The cause of the dilated veins (varicose veins) is poorly understood. Pelvic congestion syndrome is thought to arise as a combination of both mechanical stresses and hormonal changes, including pregnancy related changes. Ultrasound and other imaging tests may be used to establish the diagnosis of pelvic congestion syndrome.
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REFERENCE: U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Pelvic congestion syndrome: chronic pelvic pain caused by ovarian and internal iliac varices.