- Atrial Fibrillation Slideshow: Causes, Tests and Treatment
- Atrial Fibrillation (A-Fib) Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
- A Visual Guide to Heart Disease
- What is rivaroxaban, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for rivaroxaban?
- Is rivaroxaban available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for rivaroxaban?
- What are the uses for rivaroxaban?
- What are the side effects of rivaroxaban?
- What is the dosage for rivaroxaban?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with rivaroxaban?
- Is rivaroxaban safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about rivaroxaban?
What is rivaroxaban, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Xarelto is an oral anticoagulant (blood thinner) that is used to prevent and treat blood clots. Blood clots formed in the heart are dangerous since they can travel to the brain and cause a stroke. Similarly, blood clots formed in the legs or lungs can be equally life threatening if not treated. Xarelto is a selective inhibitor of factor Xa, an enzyme necessary to form blood clots. It reduces the ability of blood to clot. The FDA approved Xarelto in July, 2011.
What are the uses for rivaroxaban?
Xarelto is a prescription medicine used to:
- reduce the risk of stroke and blood clots in patients with atrial fibrillation not due to a heart valve problem,
- treat and reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT, blood clots in the veins of the legs) and pulmonary embolism (PE, blood clots in the lungs) and
- reduce the risk of blood clots in the legs and lungs of patients who have just had hip or knee replacement surgery.
What are the side effects of rivaroxaban?
The most common side effect of Xarelto is bleeding. The risk of bleeding is higher when Xarelto is taken with medicines such as aspirin or aspirin-containing products, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven), heparin, clopidogrel (Plavix), and other medicines used to prevent or treat blood clots.
Some rare but serious cases of bleeding and paralysis have been reported with the use of Xarelto in patients undergoing spinal or epidural procedures. Risk is highest in patients who have problems with their spine, use indwelling epidural catheters, have had spinal surgery, or use other medicines that prevent clotting or make them more likely to bleed.
Other common side effects of Xarelto include:
Serious side effects of Xarelto include:
Quick GuideAtrial Fibrillation: Heart Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Afib Treatment
What is the dosage for rivaroxaban?
- To reduce the risk of stroke in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, patients with creatinine clearance (a measure of kidney function) >50 ml/min should be given 20 mg once a day with the evening meal. (Xarelto is better absorbed if it is given with food.) Patients with creatinine clearance between 15 to 50 ml/min should be given 15 mg once a day with the evening meal.
- To treat blood DVT or pulmonary embolism, 15 mg is administered by mouth twice daily with food for the first 21 days, followed by 20 mg once daily with food for 6 months.
- To reduce the risk of recurrence of DVT or pulmonary embolism, 20 mg should be administered by mouth once daily with food.
- To prevent DVT following hip replacement surgery, 10 mg is administered by mouth once daily for 35 days.
- To prevent DVT following knee replacement surgery, 10 mg is administered by mouth once daily for 12 days.
- When switching from warfarin (Coumadin) to rivaroxaban, warfarin should be stopped and then rivaroxaban started as soon as the international normalized ratio (a measure of the effects of warfarin) is < 3.0.
- When switching from blood thinning medicines other than warfarin to rivaroxaban, rivaroxaban should be started up to 2 hours before or at the time of the next scheduled evening dose.
- Use of rivaroxaban is not recommended in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) and severe (Child-Pugh C) liver disease or another type of liver disease associated with blood disorders.
- To avoid serious side effects rivaroxaban should not be used in patients with significantly reduced kidney function defined as creatinine clearance <30 ml/min.
- Patients who are having difficulty swallowing whole tablets can crush the 10 mg, 15 mg, and 20 mg tablets and mix with applesauce immediately before use.
- Note: While the 15 and 20 mg tablets should be taken with food, the 10 mg tablets can be taken with or without food.
Which drugs or supplements interact with rivaroxaban?
