Enuresis: Involuntary urination, which may be caused by a variety of factors. These include disorders of the kidneys, bladder, or ureter and/or poor control of the muscles that control the release of urine. Enuresis is also occasionally associated with neurological disorders, such as Tourette's syndrome, particularly in children. Nighttime (nocturnal) enuresis may be related to any of the above, or may be a symptom of a sleep disorder. Treatment options include regularly scheduled toileting, increasing awareness of the need to urinate, exercises intended to strengthen the muscles that control release of urine (see Kegel exercises), pads and in some cases special devices that alert the patient to initial signs of wetness. Cognitive behavioral therapy or behavior modification techniques can be helpful. Prescription medication, most often desmopressin (a tablet) can also be helpful in certain circumstances in children over the age of 5.
See also Bedwetting.
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