What is the treatment for cavities?
There are three things to consider in the treatment of dental cavities: prevention, remineralization, and restoration.
Prevention: A greater emphasis on preventive dentistry has helped reduce the incidence of premature tooth loss. Since we can't eliminate the bacteria that are in the mouth, limiting the amount and frequency of sugars and starches in our diet is the easiest way to prevent dental caries. Maintaining a healthy diet to prevent tooth decay is very important in children and toddlers both for baby teeth and as they start to get their adult teeth. Sugary soft drinks and juices are especially harmful to the teeth. When possible, sweeteners such as sucralose should be substituted for sucrose because they can't be digested by bacteria. Xylitol is another sugar substitute that actually kills bacteria, so chewing xylitol gum after meals will greatly reduce the incidence of cavities. Plaque can be removed from the outside of teeth by brushing and from in between the teeth with dental floss. Use of a mouthwash also helps by limiting the number of harmful bacteria in the mouth. A dentist will often suggest placing plastic sealants in the pits and grooves of teeth in children to protect them from decay. Visiting the dentist regularly will help prevent cavities from forming or catch them when they're small.
Remineralization: Shallow cavities can be reversed when they are treated with a substance that contains fluoride or calcium. This "rehardening" process is known as tooth remineralization. Fluoride makes the enamel more resistant to cavities and can be applied to teeth through fluoride toothpastes, supplements, dental office fluoride treatments and varnishes, and fluoridated water. The amount of fluoride exposure must be carefully controlled though, because high levels can be toxic.
Restoration: When a cavity is too large to be remineralized, it must be restored. If the cavity is still small, it can be restored with a filling made of composite or silver amalgam. If a large part of the tooth is decayed, it will need to be covered with a crown. Crowns are typically made of gold, porcelain, or zirconium. If the cavity has extended to the center of the tooth and infected the nerve, a root canal will have to be performed. Sometimes, the cavity infects a majority of the tooth surface and the tooth has to be extracted. Areas where teeth have been extracted can usually be restored with dental implants or bridges. Baby teeth that get cavities may be restored with a filling, a stainless steel crown, extraction, or pulpotomy. It is very important that kids get their baby teeth treated so that abscesses don't form and oral disease doesn't keep increasing into adulthood.