What are signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder and of schizophrenia?
To qualify for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, a person must experience at least one manic episode. Symptoms of mania include
- elevated, expansive, or irritable mood;
- racing thoughts;
- pressured speech (rapid, excessive, and frenzied speaking);
- decreased need for sleep;
- grandiose ideas (for example, false beliefs of superiority or failures);
- tangential speech (repeatedly changing topics to topics that are hardly related);
- restlessness/increased goal-directed activity; and
- impulsivity, poor judgment, or engaging in risky activity (like spending sprees, promiscuity, or excess desire for sex).
While a major depressive episode is not required for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, depression often alternates with manic episodes and tends to occur more often than mania in many people.
Symptoms of schizophrenia may include
- delusions (beliefs not at all based in reality),
- hallucinations (seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling, or tasting something that is not really there),
- negative symptoms, like not talking (mutism, low motivation and movement), and
- disorganized speech or behavior.