CDC Researchers Join Hunt for Zika Clues in Brazil

News Picture: CDC Researchers Join Hunt for Zika Clues in Brazil

TUESDAY, Feb. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teams of American and Brazilian scientists will travel on Tuesday to areas of Brazil hit hard by the Zika virus, in hopes of confirming a link between Zika and a severe infant birth defect.

Babies born to mothers infected with the mosquito-borne virus can have microcephaly, a condition where infants have smaller heads and the potential for long-term developmental issues.

Brazil has already recorded more than 4,100 such cases, and while links to prenatal exposure to the Zika virus are strong, they have yet to be confirmed.

According to the Associated Press, the new research initiative is a partnership between Brazil's Health Ministry and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Researchers plan to compare infants born with microcephaly and their mothers against infants born without the birth defect.

Eight teams, comprised of one CDC expert plus three Brazilian health workers, will go door to door to randomly selected families with new babies living in Paraiba, a state on Brazil's northeast coast. They hope to recruit at least 130 babies with microcephaly and compare them to almost triple that number of infants without the condition, the AP said. All will undergo blood tests looking for infection with Zika and another mosquito-borne virus, dengue.

"If we can provide some basic information or show a potential association [between a virus and microcephaly], that will allow us another avenue of how do we prevent this and what do we need to do next," Erin Staples, a Colorado-based epidemiologist who heads the CDC contingent in Paraiba, told the AP.

The study's launch comes a day after President Barack Obama asked Congress for $1.9 billion to help stem the spread of the Zika virus.

Since it first surfaced last spring, the virus has spread to 30 countries and territories in Latin America and the Caribbean. The World Health Organization now estimates there could be up to 4 million cases of Zika in the Americas in the next year.

Meeting Monday with the nation's governors, Obama said he hoped to work with them in guarding against an outbreak of the disease in this country.

Obama said the money he is requesting would be used for research into new vaccines and better diagnostic tools, the Associated Press reported. He added that the money would also go toward more support for Puerto Rico and territories where there are confirmed cases, and to help pay for mosquito-control programs in southern states such as Florida and Texas at risk for the Zika virus.

Obama also asked for the flexibility to use some of $2.7 million that was approved to fight the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa but was never used. House Republicans have said that would be the best way to fund a fight against Zika, the AP said.

Dr. Tom Frieden, director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, appeared before a Congressional panel earlier this month to lobby for Zika funding.

Although first discovered in Uganda in 1947, the Zika virus was not thought to pose serious health risks until last year. In fact, approximately 80 percent of people who become infected never experience symptoms.

But the recent increase in both cases and severe brain birth defects among thousands of newborns in Brazil has prompted health officials to reassess their thinking about Zika and pregnant women.

Last Friday, the CDC advised that healthy newborns of women who traveled in an area affected by the Zika virus within two weeks of delivery, or whose mothers show signs of Zika infection, be checked for infection.

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, people considered at risk for Zika infection include those who have:

  • Traveled to areas during the past four weeks where there's active transmission of Zika virus. The CDC now lists 30 countries and territories in Latin America and the Caribbean as places with active Zika infection.
  • Engaged in sexual contact with a person who has traveled to, or resided in, an area with active Zika virus transmission during the prior three months.
  • Developed symptoms suggestive of Zika virus infection during the past four weeks.

There have been no reports to date of Zika virus entering the U.S. blood supply, the FDA has said. But, the risk of blood transmission is considered likely based on the most current scientific evidence of how Zika and similar viruses are spread.

The American Red Cross has also asked potential blood donors who have traveled to Zika-affected areas to wait 28 days before giving blood.

-- Dennis Thompson

MedicalNews
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SOURCES: Feb. 19, 2016, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Feb. 17, 2016, The Lancet Infectious Diseases; U.S. Food and Drug Administration, news release, Feb. 16, 2016; Associated Press

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