Does Alinia (nitazoxanide) cause side effects?
Alinia (nitazoxanide) is an antiprotozoal drug used to treat diarrhea caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Alinia works by interfering with the conversion of chemicals to energy in protozoal cells.
Common side effects of Alinia include
- abdominal pain,
- allergic reaction,
- flu syndrome,
- upset stomach,
- loss of appetite,
- gas (flatulence),
- dry mouth,
- discolored urine,
- eye discoloration,
- muscle pain, and
- leg cramps.
Serious side effects of Alinia include
- lung disease,
- fast heartbeat,
- low blood pressure,
- painful urination,
- painful or no menstruation,
- kidney pain,
- increased white blood cells, and
- spontaneous bone fracture.
There are no significant drug interactions listed for Alinia.
Alinia has not been adequately evaluated in pregnant women.
What are the important side effects of Alinia (nitazoxanide)?
Common side effects of nitazoxanide include:
Other side effects of nitazoxanide include:
- Asthenia (weakness)
- Allergic reaction
- Flu syndrome
- Dyspepsia (upset stomach)
- Dry mouth, thirst
- Discolored urine
- Pruritus (itching)
- Eye discoloration
- Ear ache
- Bleeding form the nose (epistaxis)
- Muscle pain
- Leg cramps
Diabetic patients and caregivers should be aware that the oral suspension of nitazoxanide contains 1.48 grams of sucrose per 5 mL.
Nitazoxanide should not be used by patients who are allergic to nitazoxanide or any other ingredient in the formulation.
Possible serious side effects of nitazoxanide include:
Alinia (nitazoxanide) side effects list for healthcare professionals
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reactions rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety of Alinia was evaluated in 2177 HIV-uninfected subjects 12 months of age and older who received Alinia Tablets or Alinia for Oral Suspension at the recommended dose for at least three days. In pooled controlled clinical trials involving 536 HIV-uninfected subjects treated with Alinia Tablets or Alinia for Oral Suspension, the most common adverse reactions were abdominal pain, headache, chromaturia and nausea (≥2%).
Safety data were analyzed separately for 280 HIV-uninfected subjects ≥12 years of age receiving Alinia at the recommended dose for at least three days in 5 placebo-controlled clinical trials and for 256 HIV-uninfected subjects 1 through 11 years of age in 7 controlled clinical trials. There were no differences between the adverse reactions reported for Alinia-treated subjects based upon age.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of Alinia. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The following is a list of adverse reactions spontaneously reported with Alinia Tablets which were not included in clinical trial listings:
Gastrointestinal disorders: diarrhea, gastroesophageal reflux disease
Nervous System disorders: dizziness
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: dyspnea
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: rash, urticaria
What drugs interact with Alinia (nitazoxanide)?
Highly Protein Bound Drugs With Narrow Therapeutic Indices
Tizoxanide (the active metabolite of nitazoxanide) is highly bound to plasma protein ( > 99.9%). Therefore, monitor for adverse reactions when administering nitazoxanide concurrently with other highly plasma protein-bound drugs with narrow therapeutic indices, as competition for binding sites may occur (e.g., warfarin).
Alinia (nitazoxanide) is an antiprotozoal drug used to treat diarrhea caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Common side effects of Alinia include diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain, headaches, weakness, fever, pain, allergic reaction, chills, flu syndrome, dizziness, drowsiness, insomnia, tremor, vomiting, upset stomach, loss of appetite, gas (flatulence), constipation, dry mouth, thirst, discolored urine, rash, itching, eye discoloration, ear ache, nosebleed, muscle pain, and leg cramps. There are no significant drug interactions listed for Alinia. Alinia has not been adequately evaluated in pregnant women.
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Related Disease Conditions
Diarrhea is a change in the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Symptoms associated with diarrhea are cramping, abdominal pain, and the sensation of rectal urgency. Causes of diarrhea include viral, bacterial, or parasite infection, gastroenteritis, food poisoning, and drugs. Absorbents and anti-motility medications are used to treat diarrhea.
IBS-D (Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea)
IBS-D or irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea refers to IBS with diarrhea. Symptoms of IBS-D include intestinal gas (flatulence), loose stools, frequent stools, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea. New non-FDA approved IBS tests may help diagnose IBS and IBS-D. Treatment of IBS-D is geared to toward managing symptoms with diet, medication, and lifestyle changes.
Travelers' diarrhea is generally contracted by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Food is the primary source of travelers' diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli is the cause of up to 70% of all cases of travelers' diarrhea. There are five unique classes of E. coli that causes gastroenteritis. Other bacteria responsible for travelers' diarrhea include Campylobacter, jejuni, shigella, and salmonella. Viruses such as rotavirus and Norwalk virus (norovirus) and giardia lamblia a parasite may cause travelers' diarrhea. Prevention is careful eating and drinking of water.
How Do You Get Rid of Diarrhea?
Diarrhea is characterized as loose or runny stools that happen an abnormally high number of times throughout the day. Diarrhea can be linked to autoimmune diseases like Crohn’s or irritable bowel syndrome but is more often a sign of food intolerance (lactose is common), viral infection, food poisoning or other infectious diseases of varying severity.
Treatment & Diagnosis
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Medications & Supplements
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Professional side effects and drug interactions sections courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.