Reviewed on 6/11/2021
Other Name(s):

Arctic Root, Extrait de Rhodiole, Golden Root, Hongjingtian, King's Crown, Lignum Rhodium, Orpin Rose, Racine d'Or, Racine Dorée, Racine de Rhadiola, Rhodiola rosea, Rhodiole, Rhodiole Rougeâtre, Rodia Riza, Rose Root, Rose Root Extract, Rosenroot, Roseroot, Rosewort, Sedum rhodiola, Sedum rosea, Siberian Golden Root, Siberian Rhodiola Rosea, Snowdown Rose.


Rhodiola is a plant. The root is used as medicine.

Rhodiola is used for many conditions, but so far, there isn't enough scientific evidence to determine whether or not it is effective for any of them.

Rhodiola is used for increasing energy, stamina, strength and mental capacity; and as a so-called “adaptogen” to help the body adapt to and resist physical, chemical, and environmental stress. It is also used for improving athletic performance, shortening recovery time after long workouts, improving sexual function; for depression; and for heart disorders such as irregular heartbeat and high cholesterol.

Some people use rhodiola for treating cancer, tuberculosis, and diabetes; preventing cold and flu, aging, and liver damage; improving hearing; strengthening the nervous system; and enhancing immunity.

Rhodiola is native to the arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and Alaska. It has a long history of use as a medicinal plant in Iceland, Sweden, France, Russia, and Greece. It is mentioned by the Greek physician Dioscorides as early as the first century AD.

Some people use the term “arctic root” as the general name for this product; however, arctic root is actually a trademarked name for a specific commercial extract.

How does it work?

Rhodiola extracts might help protect cells from damage, regulate heartbeat, and have the potential for improving learning and memory. However, none of these effects have been studied in humans.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Uses & Effectiveness

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Altitude sickness. There is unclear evidence on the effect of rhodiola for preventing altitude sickness. In an early study, taking rhodiola twice daily improved sleep quality and oxygen absorption in to the blood as well as an altitude sickness medication (acetazolamide) in adults living at high altitudes. Another study found that rhodiola did not improve symptoms.
  • Improving athletic performance. There is conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of rhodiola in improving athletic performance.
  • Bladder cancer. Early research suggests that rhodiola might provide some benefits in bladder cancer, but does not reduce the risk for relapse.
  • Depression. Early research shows that taking rhodiola might improve symptoms of depression after 6 weeks of treatment in people with mild-to-moderately severe depression.
  • Fatigue. Early evidence suggests that rhodiola might decrease fatigue in stressful situations. A specific rhodiola extract seems to decrease fatigue and increase a sense of well-being in students taking exams, night-shift workers, and sleep-deprived military cadets.
  • Anxiety. Early evidence suggests that specific rhodiola extract (Rhodax) might lower anxiety in people with a condition called generalized anxiety disorder.
  • Tuberculosis. An early study found that taking a product containing rhodiola (Immunoxel) daily for three months along with anti-tuberculosis therapy provided beneficial results. The effect of rhodiola alone is unclear.
  • Stress-associated heart disorders.
  • High cholesterol.
  • Irregular heartbeat.
  • Cancer.
  • Aging.
  • Diabetes.
  • Hearing loss.
  • Sexual problems.
  • Increasing energy.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of rhodiola for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Rhodiola is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth, short-term (for up to 6-10 weeks). The safety of long-term use is not known. The potential side effects of rhodiola are not known.


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information about the safety of taking Rhodiola if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.


EscitalopramInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Escitalopram is changed and broken down by the body. Rhodiola might change how the body breaks down some medications. Taking rhodiola along with escitalopram might increase the side effects of escitalopram. Before taking rhodiola, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the body.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Rhodiola might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking rhodiola along with some medications that are changed by the liver can decrease the effectiveness of some medications. Before taking rhodiola, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Rhodiola might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking rhodiola along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Using rhodiola with drugs that lower blood pressure can increase the effects of these drugs and may lower blood pressure too much.

Some medications for high blood pressure include include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Medications moved by pumps in cells (P-Glycoprotein Substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are moved by pumps in cells. Rhodiola can make these pumps more active and decrease how much of some medications get absorbed by the body. This might decrease the effectiveness of some medications.

