What are the causes of pelvic pain in women and men?
Causes of pelvic pain in both women and men include problems with the digestive tract, bone fractures, conditions affecting the urinary tract, or other issues. The following are some of the main causes of pelvic pain in men and women:
- Appendicitis, inflammation of the appendix, can cause acute abdominal or pelvic pain along with nausea and vomiting.
- Kidney stones or infection of the kidney (pyelonephritis) can cause flank pain and pelvic pain. Blood in the urine and fever may be present.
- Cystitis and other urinary tract infections (UTIs) may cause pelvic pain accompanied by blood or pus in the urine. Low back pain can be another symptom of urinary tract infections.
- Interstitial cystitis involves inflammation of the bladder walls and can cause chronic pelvic pain. With interstitial cystitis, there are no signs or symptoms of infection.
- Intestinal conditions that result in inflammation or abscesses in the bowel can be a source of pelvic pain. These can include bowel obstruction, diverticulitis, or an abscess.
- Inflammatory bowel diseases including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic conditions that can cause abdominal or pelvic pain.
- A hernia occurs when the abdominal wall is weakened, and abdominal organs may protrude through the area of weakness. Sometimes the tissues that are found inside of a hernia have a decreased blood supply and cause severe pain.
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a condition that often causes abdominal or pelvic pain along with diarrhea, constipation, bloating, and gas.
- Fracture of the bones of the pelvis is a potential source of pain in the pelvis.
- Sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, can cause pain as well as burning with urination, and urinary or vaginal discharge.
- Post-surgical adhesions (abdominal adhesions) occur when scar tissue forms abnormal connections between parts of the body after surgery. For certain surgeries involving organs of the pelvis, these adhesions can develop and cause pain.
- Muscle spasms of the muscles of the pelvic floor can be a cause of pelvic pain that can become chronic. An example is the rectal pain caused by levator ani syndrome or levator syndrome, caused by spasms of the levator ani muscle. This has also been referred to as chronic proctalgia.
- Anal fissure is a painful tear or crack in the lining of the anus.