- What other names is Rutin known by?
- What is Rutin?
- How does Rutin work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Dosing considerations for Rutin.
Bioflavonoid, Bioflavonoid Complex, Bioflavonoid Concentrate, Bioflavonoid Extract, Bioflavonoïde, Bioflavonoïdes d'Agrumes, Citrus Bioflavones, Citrus Bioflavonoid, Citrus Bioflavonoids, Citrus Bioflavonoid Extract, Citrus Flavones, Citrus Flavonoids, Complexe de Bioflavonoïdes, Concentré de Bioflavonoïde, Eldrin, Extrait de Bioflavonoïde, Flavonoid, Flavonoïde, Flavonoïdes d'Agrumes, Oxerutin, Quercetin-3-rhamnoglucoside, Quercetin-3-rutinoside, Quercétine-3-rutinoside, Rutina, Rutine, Rutinum, Rutosid, Rutoside, Rutosidum, Sclerutin, Sophorin.
Rutin is a plant pigment (flavonoid) that is found in certain fruits and vegetables. Rutin is used to make medicine. The major sources of rutin for medical use include buckwheat, Japanese pagoda tree, and Eucalyptus macrorhyncha. Other sources of rutin include the leaves of several species of eucalyptus, lime tree flowers, elder flowers, hawthorn leaves and flowers, rue, St. John's Wort, Ginkgo biloba, apples, and other fruits and vegetables.
Some people believe that rutin can strengthen blood vessels, so they use it for varicose veins, internal bleeding, hemorrhoids, and to prevent strokes due to broken veins or arteries (hemorrhagic strokes). Rutin is also used to prevent a side effect of cancer treatment called mucositis. This is a painful condition marked by swelling and ulcer formation in the mouth or lining of the digestive tract.
In combination with the proteins trypsin and bromelain, rutin is also used for osteoarthritis.
Possibly Effective for...
- Osteoarthritis. Taking rutin by mouth in combination with trypsin and bromelain seems to be about as effective as the medication diclofenac (Voltaren) in relieving pain and improving knee function in people with osteoarthritis.
- Swelling in the arm after breast surgery (post-surgical lymphedema). Some early research suggests that taking a specific product (Wobenzym) containing rutin, pancreatin, papain, trypsin, and chymotrypsin daily for 7 weeks reduces swelling in the arm due to breast removal surgery.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Blood vessel disease.
- Varicose veins.
- Prevention of mouth ulcers associated with cancer treatments.
Rutin has chemicals that might offer some protection against cancer.
Rutin is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts found in fruits and vegetables. Rutin is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately in medicinal amounts for a short period of time. It can cause some side effects including headache, flushing, rashes, or stomach upset.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking rutin if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For osteoarthritis: 2 tablets of a combination product (Phlogenzym), which contains 100 mg of rutin, 48 mg of trypsin, and 90 mg of bromelain, 3 times daily.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Beltramino, R., Penenory, A., and Buceta, A. M. An open-label, randomised multicentre study comparing the efficacy and safety of CYCLO 3 FORT versus hydroxyethyl rutoside in chronic venous lymphatic insufficiency. Int Angiol. 1999;18(4):337-342. View abstract.
Boyle, S. P., Dobson, V. L., Duthie, S. J., Hinselwood, D. C., Kyle, J. A., and Collins, A. R. Bioavailability and efficiency of rutin as an antioxidant: a human supplementation study. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 2000;54(10):774-782. View abstract.
Cesarone, M. R., Belcaro, G., Pellegrini, L., Ledda, A., Di Renzo, A., Vinciguerra, G., Ricci, A., Gizzi, G., Ippolito, E., Fano, F., Dugall, M., Acerbi, G., and Cacchio, M. HR, 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides, in comparison with diosmin+hesperidin in chronic venous insufficiency and venous microangiopathy: an independent, prospective, comparative registry study. Angiology 2005;56(1):1-8. View abstract.
Ihme, N., Kiesewetter, H., Jung, F., Hoffmann, K. H., Birk, A., Muller, A., and Grutzner, K. I. Leg oedema protection from a buckwheat herb tea in patients with chronic venous insufficiency: a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 1996;50(6):443-447. View abstract.
