Chickenpox is a common virus infection in children. Here are some facts from experts in the field.
- Chickenpox is caused by a virus called the varicella zoster virus.
- Chickenpox is usually mild but it may be severe in infants, adults and persons with an impaired immune system.
- Almost everyone gets chickenpox by adulthood.
- Chickenpox is highly contagious.
- The virus spread from person to person by direct contact, or through the air.
- Approximately 90% of persons in a household who have not had chickenpox will get it if exposed to an infected family member.
- Chickenpox develops within 10-21 days after contact with an infected person.
- Chickenpox has a characteristic itchy rash which forms blisters that dry and become scabs in 45 days. An infected person may have anywhere from only a few lesions to more than 500 blisters on their body during an attack (average 300400).
- The rash may be the first sign of illness, sometimes coupled with fever and general malaise ("feeling lousy"), especially in adults.
- Chickenpox is contagious 12 days before the rash appears and until all blisters have formed scabs.
- Adults are more likely to have a more serious case of chickenpox with a higher rate of complications and death.
- Every year there are approximately 5,0009,000 hospitalizations and 100 deaths from chickenpox in the United States.
- Varicella vaccine has been available since March 1995, and is approved for use in healthy children 12 months of age or older, and susceptible (i.e., no evidence of having had chickenpox in the past) adolescents and adults.
- Varicella vaccine is highly effective in protecting against severe chickenpox.
- Cases of disease due to the natural virus that may occur in a small proportion of vaccines (people who have had the vaccine) are typically very mild with less than 50 skin blisters and no fever.
- More than 6 million doses of varicella vaccine have been given since it was licensed in March 1995.
- It is recommended that all children be routinely vaccinated at 12 18 months of age and that all susceptible children receive the vaccine before their 13th birthday.
- The vaccine is also approved for susceptible adolescents and adults especially those with close contact with persons at high risk for serious complications (e.g., healthcare workers, family contacts of immunocompromised persons).
- A history of chickenpox is considered adequate evidence of immunity.
- A blood test is available to test immunity in persons who are uncertain of their history or who have not had chickenpox. Many of these persons will find that they are immune when tested and thus will not need to be vaccinated.
- Effective medications (e.g., acyclovir) are available to treat chickenpox in healthy and immunocompromised persons (e.g., those with cancers, HIV/AIDS, receiving medications that depress the immune system).
- Varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG), a type of immune globulin made from plasma from healthy, volunteer blood donors with high levels of antibody to the varicella zoster virus, is recommended after exposure for persons at high risk for complications (e.g., immunocompromised persons, pregnant women, premature infants less than 28 weeks gestation or less than 1000 grams at birth and premature infants whose mothers are not immune).
These facts about chickenpox are based on information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
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