The CYP3A4 liver enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug transporter systems are primarily responsible for metabolizing and removing Xarelto from the body. Taking Xarelto with medicines that alter the activity of both the CYP3A4 enzymes and P-gp drug transporters may affect blood levels of Xarelto. Xarelto should not be taken with:
- ketoconazole (Nizoral),
- ritonavir (Norvir),
- clarithromycin (Biaxin),
- erythromycin (Ery-Tabs),
- fluconazole (Diflucan),
- carbamazepine (Tegretol),
- phenytoin (Dilantin),
- rifampin (Rimactane), or,
- St. John's Wort.
Xarelto should not be used with other blood thinners due to the increased risk of bleeding.
Is rivaroxaban safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- Due to the lack of conclusive safety data, Xarelto should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Xarelto is classified as FDA pregnancy risk category C (animal studies show harm but there are no adequate studies in humans).
- It is not known if Xarelto is excreted in breast milk. Because many drugs enter human milk and have the potential of causing harm to the nursing baby, Xarelto should be used cautiously in nursing mothers.
What else should I know about rivaroxaban?
What preparations of rivaroxaban are available?
Oral tablets: 10, 15, and 20 mg.
How should I keep rivaroxaban stored?
Tablets should be stored at room temperature, between 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F).
FDA Prescribing Information.
Quick GuideAtrial Fibrillation: Heart Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Afib Treatment
Rivaroxaban (Xarelto) is a blood thinner prescribed to reduce the risk of blood clots in patients with atrial fibrillation (not due to a heart problem), treat and reduce the risk of blood clots in the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT) and blood clots in the lung (pulmonary embolism), and to reduce the risk of blood clots in the legs and lungs of patients who have just had hip or knee replacement. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing, storage, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
DVT in Pictures: Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis, Beyond Leg Pain and More
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a dangerous and sometimes fatal blood clot that occurs deep within the lower leg or thigh....
Atrial Fibrillation: Heart Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Afib Treatment
Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of abnormal heart rhythm. Atrial fibrillation or AF can lead to serious heart...
Atrial Fibrillation (A-Fib) Quiz: Test Your Medical IQ
Learn the causes, symptoms, and treatments of the common heart abnormality known as atrial fibrillation (A-fib)....
DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis) and Pulmonary Embolism (PE) Quiz
Take the Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Quiz to learn causes, symptoms, and treatments for these two dangerous...
Picture of Hip Fracture
Hip fractures typically occur as a result of a fall. See a picture of Hip Fracture and learn more about the health topic....
Atrial Fibrillation (AFib): Tips for Living with Atrial Fibrillation
What is atrial fibrillation? Learn how to making living with atrial fibrillation (AFib) easier. Explore tips that can help you...
Related Disease Conditions
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT, Blood Clot in the Legs)
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in the deep veins, and can be caused by broken bones, trauma to a limb, immobility,...
Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins,...
Pulmonary Embolism (Blood Clot in the Lung)
A pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs when a piece of a blood clot from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) breaks off and travels to an artery...
Atrial Fibrillation (AF, AFib)
Atrial fibrillation (AF or AFib) is an abnormality in the heart rhythm which involves irregular and often rapid beating of the...
Atrial flutter is a problem with the atria of the heart. In atrial flutter the atria of the heart rapidly and repeatedly beat...
Atrial Fibrillation Symptoms (AFib Warning Signs)
Atrial fibrillation or AFib is a type of hear rhythm abnormality. Early warning signs and symptoms of atrial fibrillation...
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
Prevention & Wellness
- Pradaxa Beats Warfarin After Heart Rhythm Procedure: Study
- Some Increased Bleeding Risk Seen With Blood Thinner Xarelto Vs. Pradaxa
- Aspirin Often Wrongly Prescribed for Atrial Fibrillation
- Is Daily Blood Thinner Needed for Irregular Heartbeat?
- Widely Used Heart Drug Tied to Dementia Risk
- Many With Irregular Heartbeat Missing Out on Stroke-Preventing Treatments
- The Pill, Hormone Therapy Safe for Women Taking Blood Thinners: Study
- Most Don't Need 'Bridging' When They Stop Warfarin Temporarily
Daily Health News
Heart Health Resources
Subscribe to MedicineNet's Heart Health Newsletter
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
FDA Prescribing Information.
