Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and children throughout the world. Almost all children have become infected with rotavirus by their third birthday. Repeat infections with different viral strains are possible, and most children have several episodes of rotavirus infection in the first years of life. Children between the ages of six and 24 months are at greatest risk for developing severe disease from rotavirus infection. Rotavirus symptoms include: fever, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Rotavirus infection can be associated with severe dehydration in infants and children. Read more: Rotavirus Article
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Norovirus: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
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Related Disease Conditions
What Causes Abdominal Pain?
Abdominal pain can have many causes that range from mild to severe. Some of these causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food poisoning, GERD, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), ovarian cysts, abdominal adhesions, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, gallbladder disease, liver disease, and cancers. Signs and symptoms of the more serious causes include dehydration, bloody or black tarry stools, severe abdominal pain, pain with no urination or painful urination. Treatment for abdominal pain depends upon the cause.
Fever in Adults and Children
Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice, a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C). Fever is part of the body's own disease-fighting arsenal; rising body temperatures apparently are capable of killing off many disease-producing organisms.
Diarrhea is a change is the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Symptoms associated with diarrhea are cramping, abdominal pain, and the sensation of rectal urgency. Causes of diarrhea include viral, bacterial, or parasite infection, gastroenteritis, food poisoning, and drugs. Absorbents and anti-motility medications are used to treat diarrhea.
Stomach Flu (Gastroenteritis) Symptoms Signs, Treatment Remedies, Diet
Stomach flu (gastroenteritis) is a term referred used to describe a variety of gastrointestinal problems. The most common signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The most common cause of gastroenteritis in the United States is Norovirus. Other causes of gastroenteritis include Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Adenovirus, and Sapovirus. There are bacterial causes of gastroenteritis such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter Aeromonas, E. coli, Clostridium, Vibrio, Campylobacter, and Yersinia spp. Parasites that cause gastroenteritis include Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Entamoeba. Treatment for gastroenteritis is generally home remedies such as keeping hydrated to prevent dehydration. At times, hospitalization may be necessary if dehydration occurs.
Nausea and Vomiting
Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms of many conditions. There are numerous cases of nausea and vomiting. Some causes may not require medical treatment, for example, motion sickness, and other causes may require medical treatment by a doctor, for example, heart attack, lung infections, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Some causes of nausea and vomiting may be life-threatening, for example, heart attack, abdominal obstruction, and cancers. Treatment of nausea and vomiting depends upon the cause.
Dehydration is the excessive loss of body water. There are a number of causes of dehydration including heat exposure, prolonged vigorous exercise, and some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of dehydration include headache, lightheadedness, constipation, and bad breath. Treatment for dehydration is to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
Norovirus infection causes stomach flu, or gastroenteritis. It's a very contagious illness with symptoms that include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, fever, headache, chills, and muscle aches. Norovirus infection cannot be treated with antibiotics, so treatment focuses on maintaining proper hydration.
Stomach Flu vs. Food Poisoning
The stomach flu (viral gastroenteritis) and food poisoning are not the same infections. However, they do have a few similar symptoms, for example: Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Fever Abdominal (stomach) pain and cramping. Symptoms and signs of food poisoning show up earlier (2 hours up to a couple of days) in comparison to the stomach flu in which symptoms may take 4 hours up to 48 hours (2 days) before symptoms begin. Medical treatment for the stomach flu and food poisoning generally is not necessary. A bland diet, drinking plenty of fluids, and rest may be the only treatment necessary.
Children's health is focused on the well-being of children from conception through adolescence. There are many aspects of children's health, including growth and development, illnesses, injuries, behavior, mental illness, family health, and community health.
Intussusception is the telescoping (prolapse) of a portion of the intestine within another immediately adjacent portion of intestine. Intussusception affects children between the ages of 3 months and 5 years of age. The causes of intussusception is not clearly understood. Symptoms of intussusception include bilious vomiting, "currant jelly stool," and colicky abdominal pain. Intussusception is an emergency requires immediate attention.
Is Norovirus Contagious?
Noroviruses cause food poisoning symptoms in infected individuals. Norovirus is transmitted via direct and indirect contact. Infections typically resolve in 24-72 hours. Symptoms of norovirus include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, fever, headache, and body aches.
Reye's syndrome (RS or Reye syndrome) is a sudden, sometimes fatal, disease of the brain with degeneration of the liver. Reye syndrome is associated with giving children medications containing aspirin. Symptoms include vomiting, listlessness, irritability or combativeness, confusion, delirium, delusions, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. Treatment depends on early diagnosis and focuses on protecting the brain against irreversible damage by reducing brain swelling, reversing the metabolic injury, preventing complications in the lungs, and anticipating cardiac arrest.
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Prevention & Wellness
- U.S. Cases of Infant Gut Illness Plummet After Vaccine Introduced
- Health Tip: Prevent Rotavirus
- Vaccine Campaign in Poor Countries to Save 20 Million Lives
- Rotavirus Vaccine Cut Kids' Hospitalization, Medical Costs
- Day Care Babies Catch Stomach Bugs Earlier, But Get Fewer Later
- Norovirus a Costly Bug
- The Rise of the Do-It-Yourself Fecal Transplant
- Multistate Foodborne Illness Outbreaks the Most Deadly: CDC
- Widespread Vaccination Fights Serious Stomach Infection in Kids: CDC
- Vaccination Can Cut Rates of Common Infection in Infants
- Most U.S. Babies Get Their Vaccines: CDC
- Childhood Vaccines Vindicated Once More
- Vaccine for Infant Tummy Bug Cuts Hospitalizations: CDC
- Common Infant Vaccine Tied to Slight Rise in Risk for Bowel Complication
- Stomach Bug Vaccine for Infants Protects Entire Community: CDC
- 'Cruise Ship Virus' Also Sickens 1 Million U.S. Kids Yearly
- Vaccinating Kids Against Common Gut Bug Helps Shield Adults Too: Study
- Childhood Vaccination Rates Remain High, CDC Says
- Vaccinations Belong on Parents' Back-to-School Checklists
- Rotavirus Vaccine Not Linked to Risk of Intestinal Disorder
- Rotavirus Vaccine Linked to Bowel Disorder
- Health Tip: Treating Rotavirus at Home
- Rotavirus Vaccine Trials Show Positive Results in Africa, Asia
- Rotavirus Vaccine Helps Kids Avoid Severe Gastro Illness
- FDA: Rotavirus Vaccines Safe Despite Pig Virus
- FDA Asks Docs to Suspend Using Glaxo Rotavirus Vaccine
- Rotavirus Vaccine Could Save Millions of Children Worldwide
- FDA OKs New Rotavirus Vaccine