What causes dry mouth?
There are many causes of dry mouth. Dry mouth most commonly occurs as a side effect of medications that cause decreased saliva production, including high blood pressure medications, antihistamines, antidepressants, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, narcotics, and many others. There are over 400 commonly used medications that can cause dry mouth. Other causes of dry mouth include dehydration, radiation treatments to treat cancerous tumors of the head and neck, salivary gland diseases, removal of salivary glands, diabetes, smoking, using chewing tobacco, hormonal imbalances, mouth breathing, sleep apnea, cystic fibrosis, mumps, and autoimmune disorders such as Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV/AIDS, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Eating disorders, such as bulimia and anorexia, are other risk factors for developing xerostomia. Salivary production can be decreased if a major salivary duct becomes blocked, such as from a salivary stone or infection. Dry mouth will often occur during pregnancy or breastfeeding due to dehydration and hormonal changes. Other risk factors include stress, anxiety, and depression. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease often lead to dehydration, making a person constantly at risk for dry mouth. These along with stroke can cause a perception of dry mouth even if salivary function is adequate, due to the diminished ability to perceive oral sensations. Nerve damage or trauma to the head and neck can affect the nerves that provide sensation to the mouth and result in a feeling of dry mouth.