Some medications that are moved by these pumps include some chemotherapeutic agents (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine), antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole), protease inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir), H2 antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine), some calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, verapamil), corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (Propulsid), fexofenadine (Allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (Imodium), quinidine, and others.

Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Rhodiola increases the activity of the immune system. Taking rhodiola along with medications that decrease the immune system might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.

Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.


The appropriate dose of rhodiola depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for rhodiola. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors


Abidov, M., Crendal, F., Grachev, S., Seifulla, R., and Ziegenfuss, T. Effect of extracts from Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola crenulata (Crassulaceae) roots on ATP content in mitochondria of skeletal muscles. Bull Exp.Biol.Med 2003;136(6):585-587. View abstract.

Afanas'ev, S. A., Alekseeva, E. D., Bardamova, I. B., Maslova, L. V., and Lishmanov, IuB. [Cardiac contractile function following acute cooling of the body and the adaptogenic correction of its disorders]. Biull.Eksp.Biol.Med 1993;116(11):480-483. View abstract.

Ahumada F. Effect of Certain Adaptogenic Plant Extracts on Drug-Induced Narcosis in Female and Male Mice. Phytotherapy Research 1991;5

Altantsetseg, K., Przybyl, J. L., Weglarz, Z., and Geszprych, A. Content of biologically active compounds in roseroot (Rhodiola sp.) raw material of different derivation. Herba Polonica (Poland) 2007;53:20-26.

Arora, R., Chawla, R., Sagar, R., Prasad, J., Singh, S., Kumar, R., Sharma, A., Singh, S., and Sharma, R. K. Evaluation of radioprotective activities Rhodiola imbricata Edgew--a high altitude plant. Mol.Cell Biochem 2005;273(1-2):209-223. View abstract.

Arora, R., Singh, S., Sagar, R. K., Chawla, R., Kumar, P., and Puri, S. C. Radiomodulatory and free-radical scavenging activity of the fractionated aquo-alcoholic extract of the adaptogenic nutraceutical (Rhodiola imbricata) -- a comparative in vitro assessment with ascorbate. Journal of Dietary Supplements 2008;5(2):147-63.

Baranov VB. Experimental trials of herbal adaptogen effect on the quality of operation activity, mental and professional work capacity. Contract 93-11-615 Stage 2 Phase I. Moscow, Russia: Russian Federation Ministry of Health Institute of Medical and Biological Problems 1994;

Bawa, A. S. and Khanum, F. Anti-inflammatory activity of Rhodiola rosea--"a second-generation adaptogen". Phytother.Res 2009;23(8):1099-1102. View abstract.

Blomkvist, J., Taube, A., and Larhammar, D. Perspective on Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea) studies. Planta Med 2009;75(11):1187-1190. View abstract.

Bocharov, E. V., Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I. A., Poleshchuk, V. V., Kucheryanu, V. G., Il'enko, V. A., and Bocharova, O. A. Therapeutic efficacy of the neuroprotective plant adaptogen in neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson's disease as an example). Bull Exp.Biol Med 2010;149(6):682-684. View abstract.

Bocharov, E. V., Kucherianu, V. G., Bocharova, O. A., and Karpova, R. V. [Neuroprotective features of phytoadaptogens]. Vestn.Ross.Akad.Med Nauk 2008;(4):47-50. View abstract.

Bol'shakova, I. V., Lozovskaia, E. L., and Sapezhinskii, I. I. [Antioxidant properties of a series of extracts from medicinal plants]. Biofizika 1997;42(2):480-483. View abstract.

Boon-Niermeijer, E. K., van den, Berg A., Wikman, G., and Wiegant, F. A. Phyto-adaptogens protect against environmental stress-induced death of embryos from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(5):389-399. View abstract.

Brichenko VS, Kupriyanova IE Skorokhova TF. The use of herbal adaptogens with tricyclic antidepressants in patients with psychogenic depression. Modern Problems of Pharmacology and Search for New Medicines.Tomsk, Russia: Tomsk State University Press 1986;58-60.