Mayer, B., Schumacher, M., Brandstatter, H., Wagner, F. S., and Hermetter, A. High-throughput fluorescence screening of antioxidative capacity in human serum. Anal.Biochem 10-15-2001;297(2):144-153. View abstract.
Rehn, D., Unkauf, M., Klein, P., Jost, V., and Lucker, P. W. Comparative clinical efficacy and tolerability of oxerutins and horse chestnut extract in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46(5):483-487. View abstract.
Annoni F, Boccasanta P, Chiurazzi D, et al. [Treatment of acute symptoms of hemorrhoid disease with high-dose oral O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides]. Minerva Med 1986;77(37):1663-1668. View abstract.
Artaria LG. [Prevention of cystoid macular edema with O-beta-hydroxyethyl-rutoside (Venoruton) in a double-blind study]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1982;180(6):568-570. View abstract.
Auteri A, Blardi P, Frigerio C, et al. Pharmacodynamics of troxerutine in patients with chronic venous insufficiency: correlations with plasma drug levels. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1990;10(4):235-241. View abstract.
Balmer A, Limoni C. [Clinical, placebo-controlled double-blind study of venoruton in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Importance of the selection of patients]. Vasa 1980;9(1):76-82. View abstract.
Basile M, Gidaro S, Pacella M, et al. Parenteral troxerutin and carbazochrome combination in the treatment of post-hemorrhoidectomy status: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase IV study. Curr Med Res Opin 2001;17(4):256-261. View abstract.
Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Bavera P, et al. HR (Venoruton1000, Paroven, 0-[beta-hydroxyethyl]-rutosides) vs. Daflon 500 in chronic venous disease and microangiopathy: an independent prospective, controlled, randomized trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2002;7(3):139-145. View abstract.
Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Nicolaides AN, et al. The LONFLIT4-VENORUTON study: a randomized trial prophylaxis of flight-edema in normal subjects. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2003;9(1):19-23. View abstract.
Belcaro G, Errichi BM, Laurora G, et al. Treatment of acute superficial thrombosis and follow-up by computerized thermography. Vasa 1989;18(3):227-234. View abstract.
Belcaro G, Rulo A, Candiani C. Evaluation of the microcirculatory effects of Venoruton in patients with chronic venous hypertension by laserdoppler flowmetry, transcutaneous PO2 and PCO2 measurements, leg volumetry and ambulatory venous pressure measurements. Vasa 1989;18(2):146-151. View abstract.
Beltramino R, Penenory A, Buceta AM. An open-label, randomized multicenter study comparing the efficacy and safety of Cyclo 3 Fort versus hydroxyethyl rutoside in chronic venous lymphatic insufficiency. Angiology 2000;51:535-44.. View abstract.
Bergqvist D, Hallbook T, Lindblad B, et al. A double-blind trial of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Vasa 1981;10(3):253-260. View abstract.
Bergstein NA. Clinical study on the efficacy of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)rutoside (HR) in varicosis of pregnancy. J Int Med Res 1975;3(3):189-193. View abstract.
Boisseau MR, Taccoen A, Garreau C, et al. Fibrinolysis and hemorheology in chronic venous insufficiency: a double blind study of troxerutin efficiency. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1995;36(4):369-374. View abstract.
Cappelli R, Pecchi S, Oberhauser V, et al. Efficacy of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides at high dosage in counteracting the unwanted activity of oral contraceptives on venous function. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1987;7(4):291-299. View abstract.
Carlsson K, Patwardhan A, Poullain JC, et al. [Transport and localization of troxerutin in the venous wall]. J Mal Vasc 1996;21 Suppl C:270-274. View abstract.
Casley-Smith JR, Casley-Smith JR, Johnson AF, et al. Benzo-pyrones in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic diseases. Psychiatry Res 1986;18(3):267-273. View abstract.
Casley-Smith JR, Casley-Smith JR. Treatment of lymphedema by complex physical therapy, with and without oral and topical benzopyrones: what should therapists and patients expect. Lymphology 1996;29(2):76-82. View abstract.
Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Geroulakos G, et al. Flight microangiopathy on long-haul flights: prevention of edema and microcirculation alterations with Venoruton. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2003;9(2):109-114. View abstract.
Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Incandela L, et al. Flight microangiopathy in medium-to-long distance flights: prevention of edema and microcirculation alterations with HR (Paroven, Venoruton; 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides): a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2002;7 Suppl 1:S17-S20. View abstract.
Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Pellegrini L, et al. HR, 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides; (Venoruton): rapid relief of signs/symptoms in chronic venous insufficiency and microangiopathy: a prospective, controlled study. Angiology 2005;56(2):165-172. View abstract.
Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Ricci A, et al. Prevention of edema and flight microangiopathy with Venoruton (HR), (0-[beta-hydroxyethyl]-rutosides) in patients with varicose veins. Angiology 2005;56(3):289-293. View abstract.
Cesarone MR, Incandela L, DeSanctis MT, et al. Treatment of edema and increased capillary filtration in venous hypertension with HR (Paroven, Venoruton; 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides): a clinical, prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, dose-ranging trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2002;7 Suppl 1:S21-S24. View abstract.
Cesarone MR, Incandela L, DeSanctis MT, et al. Variations in plasma free radicals in patients with venous hypertension with HR (Paroven, Venoruton; 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides): a clinical, prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2002;7 Suppl 1:S25-S28. View abstract.
Cesarone MR, Laurora G, Ricci A, et al. Acute effects of hydroxyethylrutosides on capillary filtration in normal volunteers, patients with venous hypertension and in patients with diabetic microangiopathy (a dose comparison study). Vasa 1992;21(1):76-80. View abstract.
Cruz T, Galvez J, Ocete MA, et al. Oral administration of rutoside can ameliorate inflammatory bowel disease in rats. Life Sci 1998;62:687-95. View abstract.
Davis JW, Shelton L, Hartman CR, et al. Smoking-induced changes in endothelium and platelets are not affected by hydroxyethylrutosides. Br J Exp Pathol 1986;67(5):765-771. View abstract.
De Cecco L. [Effects of administration of 50 mg heparan sulfate tablets to patients with varicose dilatation of the hemorrhoid plexus (hemorrhoids)]. Minerva Ginecol 1992;44(11):599-604. View abstract.
de Jongste AB, Jonker JJ, Huisman MV, et al. A double blind three center clinical trial on the short-term efficacy of 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in patients with post-thrombotic syndrome. Thromb Haemost 1989;62(3):826-829. View abstract.
Drewa G, Schachtschabel DO, Palgan K, et al. The influence of rutin on the weight, metastasis and melanin content of B16 melanotic melanoma in C57BL/6 mice. Neoplasma 1998;45:266-71. View abstract.
Duskova M, Wald M. Orally administered proteases in aesthetic surgery. Aesthetic Plast Surg 1999;23(1):41-44. View abstract.
Erlund I, Kosonen T, Alfthan G, et al. Pharmacokinetics of quercetin from quercetin aglycone and rutin in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000;56:545-53.. View abstract.
Escarpa A, Gonzalez MC. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection for the determination of phenolic compounds in peel and pulp from different apple varieties. J Chromatogr A 1998;823:331-7. View abstract.
Forconi S, Guerrini M, Pecchi S, et al. Effect of HR (O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides) on the impaired venous function of young females taking oral contraceptives. A strain gauge plethysmographic and clinical open controlled study. Vasa 1980;9(4):324-330. View abstract.
Gallasch G, Dorfer C, Schmitt T, et al. [Efficacy of troxerutin on the flow properties of blood under defined conditions of circulation. A double-blind study of patients with diabetic retinopathy and arteriosclerotic retinopathy]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1985;187(1):30-35. View abstract.
Galvez J, Cruz T, Crespo E, et al. Rutoside as mucosal protective in acetic acid-induced rat colitis. Planta Med 1997;63:409-14. View abstract.
Glacet-Bernard A, Coscas G, Chabanel A, et al. A randomized, double-masked study on the treatment of retinal vein occlusion with troxerutin. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;118(4):421-429. View abstract.
Gouny AM, Horovitz D, Gouny P, et al. [Effectiveness and safety of hydroxyethyl-rutosides in the local treatment of symptoms of venous insufficiency during air travel]. J Mal Vasc 1999;24(3):214-220. View abstract.
