Aplastic anemia: Anemia due to failure of the bone marrow to produce red and white blood cells as well as platelets. Aplastic anemia frequently occurs without a known cause. Known causes include exposure to chemicals (for example, benzene, toluene in glues, insecticides, solvents), drugs (for example, chemotherapy drugs, gold, seizure medications, antibiotics), viruses (for instance, HIV, Epstein-Barr), radiation, immune conditions (for example, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis), pregnancy, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and inherited disorders (for example, Fanconi anemia).
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Last Editorial Review: 5/13/2016