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- What is rosiglitazone, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for rosiglitazone?
- Is rosiglitazone available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for rosiglitazone?
- What are the side effects of rosiglitazone?
- What is the dosage for rosiglitazone?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with rosiglitazone?
- Is rosiglitazone safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about rosiglitazone?
What is rosiglitazone, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Rosiglitazone is an oral drug that reduces the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. It is used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes and is in a class of anti-diabetic drugs called thiazolidinediones. The other member of this class is pioglitazone (Actos). Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that is important for controlling the levels of glucose in the blood. Insulin stimulates the cells of the body to remove glucose from the blood and thereby lowers the level of glucose in the blood. Patients with type 2 diabetes cannot make enough insulin or are resistant to the effects of insulin (insulin resistance). As a result, the cells in their bodies do not remove enough glucose from the blood, and the level of glucose rises. Rosiglitazone often is referred to as an "insulin sensitizer" because it attaches to the insulin receptors on cells throughout the body and causes the cells to become more sensitive (more responsive) to insulin and remove more glucose from the blood. At least some insulin must be produced by the pancreas in order for rosiglitazone to work. Rosiglitazone was approved by the FDA in May 1999.
What are the side effects of rosiglitazone?
AND PRECAUTIONS The most common side effects seen with rosiglitazone alone or in combination with metformin are:
- upper respiratory tract infection,
- back pain,
- hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar),
- diarrhea, and
- hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
Rosiglitazone has been shown to cause mild to moderate accumulation of fluid (edema) and can lead to heart failure. Patients who already have heart failure may develop worsening symptoms with rosiglitazone. Therefore, rosiglitazone should not be used by patients with heart failure. Rosiglitazone also has been associated with an increased risk of chest pain and heart attacks. The risk of heart attacks may be greater in those with established heart disease and taking nitrates or individuals receiving insulin.
Other important side effects include:
Quick GuideDiabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
What is the dosage for rosiglitazone?
Rosiglitazone may be taken once or twice daily, with or without meals. Daily doses range from 4 to 8 mg either with or without other antidiabetic medications. There is no additional benefit for doses greater than 8 mg per day.
Which drugs or supplements interact with rosiglitazone?
Rifampin decreases concentrations in the blood of rosiglitazone by increasing its breakdown in the liver. Therefore, use of rifampin may decrease the effectiveness of rosiglitazone.
Rosiglitazone should not be combined with nitrates (for example, isosorbide dinitrate [Isordil Titradose, Dilatrate-SR, Isochron]). In clinical trials, the risk of chest pain and heart attacks was greater in individuals on nitrate therapy.
Is rosiglitazone safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
There are no adequate studies of rosiglitazone in pregnant women. Rosiglitazone crosses the placenta and is detectable in fetal tissue.
It is unknown if rosiglitazone is secreted in breast milk. Therefore, the safety of rosiglitazone to nursing infants also is unknown.
What else should I know about rosiglitazone?
What preparations of rosiglitazone are available?
Tablets: 2, 4, and 8 mg.
How should I keep rosiglitazone stored?
Tablets should be kept at room temperature, 15 C -30 C (59 F -86 F).
Medically reviewed by John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
FDA Prescribing Information for Avandia.
Quick GuideDiabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
Rosiglitazone (Avandia) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes combined with diet and exercise. Avandia is only prescribed under strict FDA regulations to patients who have not responded to treatment with other diabetic medications such as pioglitazone (Actos). Rosiglitazone (Avandia) is to be used in combination with exercise, smoking cessation, diet, and weight control for effective diabetes treatment. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
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FDA Prescribing Information for Avandia.
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Diabetes MellitusDiabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.
The risks for developing type 2 diabetes include family history, ethnicity, birth weight, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Warning signs pointing to an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes include
- irregular menstruation,
- inflammatory markers, and
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Gestational diabetes is also a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Prevention of type 2 diabetes can be achieved through a healthy diet (Mediterranean diet), exercise, weight control, not smoking, and medication.
Diabetes TreatmentThe major goal in treating diabetes is controlling elevated blood sugar without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with:
- and a diabetic diet.
- weight reduction,
- a diabetic diet,
- and exercise.
Diabetic Home Care and MonitoringManaging your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.
Drug InteractionsDrug interactions occur frequently. Get facts about the types of drug interactions, what substances or other things that may interact with drugs such as OTC drug and prescription drugs, vitamins, food(s) (grapefruit), and laboratory tests. Find out how to protect yourself from potential drug interactions.
Drugs: What You Should Know About Your DrugsImportant information about your drugs should be reviewed prior to taking any prescription drug. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precauctions, dosage, what the drug is used for, what to do if you miss a dose, how the drug is to be stored, and generic vs. brand names.
Fatty LiverNonalcoholic fatty liver disease occurs due to the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within the liver. Fatty liver most likely caused by obesity and diabetes. Symptoms of fatty liver disease are primarily the complications of cirrhosis of the liver; and may include:
- mental changes,
- liver cancer,
- the accumulation of fluid in the body (ascites, edema), and
- gastrointestinal bleeding.
- weight loss, and
- bariatric surgery.
Metabolic SyndromeThe main features of metabolic syndrome include insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), cholesterol abnormalities, and an increased risk for clotting. Patients are most often overweight or obese. Lifestyle modification such as the Mediterranean diet, exercise, and quitting smoking are the preferred treatment of metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic SyndromeMetabolic syndrome is serious and you should be concerned. Learn the causes, symptoms, treatments, and complications of metabolic syndrome with our quick quiz.
Actos (pioglitazone) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Side effects include:
- Sore throat
- Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
- Tooth disorders
- Upper respiratory tract infection
Drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Avandamet (rosiglitazone and metformin) is a combination drug prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjunction with exercise and diet. Side effects include
- Upset stomach
Drug interactions, dosage, storage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes Similarities Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by:
Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.)
- Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!)
- Lack of activity
While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include:
- Increased urination
- Increased hunger
- Increased thirst
- Unexplained weight loss.
However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which a person's pancreas does not produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body. Causes of type 2 diabetes are a sedentary lifestyle, eating excess sugar and carbohydrates, lack of exercise, being overweight, and genetics. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are often subtle, but may include:
- Urine odor
- Unintentional weight gain or loss
- Frequent urination
- Dark skin under the chin, armpits, or groin
Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed by a blood test. Treatment for type 2 diabetes are a healthy type 2 diabetes diet, exercise, stress reduction, and medication. Type 2 diabetes is a preventable disease. Incorporating healthy lifestyle changes (for example, eating a healthy diet, exercising more, and reducing stress) can prevent type 2 diabetes.