Calcabrini, C., De, Bellis R., Mancini, U., Cucchiarini, L., Potenza, L., De, Sanctis R., Patrone, V., Scesa, C., and Dacha, M. Rhodiola rosea ability to enrich cellular antioxidant defences of cultured human keratinocytes. Arch Dermatol Res 2010;302(3):191-200. View abstract.

Cao, L. L., Du, G. H., and Wang, M. W. The effect of salidroside on cell damage induced by glutamate and intracellular free calcium in PC12 cells. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2006;8(1-2):159-165. View abstract.

Challem, J. Medical journal watch:context and applications. Rhodiola may help treat anxiety. Alternative & Complementary Therapies 2008;14(4):220-221.

Chang, Y. W., Yao, H. T., Hsieh, S. H., Lu, T. J., and Yeh, T. K. Quantitative determination of salidroside in rat plasma by on-line solid-phase extraction integrated with high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life Sci 9-15-2007;857(1):164-169. View abstract.

Chen, C. H., Chan, H. C., Chu, Y. T., Ho, H. Y., Chen, P. Y., Lee, T. H., and Lee, C. K. Antioxidant activity of some plant extracts towards xanthine oxidase, lipoxygenase and tyrosinase. Molecules. 2009;14(8):2947-2958. View abstract.

Chen, Q. G., Zeng, Y. S., Qu, Z. Q., Tang, J. Y., Qin, Y. J., Chung, P., Wong, R., and Hagg, U. The effects of Rhodiola rosea extract on 5-HT level, cell proliferation and quantity of neurons at cerebral hippocampus of depressive rats. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(9):830-838. View abstract.

Chen, Q. G., Zeng, Y. S., Tang, J. Y., Qin, Y. J., Chen, S. J., and Zhong, Z. Q. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on body weight and intake of sucrose and water in depressive rats induced by chronic mild stress]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Xue.Bao. 2008;6(9):952-955. View abstract.

Chen, T. S., Liou, S. Y., and Chang, Y. L. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogen extracts. Am J Chin Med 2008;36(6):1209-1217. View abstract.

Chen, X., Zhang, Q., Cheng, Q., and Ding, F. Protective effect of salidroside against H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2009;332(1-2):85-93. View abstract.

Chen, Z. G., Lu, Y., Wang, Z. T., Tao, X. Y., and Wei, D. Z. Protective effects of salidroside on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by sodium hydrosulfite in PC12 cells. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2007;45:604-612.

Cui, L. H., Wang, Y. H., Zhang, X. Z., Li, B., Wang, H. Y., Ma, G. Q., and Ha, Z. D. [Effect of several Chinese herbs on free radical metabolism of patients with de-adaptation to high] 2006.(The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR/CENTRAL)). The Cochrane Library 2010;(1)

Dascaliuc, A., Calugaru-Spatatu, T., Ciocarlan, A., Costica, M, and Mrozikiewicz, P. M. Chemical composition of golden root (Rhodiola rosea L.) rhizomes of Carpathian origin. Herba Polonica (Poland) 2008;54:17-27.

de la, Puerta R., Ruiz, Gutierrez, V, and Hoult, J. R. Inhibition of leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase by phenolics from virgin olive oil. Biochem.Pharmacol. 2-15-1999;57(4):445-449. View abstract.

De Sanctis, R., De Bellis, R., Scesa, C., Mancini, U., Cucchiarini, L., and Dacha, M. In vitro protective effect of Rhodiola rosea extract against hypochlorous acid-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes. Biofactors 2004;20(3):147-159. View abstract.

Dement'eva, L. A. and Iaremenko, K. V. [Effect of a Rhodiola extract on the tumor process in an experiment]. Vopr.Onkol 1987;33(7):57-60. View abstract.

Duhan, O. M., Baryliak, I. R., Nester, T. I., Dvornyk, A. S., and Kunakh, V. A. [The antimutagenic activity of biomass extracts from the cultured cells of medicinal plants in the Ames test]. Tsitol.Genet. 1999;33(6):19-25. View abstract.