Incandela L, Belcaro G, Renton S, et al. HR (Paroven, Venoruton; 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides) in venous hypertensive microangiopathy: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2002;7 Suppl 1:S7-S10. View abstract.
Incandela L, Cesarone MR, DeSanctis MT, et al. Treatment of diabetic microangiopathy and edema with HR (Paroven, Venoruton; 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides): a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2002;7 Suppl 1:S11-S15. View abstract.
Kienzler JL, Sallin D, Schifflers MH, et al. Pharmacokinetics of mono-3'- and mono-4'-0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside derivatives, after single doses of Venoruton powder in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2002;58(6):395-402. View abstract.
Klein G, Kullich W. Short-term treatment of painful osteoarthritis of the knee with oral enzymes. Clin Drug Invest 2000;19:15-23.
Korpan MI, Fialka V. [Wobenzyme and diuretic therapy in lymphedema after breast operation]. Wien Med Wochenschr 1996;146(4):67-72. View abstract.
Kostyuk VA, Potapovich AI, Speransky SD, Maslova GT. Protective effect of natural flavonoids on rat peritoneal macrophages injury caused by asbestos fibers. Free Radical Biol Med 1996;21:487-93. View abstract.
Kostyuk VA, Potapovich AI. Antiradical and chelating effects in flavonoid protection against silica-induced cell injury. Arch Biochem Biophys 1998;355:43-8. View abstract.
Lefebvre G, Lacombe C. [Venous insufficiency in the pregnant woman. Rheological correction by troxerutin]. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 1991;86(2 Pt 2):206-208. View abstract.
MacLennan WJ, Wilson J, Rattenhuber V, et al. Hydroxyethylrutosides in elderly patients with chronic venous insufficiency: its efficacy and tolerability. Gerontology 1994;40(1):45-52. View abstract.
Marhic C. [Clinical and rheological efficacy of troxerutin in obstetric gynecology]. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 1991;86(2 Pt 2):209-212. View abstract.
Mehta DK (Ex Ed). British National Formulary, Number 37. British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain: London, England, March 1999.
Miller LG. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Arch Int Med 1998;158:2200-11.. View abstract.
Moser M, Ranacher G, Wilmot TJ, et al. A double-blind clinical trial of hydroxyethylrutosides in Meniere's disease. J Laryngol Otol 1984;98(3):265-272. View abstract.
Neumann HA, Carlsson K, Brom GH. Uptake and localisation of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in the venous wall, measured by laser scanning microscopy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992;43(4):423-426. View abstract.
Neumann HA, van den Broek MJ. A comparative clinical trial of graduated compression stockings and O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides (HR) in the treatment of patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Z Lymphol 1995;19(1):8-11. View abstract.
Nocker W, Diebschlag W, Lehmacher W. [A 3-month, randomized double-blind dose-response study with 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside oral solutions]. Vasa 1989;18(3):235-238. View abstract.
Pedersen FM, Hamberg O, Sorensen MD, et al. [Effect of 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside (Venoruton) on symptomatic venous insufficiency in the lower limbs]. Ugeskr Laeger 1992;154(38):2561-2563. View abstract.
Perez Guerrero C, Martin MJ, Marhuenda E. Prevention by rutin of gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats: role of endogenous prostaglandins. Gen Pharmacol 1994;25:575-80. View abstract.
Petruzzellis V, Troccoli T, Candiani C, et al. Oxerutins (Venoruton): efficacy in chronic venous insufficiency--a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Angiology 2002;53(3):257-263. View abstract.
Piller NB, Morgan RG, Casley-Smith JR. A double-blind, cross-over trial of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides (benzo-pyrones) in the treatment of lymphoedema of the arms and legs. Br J Plast Surg 1988;41(1):20-27. View abstract.
Pischnamazzadeh M. [Prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions in breast cancer]. Strahlentherapie 1983;159(1):9-12. View abstract.
Poynard T, Valterio C. Meta-analysis of hydroxyethylrutosides in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Vasa 1994;23(3):244-250. View abstract.
Prerovsky I, Roztocil K, Hlavova A, et al. The effect of hydroxyethylrutosides after acute and chronic oral administration in patients with venous diseases. A double-blind study. Angiologica 1972;9(3-6):408-414. View abstract.
