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- What is rosiglitazone, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for rosiglitazone?
- Is rosiglitazone available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for rosiglitazone?
- What are the side effects of rosiglitazone?
- What is the dosage for rosiglitazone?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with rosiglitazone?
- Is rosiglitazone safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about rosiglitazone?
What is rosiglitazone, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Rosiglitazone is an oral drug that reduces the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. It is used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes and is in a class of anti-diabetic drugs called thiazolidinediones. The other member of this class is pioglitazone (Actos). Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that is important for controlling the levels of glucose in the blood. Insulin stimulates the cells of the body to remove glucose from the blood and thereby lowers the level of glucose in the blood. Patients with type 2 diabetes cannot make enough insulin or are resistant to the effects of insulin (insulin resistance). As a result, the cells in their bodies do not remove enough glucose from the blood, and the level of glucose rises. Rosiglitazone often is referred to as an "insulin sensitizer" because it attaches to the insulin receptors on cells throughout the body and causes the cells to become more sensitive (more responsive) to insulin and remove more glucose from the blood. At least some insulin must be produced by the pancreas in order for rosiglitazone to work. Rosiglitazone was approved by the FDA in May 1999.
What are the side effects of rosiglitazone?
AND PRECAUTIONS The most common side effects seen with rosiglitazone alone or in combination with metformin are:
- upper respiratory tract infection,
- back pain,
- hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar),
- diarrhea, and
- hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
Rosiglitazone has been shown to cause mild to moderate accumulation of fluid (edema) and can lead to heart failure. Patients who already have heart failure may develop worsening symptoms with rosiglitazone. Therefore, rosiglitazone should not be used by patients with heart failure. Rosiglitazone also has been associated with an increased risk of chest pain and heart attacks. The risk of heart attacks may be greater in those with established heart disease and taking nitrates or individuals receiving insulin.
Other important side effects include:
Quick GuideDiabetes Diet: Healthy Meal Plans for Diabetes-Friendly Eating
What is the dosage for rosiglitazone?
Rosiglitazone may be taken once or twice daily, with or without meals. Daily doses range from 4 to 8 mg either with or without other antidiabetic medications. There is no additional benefit for doses greater than 8 mg per day.
Which drugs or supplements interact with rosiglitazone?
Rifampin decreases concentrations in the blood of rosiglitazone by increasing its breakdown in the liver. Therefore, use of rifampin may decrease the effectiveness of rosiglitazone.
Rosiglitazone should not be combined with nitrates (for example, isosorbide dinitrate [Isordil Titradose, Dilatrate-SR, Isochron]). In clinical trials, the risk of chest pain and heart attacks was greater in individuals on nitrate therapy.
Is rosiglitazone safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
There are no adequate studies of rosiglitazone in pregnant women. Rosiglitazone crosses the placenta and is detectable in fetal tissue.
It is unknown if rosiglitazone is secreted in breast milk. Therefore, the safety of rosiglitazone to nursing infants also is unknown.
What else should I know about rosiglitazone?
What preparations of rosiglitazone are available?
Tablets: 2, 4, and 8 mg.
How should I keep rosiglitazone stored?
Tablets should be kept at room temperature, 15 C -30 C (59 F -86 F).
Rosiglitazone (Avandia) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes combined with diet and exercise. Avandia is only prescribed under strict FDA regulations to patients who have not responded to treatment with other diabetic medications such as pioglitazone (Actos). Rosiglitazone (Avandia) is to be used in combination with exercise, smoking cessation, diet, and weight control for effective diabetes treatment. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
FDA Prescribing Information for Avandia.
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Prediabetes is a condition in which a person has early symptoms of diabetes, but have not yet fully developed the condition. If prediabetes is not treated with lifestyle changes, the person will develop type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes can be prevented with lifestyle changes, for example, eating a healthy diet, getting more physical activity, reducing stress, quit smoking, and reducing or managing blood pressure and cholesterol, and managing any other health conditions or risk factors that you may have for developing type 2 diabetes.
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Actos (pioglitazone) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Side effects include:
- Sore throat
- Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
- Tooth disorders
- Upper respiratory tract infection
Drug interactions, warnings and precautions, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Avandamet (rosiglitazone and metformin) is a combination drug prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes in conjunction with exercise and diet. Side effects include
- Upset stomach
Drug interactions, dosage, storage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes Similarities Differences
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by:
Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.)
- Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!)
- Lack of activity
While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include:
- Increased urination
- Increased hunger
- Increased thirst
- Unexplained weight loss.
However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which a person's pancreas does not produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body. Causes of type 2 diabetes are a sedentary lifestyle, eating excess sugar and carbohydrates, lack of exercise, being overweight, and genetics. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are often subtle, but may include fatigue, urine odor, unintentional