Earnest, C. P., Morss, G. M., Wyatt, F., Jordan, A. N., Colson, S., Church, T. S., Fitzgerald, Y., Autrey, L., Jurca, R., and Lucia, A. Effects of a commercial herbal-based formula on exercise performance in cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(3):504-509. View abstract.

Evdokimov, V. G. [Effect of cryopowder Rhodiola rosae L. on cardiorespiratory parameters and physical performance of humans]. Aviakosm.Ekolog.Med 2009;43(6):52-56. View abstract.

Evstatieva, L., Todorova, M., Antonova, D., and Staneva, J. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Rhodiola rosea L. of three different origins. Pharmacogn.Mag. 2010;6(24):256-258. View abstract.

Fintelmann, V. and Gruenwald, J. Efficacy and tolerability of a Rhodiola rosea extract in adults with physical and cognitive deficiencies. Adv.Ther 2007;24(4):929-939. View abstract.

Gao, D., Li, Q., Liu, Z., Feng, J., Li, J., Han, Z., and Duan, Y. Antidiabetic potential of Rhodiola sachalinensis root extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods Find.Exp.Clin Pharmacol 2009;31(6):375-381. View abstract.

Gao, X. F., Shi, H. M., Sun, T., and Ao, H. Effects of Radix et Rhizoma Rhodiolae Kirilowii on expressions of von Willebrand factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in myocardium of rats with acute myocardial infarction. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Xue.Bao. 2009;7(5):434-440. View abstract.

Grace, M. H., Yousef, G. G., Kurmukov, A. G., Raskin, I., and Lila, M. A. Phytochemical characterization of an adaptogenic preparation from Rhodiola heterodonta. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2009;4(8):1053-1058. View abstract.

Guo, Y., Zhao, Y., Zheng, C., Meng, Y., and Yang, Y. Synthesis, biological activity of salidroside and its analogues. Chem.Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2010;58(12):1627-1629. View abstract.

Gupta, A., Kumar, R., Upadhyay, N. K., Pal, K., Kumar, R., and Sawhney, R. C. Effects of Rhodiola imbricata on dermal wound healing. Planta Med 2007;73(8):774-777. View abstract.

Gupta, V., Lahiri, S. S., Sultana, S., Tulsawani, R. K., and Kumar, R. Anti-oxidative effect of Rhodiola imbricata root extract in rats during cold, hypoxia and restraint (C-H-R) exposure and post-stress recovery. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2010;48(4):1019-1025. View abstract.

Gupta, V., Lahiri, S. S., Sultana, S., Tulsawani, R., and Kumar, R. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Rhodiola imbricate. J Complement Intergr Med 2009;6(1):17p.

Gupta, V., Saggu, S., Tulsawani, R. K., Sawhney, R. C., and Kumar, R. A dose dependent adaptogenic and safety evaluation of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew, a high altitude rhizome. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2008;46(5):1645-1652. View abstract.

Hu, X., Lin, S., Yu, D., Qiu, S., Zhang, X., and Mei, R. A preliminary study: the anti-proliferation effect of salidroside on different human cancer cell lines. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2010;26(6):499-507. View abstract.

Hu, X., Zhang, X., Qiu, S., Yu, D., and Lin, S. Salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 7-16-2010;398(1):62-67. View abstract.

Huang, S. C., Lee, F. T., Kuo, T. Y., Yang, J. H., and Chien, C. T. Attenuation of long-term Rhodiola rosea supplementation on exhaustive swimming-evoked oxidative stress in the rat. Chin J Physiol 10-31-2009;52(5):316-324. View abstract.

Hung, S. K., Perry, R., and Ernst, E. The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Phytomedicine. 2-15-2011;18(4):235-244. View abstract.

Ianbaev, IuN, Bairamgulov, N. R., Red'kina, N. N., and Mullagulov, R. I. [Differentiation among populations of the Rhodiola iremelica Boriss. (Grassulaceae). in the Southern Urals]. Genetika 2007;43(11):1565-1570. View abstract.

Iovieno, N., Dalton, E. D., Fava, M., and Mischoulon, D. Second-tier natural antidepressants: review and critique. J Affect.Disord. 2011;130(3):343-357. View abstract.

