Diabetes - Safe Drugs to Take for Colds and the Flu

  • Medical Author:
    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

  • Medical Editor: Robert Ferry Jr., MD, FAAP

    Robert Ferry Jr., MD, FAAP

    Robert Ferry Jr., MD, FAAP, is a U.S. board-certified pediatric endocrinologist. After taking his baccalaureate degree from Yale College, then receiving his doctoral degree and residency training in pediatrics at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), Dr. Ferry completed fellowship training in pediatric endocrinology at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

What should I know about safe drugs to take for a cold or flu (influenza) if I have diabetes?

  • People with type 1 or 2 diabetes who don't comply with their doctor's medications may have a difficult time fighting off colds and flu viruses when their immune system is weakened.
  • Getting the yearly seasonal flu vaccine is the best way for people with diabetes to prevent from getting infections, for example, colds or the flu, and their complications.
  • Natural and home remedies help prevent infections like the common cold or flu.
  • Avoid contact with people who are ill and are coughing, sneezing, or has post-nasal drip.
  • Take diabetes medications as your doctor has prescribed when sick with the common cold or flu.
  • Often, people type 1 diabetes may require more treatment with insulin when sick.
  • People with diabetes need to test their blood sugar levels more often when they are sick with an infection, for example, the common cold or flu.
  • Follow a type 1 or type 2 diabetes diet plan; which should include low-glycemic foods and drinks that are rich in antioxidants.
  • Drink sports drinks, for example, Gatorade or Pedialyte to replace electrolytes like potassium and calcium.

How Long Is the Flu Contagious?

Everyone gets the common cold (upper respiratory infections) and the flu (influenza). Both the common cold and flu are contagious, but they are not caused by the same virus.

Although the typical contagious period for the flu is about one to four days. Some adults can be contagious from about one day before the onset of signs and symptoms for up to two weeks.

Other people with diabetes and take cold or flu medications may develop complications, such as pneumonia, may extend the

Why do diabetics have a more difficult time recovering from common colds (upper respiratory tract infections) and the flu?

People with diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2) are at risk of complications from other illness. They may be more susceptible of developing common infections like a cold or the flu because diabetes can weaken a person’s immune system. Complications from the flu include secondary bacterial infections, for example, pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections (sinusitis), and bronchitis.

Which drugs and medications are safe to take if you have diabetes?

Generally, medications to treat the signs and symptoms of the flu or common cold are safe to take if you have diabetes, for example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Motrin) or acetaminophen (Tylenol and others) can control pain and fever. Usually, over-the-counter (OTC) cold and cough medications are acceptable for people with diabetes. While sugar-free medications are always preferred, the amount of sugar consumed in a single dose of medication (in syrup form) is minimal and unlikely to cause harm.

People with diabetes may misunderstand that they should reduce their medication dosages if an infection (like a cold or flu) has decreased their appetite and they are eating less. However, being sick usually makes someone resistant to insulin and raises glucose levels - even if you are eating less. So, it is important to continue taking your diabetes medication when you are sick and to monitor for urinary or blood ketones.

Lack of physical activity associated with the illness can raise blood sugar levels.

If you are diagnosed with the flu, your doctor or other healthcare professional can prescribe antiviral medications that can help reduce the duration and severity of your illness.

How often should I check my blood sugar levels if I have diabetes and a cold or the flu?

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides "Sick Day Guidelines" for people with diabetes. These guidelines recommend testing your blood sugar every 2 to 4 hours while you are sick with a cold or flu and tracking the results. You also should monitor and track urinary ketone levels each time you void (pee). Follow your doctor's guidance for additional insulin so long as ketones are detected. If you vomit, then promptly seek medical care at your nearest Urgent Care or Emergency Department.

What can I drink or eat to control my blood sugar levels when I am sick?

If possible, you should continue to follow your meal plan while you are sick. You may have trouble keeping food down or eating enough food. If you are not able to follow your normal eating plan (that includes a type 1 or 2 dabetes diet plan), be sure to drink plenty of fluids. High blood sugars, fever, or poor appetite can cause dehydration, yet the body needs adequate fluid to eliminate excess glucose. If you are not eating, you can drink water or other fluids free of sugar or caffeine whenever your blood sugar is over 150 mg/dL. Consuming 1 ounce per year of age per hour, up to a maximum of 8 ounces of fluid per hour is a good target.

Eating 45-50 grams of carbohydrate every few hours can help maintain stable blood sugar levels while you are sick. It may be easier to tolerate meals such as soup, crackers, gelatin, or other soft foods.

People with diabetes who are sick and display ketones should contact their doctor and consider taking additional fast-acting insulin as 10% of their total daily insulin dose given every 2 hours so long as moderate to large ketones persist in the urine or blood. If moderate to large ketones persist for more than 4 to 6 hours (or do not improve) despite taking extra insulin every two hours, call 911 or go to your nearest Urgent Care or Emergency Department.

When should I see a doctor if I have diabetes and get a cold or the flu?

According to the "Sick Day Guidelines for People with Diabetes" issued by the CDC, you call your doctor or go the nearest Emergency Room or local Urgent Care Centers if you experience signs and symptoms, for example, you are unable to eat food for more than 6 hours, vomiting, severe diarrhea, loose more than 5 pounds (2.6 kg.), Fever greater than 101 F (37.7 C), blood glucose level over 250 mg/dL on two separate checks, and blood glucose level lower than 70 mg/dL..

Moderate to large amounts of ketones in the urine or blood, difficulty breathing, and feeling confused or unable to think clearly, or feeling sleepy.

How can I help prevent infections?

Getting the yearly seasonal flu vaccine is the best way for people with diabetes to prevent the flu and its complications. Other practices to help prevent colds or the flu include avoiding contact with those who are ill and frequent handwashing, especially before meals or touching your face.

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Medically Reviewed on 12/17/2018
References
REFERENCE: Flu and people with diabetes. CDC. Updated: Sep 18, 2018.
<https://www.cdc.gov/flu/diabetes/index.htm>