoarthritis -- Yoga, Swimming, & More
Check out this slideshow on Active Living From Day to Night with Osteoarthritis. Even with arthritis you can keep your active...
Related Disease Conditions
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. Because it can affect multiple other organs of the body, rheumatoid arthritis is referred to as a systemic illness and is sometimes called rheumatoid disease. The 16 characteristic early RA signs and symptoms include the following. Anemia Both sides of the body affected (symmetric) Depression Fatigue Fever Joint deformity Joint pain Joint redness Joint stiffness Joint swelling Joint tenderness Joint warmth Limping Loss of joint function Loss of joint range of motion Many joints affected (polyarthritis)
16 Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Symptoms and Signs
Early RA symptoms and signs vary differently from person to person. The most common body parts that are initially affected by RA include the small joints of the hands, wrists, and feet, and the knees and hip joints. Joint inflammation causes stiffness. Warmth, redness, and pain may vary in degree.
Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints. Also known as degenerative arthritis, osteoarthritis can be caused by aging, heredity, and injury from trauma or disease.
Menstrual Cramps and PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome) Treatment
Menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms include abdominal cramping, bloating, a feeling of fullness, abdominal pain, mood swings, anxiety and more. Treatment for menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms include regular sleep, exercise, smoking cessation, diet changes, and OTC or prescription medication depending on the severity of the condition.
Menstrual cramps (pain in the belly and pelvic area) are experienced by women as a result of menses. Menstrual cramps are not the same as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Menstrual cramps are common, and may be accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, constipation, or diarrhea. Severity of menstrual cramp pain varies from woman to woman. Treatment includes OTC or prescription pain relief medication.
Second Source article from Government
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Fibromyalgia
Though rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia have similar symptoms, RA is an autoimmune disease and fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome. RA symptoms include joint redness, swelling, and pain that lasts more than six weeks. Fibromyalgia symptoms include widespread pain, tingling feet or hands, depression, and bowel irritability. Home remedies for both include stress reduction, exercise, and getting enough sleep.
Pain Management and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Second Source article from WebMD
Second Source article from Government
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
Osteoarthritis vs. Osteoporosis Differences and Similarities
Arthritis is defined as painful inflammation and joint stiffness. Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis and the most common cause of chronic joint pain, affecting over 25 million Americans. Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that involves the entire joint. Osteoporosis is not a type of arthritis. It is a disease that mainly is caused by a loss of bone tissue that is not limited to the joint areas. It is possible for one person to have both osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. The differences in the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis include; pain, stiffness, and joint swelling, joint deformity, crackle sounds when the joint is moving, and walking with a limp. Osteoporosis is called the "silent disease" because it can progress for years without signs and symptoms before it is diagnosed, severe back pain, bone fractures, height loss, and difficulty or inability to walk. The differences in the causes of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are that osteoarthritis usually is caused by wear and tear on the joints. Osteoporosis usually is caused by one or more underlying problems, for example, calcium and vitamin D deficiencies. Treatment for osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are not the same. There is no cure for osteoarthritis or osteoporosis.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Arthritis
Arthritis is a general term used to describe joint disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a type of arthritis in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the joints, causing chronic inflammation.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) annually affects one child in every thousand. There are six types of JRA. Treatment of juvenile arthritis depends upon the type the child has and should focus on treating the symptoms that manifest.
What Are the Four Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pain and inflammation in joints, typically of the hands and feet. It is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body attacks its own healthy cells, resulting in inflammation of the membrane lining the joints and damage to joint tissue.
Osteoarthritis vs. Rheumatoid Arthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are chronic joint disorders. RA is also an autoimmune disease. OA and RA symptoms and signs include joint pain, warmth, and tenderness. Over-the-counter pain relievers treat both diseases. There are several prescription medications that treat RA.
What Is the Main Cause of Osteoarthritis?
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease of the joints affecting middle-aged and elderly people. It involves the breakdown of cartilage and associated inflammatory changes in the adjacent bone. It is a leading cause of chronic disability, affecting 30 million people in the United States alone.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Rheumatoid Arthritis FAQs
- Osteoarthritis FAQs
- Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Osteoarthritis
- Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): 17 Warning Signs of Serious Complications
- What if I get COVID-19 with Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Rheumatoid Arthritis: Questions for Your Doctor
- Patient Story: Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms
- Rheumatoid Arthritis Joint Symptoms and Signs: What Do They Mean?
- Rheumatoid Arthritis: Which Patients Do Best?
- 5 Surprising Facts About Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Patient Story: Rheumatoid Arthritis and Pregnancy
- Arava Approved For Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Smoking: A New Risk - Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Treatment Update on Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Psoriasis, Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis Share One Gene
- Rheumatoid Arthritis & Diabetes Gene (PTPN22)
- Ultrasound Imaging of Joints in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
- Living With Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Can You Be Too Young for a Knee Replacement?
- What Causes Early Onset of Hip Osteoarthritis?
- Is Inflammatory Arthritis the Same as Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Are Women More Susceptible to Osteoarthritis?
- Can Milk Allergy Cause Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Can You Get a Cartilage Transplant?
- What Is Cervical Osteoarthritis?
- What Is the Prognosis for Osteoarthritis?
- What Are the Side Effects of Remicade for Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Should You Avoid Drinking Soda with Rheumatoid Arthrits?
- What Kind of Joint Injections Treat Osteoarthritis?
- What Are the Side Effects of Glucosamine?
- Osteoarthritis of the Hands
- Are Hidradenitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis Related?
- Osteoarthritis vs. Carpal Tunnel: What's the Difference?
- Can You Prevent Osteoarthritis?
- Does Lipitor Help Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Will Rheumatoid Arthritis Nodules Go Away?
- What's the Rheumatoid Arthritis Prognosis?
- What Are Home Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- Patient Story: Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment
- Rheumatoid Arthritis: Living With a Chronic Disease
- Osteoarthritis Symptoms
- Rheumatoid Arthritis - Checking Your Pulse Audio Segment
Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.