Ip, S. P., Che, C. T., and Leung, P. S. Association of free radicals and the tissue renin-angiotensin system: prospective effects of Rhodiola, a genus of Chinese herb, on hypoxia-induced pancreatic injury. JOP. 2001;2(1):16-25. View abstract.

Jafari, M., Felgner, J. S., Bussel, I. I., Hutchili, T., Khodayari, B., Rose, M. R., Vince-Cruz, C., and Mueller, L. D. Rhodiola: a promising anti-aging Chinese herb. Rejuvenation.Res 2007;10(4):587-602. View abstract.

Jager, A. K., Saaby, L., Kudsk, D. S., Witt, K. C., and Molgaard, P. Short communication: Influence of pasteurization on the active compounds in medicinal plants to be used in dairy products. J Dairy Sci 2010;93(6):2351-2353. View abstract.

Jeong, H. J., Ryu, Y. B., Park, S. J., Kim, J. H., Kwon, H. J., Kim, J. H., Park, K. H., Rho, M. C., and Lee, W. S. Neuraminidase inhibitory activities of flavonols isolated from Rhodiola rosea roots and their in vitro anti-influenza viral activities. Bioorg.Med Chem. 10-1-2009;17(19):6816-6823. View abstract.

Kang, S. and Wang, J. [Comparative study of the constituents from 10 Rhodiola plants]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 1997;20(12):616-618. View abstract.

Kanupriya, Prasad, D., Sai, Ram M., Kumar, R., Sawhney, R. C., Sharma, S. K., Ilavazhagan, G., Kumar, D., and Banerjee, P. K. Cytoprotective and antioxidant activity of Rhodiola imbricata against tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in U-937 human macrophages. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2005;275(1-2):1-6. View abstract.

Kiefer, D. Rhodiola rosea for General Anxiety Disorder. Alternative Medicine Alert 2008;11(6):61-65.

Kobayashi, K., Yamada, K., Murata, T., Hasegawa, T., Takano, F., Koga, K., Fushiya, S., Batkhuu, J., and Yoshizaki, F. Constituents of Rhodiola rosea showing inhibitory effect on lipase activity in mouse plasma and alimentary canal. Planta Med 2008;74(14):1716-1719. View abstract.

Krajewska-Patan, A., Dreger, M., Lowicka, A., Gorska-Paukszta, M., and Mrozikiewicz, P. M. Preliminary pharmacological investigations of biotransformed roseroot (Rhodiola rosea L.) callus tissue. Herba Polonica (Poland) 2008;54:50-58.

Krasik ED, Morozova ES Petrova KP Ragulina GA Shemetova LA Shuvaev VP. Therapy of asthenic conditions: clinical perspectives of application of Rhodiola rosea extract (golden root). Proceedings Modern problems in psycho-pharmacology.Kemerovo-city, Russia: Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences 1970;298-330.

Kucinskaite, A., Briedis, V., and Savickas, A. [Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and its possible application in medicine]. Medicina (Kaunas.) 2004;40(7):614-619. View abstract.

Kurkin VA, Zapesochnaya GG. Chemical composition and pharmacological characteristics of Rhodiola rosea. Journal of Medicinal Plants, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 1985;1231-1445.

Lazarova, M. B., Petkov, V. D., Markovska, V. L., Petkov, V. V., and Mosharrof, A. Effects of meclofenoxate and Extr. Rhodiolae roseae L. on electroconvulsive shock-impaired learning and memory in rats. Methods Find.Exp.Clin.Pharmacol. 1986;8(9):547-552. View abstract.

Lee, F. T., Kuo, T. Y., Liou, S. Y., and Chien, C. T. Chronic Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation enforces exhaustive swimming tolerance. Am J Chin Med 2009;37(3):557-572. View abstract.

Lee, O. H., Kwon, Y. I., Apostolidis, E., Shetty, K., and Kim, Y. C. Rhodiola-induced inhibition of adipogenesis involves antioxidant enzyme response associated with pentose phosphate pathway. Phytother.Res 2011;25(1):106-115. View abstract.