Top rivaroxaban Related ArticlesComplete List
Anticoagulants drug class of blood thinners
Anticoagulants are drugs that inhibits blood clots from forming in the veins and arteries of the body. There are a variety of uses for these drugs, which include the treatment or prevention of:
- Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
- Blood clot in the lung (pulmonary embolism)
- Blood clots during AFib
- Heart attack
Common side effects of anticoagulants include:
- Flatulence (intestinal gas)
- Local injection site reactions
- Bruises caused by trauma (ecchymosis)
Drug and supplement interactions and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety should be reviewed prior to using anticoagulant drugs.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or AFib) is an abnormality in the heart rhythm which involves irregular and often rapid beating of the heart. Symptoms may include:
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
Treatment may include medication or procedures like cardioversion or ablation to normalize the heart rate.
Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) Warning Symptoms
Atrial fibrillation or AFib is a type of hear rhythm abnormality. Early warning signs and symptoms of atrial fibrillation include:
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
Treatment for atrial fibrillation includes medical procedures, surgery, and medication.
Atrial Fibrillation QuizLearn the causes, symptoms, and treatments of the common heart abnormality known as atrial fibrillation (A-fib).
A-Fib SlideshowAtrial fibrillation is the most common type of abnormal heart rhythm. Atrial fibrillation or AF can lead to serious heart complications like stroke. Risks associated with AFib are related to heart rhythm changes. Treating atrial fibrillation addresses these changes in heartbeat.
Atrial flutter is a problem with the atria of the heart. In atrial flutter the atria of the heart rapidly and repeatedly beat due to an anomaly in the electrical system of the heart. It is a type of arrhythmia and can be dangerous because complications can develop easily. Signs and symptoms of atrial flutter include:
- Near fainting
- Mild shortness of breath
While the exact cause of this condition is not clearly understood, it's most likely related to your health, what medical conditions you certainly have, poor diet, lack of exercise, and drinking too much alcohol.
This condition is diagnosed by physical examination, medical history, and a sawtooth ECG wave pattern.
Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins, bladder, urinary tract and uterus. Risk factors for causes of blood clots include
- high blood pressure and cholesterol,
- smoking, and
- family history.
Symptoms of a blood clot depend on the location of the clot. Some blood clots are a medical emergency. Blood clots are treated depending upon the cause of the clot. Blood clots can be prevented by lowering the risk factors for developing blood clots.
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in the deep veins, and can be caused by broken bones, trauma to a limb, immobility, medications, smoking, cancer, genetic predisposition, and cancer. Symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis in a leg are
- warmth, and
Treatment for DVT include medications and surgery.
Take the DVT QuizTake the Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Quiz to learn causes, symptoms, and treatments for these two dangerous conditions.
DVT SlideshowDeep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a dangerous and sometimes fatal blood clot that occurs deep within the lower leg or thigh. Understand the symptoms, treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
Hip Fracture PictureHip fractures typically occur as a result of a fall. See a picture of Hip Fracture and learn more about the health topic.
Living with Atrial FibrillationWhat is atrial fibrillation? Learn how to making living with atrial fibrillation (AFib) easier. Explore tips that can help you manage an irregular heartbeat.
Pulmonary EmbolismA pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs when a piece of a blood clot from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) breaks off and travels to an artery in the lung where it blocks the artery and damages the lung. The most common symptoms of a pulmonary embolism are shortness of breath, chest pain, and a rapid heart rate. Causes of pulmonary embolism include prolonged immobilization, certain medications, smoking, cancer, pregnancy, and surgery. Promt medical attention should be sought if you think you or someome you know has a pulmonary embolus.
Total Hip ReplacementDuring total hip replacement, diseased hip cartilage and bone is replaced with artificial materials. Risks of the surgery include blood clots in the lower extremities, difficulty with urination, infection, bone fracture, scarring, limited range of motion, and prosthesis failure.
Total Knee ReplacementDuring total knee replacement surgery, the diseased knee joint is replaced with artificial material. The risks include blood clots in the legs, urinary tract infection, nausea and vomiting, chronic knee pain, nerve damage, and infection.