Medical Definition of Toll-like receptor 4

  • Medical Author:
    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

Reviewed on 12/11/2018

Toll-like receptor 4: TLR4. One in a family of receptors that provide critical links between immune stimulants produced by microorganisms and the initiation of host defenses. Abbreviated TLR4.

TLR4 is a transmembrane lipopolysaccharide receptor. Activation of it causes the release of antimicrobial peptides, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and costimulatory molecules that initiate the innate immune response to common gram-negative bacteria. TLR4 also interacts with respiratory syncytial virus, heat-shock proteins, fibronectin, fibrinogen, and hyaluronic acid.

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Reviewed on 12/11/2018