Pronk LC, van Putten WL, van B, V, et al. The venotonic drug hydroxyethylrutosiden does not prevent or reduce docetaxel-induced fluid retention: results of a comparative study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1999;43(2):173-177. View abstract.
Pulvertaft TB. General practice treatment of symptoms of venous insufficiency with oxerutins. Results of a 660 patient multicentre study in the UK. Vasa 1983;12(4):373-376. View abstract.
Pulvertaft TB. Paroven in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Practitioner 1979;223(1338):838-841. View abstract.
Rammer E, Friedrich F. [Enzyme therapy in treatment of mastopathy. A randomized double-blind clinical study]. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1996;108(6):180-183. View abstract.
Rehn D, Brunnauer H, Diebschlag W, et al. Investigation of the therapeutic equivalence of different galenical preparations of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides following multiple dose peroral administration. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46(5):488-492. View abstract.
Rehn D, Golden G, Nocker W, et al. Comparison between the efficacy and tolerability of oxerutins and troxerutin in the treatment of patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43(10):1060-1063. View abstract.
Rehn D, Hennings G, Nocker W, et al. Time course of the anti-oedematous effect of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1991;40(6):625-627. View abstract.
Rehn D, Nocker W, Diebschlag W, et al. Time course of the anti-oedematous effect of different dose regimens of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl) rutosides in healthy volunteers. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43(3):335-338. View abstract.
Renton S, Leon M, Belcaro G, et al. The effect of hydroxyethylrutosides on capillary filtration in moderate venous hypertension: a double blind study. Int Angiol 1994;13(3):259-262. View abstract.
Roztocil K, Oliva I, Prerovsky I, et al. The effect of hydroxyethylrutoside and its combination with acetylsalicylic acid in patients with obliterative atherosclerosis. Cor Vasa 1989;31(2):128-133. View abstract.
Schmitt A, Salvayre R, Delchambre J, Negre-Salvayre A. Prevention by alpha-tocopherol and rutin of glutathione and ATP depletion induced by oxidized LDL in cultured endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol 1995;116:1985-90. View abstract.
Serralde F, Aceves Q. A controlled trial of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Med J Gen Hosp Mexico City 1990;53(2):102-106.
Sohn C, Jahnichen C, Bastert G. [Effectiveness of beta-hydroxyethylrutoside in patients with varicose veins in pregnancy]. Zentralbl Gynakol 1995;117(4):190-197. View abstract.
Stegmann W, Hubner K, Deichmann B, et al. [Efficacy of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in the treatment of venous leg ulcers]. Phlebologie 1987;40(1):149-156. View abstract.
Titapant V, Indrasukhsri B, Lekprasert V, et al. Trihydroxyethylrutosides in the treatment of hemorrhoids of pregnancy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Med Assoc Thai 2001;84(10):1395-1400. View abstract.
Unkauf M, Rehn D, Klinger J, et al. Investigation of the efficacy of oxerutins compared to placebo in patients with chronic venous insufficiency treated with compression stockings. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46(5):478-482. View abstract.
Van Cauwenberge H. Double-blind study of the efficacy of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in the treatment of venous conditions. Médecine et Hygiène 1978;36:4175-4177.
Waldenlind L, Edlund BL, Hulting J, et al. No effect of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside on red cell filterability in patients with acute myocardial infarction. J Intern Med 1990;228(6):655-656. View abstract.
Webster RP, Gawde MD, Bhattacharya RK. Protective effect of rutin, a flavonol glycoside, on the carcinogen-induced DNA damage and repair enzymes in rats. Cancer Lett 1996;109:185-91. View abstract.
Welch W, Moriau M, Van Gysel JP. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Int report 1987;
Wijayanegara H, Mose JC, Achmad L, et al. A clinical trial of hydroxyethylrutosides in the treatment of haemorrhoids of pregnancy. J Int Med Res 1992;20(1):54-60. View abstract.
Wright DD, Franks PJ, Blair SD, et al. Oxerutins in the prevention of recurrence in chronic venous ulceration: randomized controlled trial. Br J Surg 1991;78(10):1269-1270. View abstract.