Li, C., Chen, D. S., Chen, J., Di, D. L., and Jiang, S. X. [Study on the extraction process for salidroside and p-tyrosol in Rhodiola crenulata]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2006;29(11):1239-1241. View abstract.

Li, C., Yang, C. Q., Zhu, C. F., Ge, Y. R., and Song, Z. W. Preparation and quality control of Rhodiola dispersible tablets. Chinese Journal of New Drugs 2007;16:634-636.

Li, H. B., Ge, Y. K., Zheng, X. X., and Zhang, L. Salidroside stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Eur J Pharmacol 7-7-2008;588(2-3):165-169. View abstract.

Li, T. and Zhang, H. Identification and comparative determination of rhodionin in traditional tibetan medicinal plants of fourteen Rhodiola species by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Chem.Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2008;56(6):807-814. View abstract.

Li, W., Dou, D., and Koike, K. Revised absolute stereochemistry of rhodiolosides A-D, rhodiolol A and sachalinol A from Rhodiola rosea. Chem.Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2008;56(7):1047-1048. View abstract.

Li, X., Ye, X., Li, X., Sun, X., Liang, Q., Tao, L., Kang, X., and Chen, J. Salidroside protects against MPP(+)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by inhibiting the NO pathway. Brain Res 1-15-2011; View abstract.

Linh, P. T., Kim, Y. H., Hong, S. P., Jian, J. J., and Kang, J. S. Quantitative determination of salidroside and tyrosol from the underground part of Rhodiola rosea by high performance liquid chromatography. Arch Pharm Res 2000;23(4):349-352. View abstract.

Liu, Q., Liu, Z. L., and Tian, X. [Phenolic components from Rhodiola dumulosa]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33(4):411-413. View abstract.

Loo, W. T., Jin, L. J., Chow, L. W., Cheung, M. N., and Wang, M. Rhodiola algida improves chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in breast cancer patients. Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2010;19 Suppl 1:S91-100. View abstract.

Ma, C., Tang, J., Wang, H., Tao, G., Gu, X., and Hu, L. Preparative purification of salidroside from Rhodiola rosea by two-step adsorption chromatography on resins. J Sep.Sci 2009;32(2):185-191. View abstract.

Ma, L. Q., Liu, B. Y., Gao, D. Y., Pang, X. B., Lu, S. Y., Yu, H. S., Wang, H., Yan, F., Li, Z. Q., Li, Y. F., and Ye, H. C. Molecular cloning and overexpression of a novel UDP-glucosyltransferase elevating salidroside levels in Rhodiola sachalinensis. Plant Cell Rep. 2007;26(7):989-999. View abstract.

Maimeskulova, L. A. and Maslov, L. N. [Anti-arrhythmic effect of phytoadaptogens]. Eksp.Klin.Farmakol. 2000;63(4):29-31. View abstract.

Maimeskulova, L. A. and Maslov, L. N. [The anti-arrhythmia action of an extract of Rhodiola rosea and of n-tyrosol in models of experimental arrhythmias]. Eksp.Klin.Farmakol. 1998;61(2):37-40. View abstract.

Mao, G. X., Wang, Y., Qiu, Q., Deng, H. B., Yuan, L. G., Li, R. G., Song, D. Q., Li, Y. Y., Li, D. D., and Wang, Z. Salidroside protects human fibroblast cells from premature senescence induced by H(2)O(2) partly through modulating oxidative status. Mech.Ageing Dev 2010;131(11-12):723-731. View abstract.

Mao, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, X., and Lu, G. Development of an HPLC method for the determination of salidroside in beagle dog plasma after administration of salidroside injection: application to a pharmacokinetics study. J Sep.Sci 2007;30(18):3218-3222. View abstract.

Maslov, L. N. and Lishmanov, IuB. [Cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic properties of Rhodiolae roseae preparations]. Eksp.Klin.Farmakol. 2007;70(5):59-67. View abstract.

Maslov, L. N., Lishmanov, Y. B., Arbuzov, A. G., Krylatov, A. V., Budankova, E. V., Konkovskaya, Y. N., Burkova, V. N., and Severova, E. A. Antiarrhythmic activity of phytoadaptogens in short-term ischemia-reperfusion of the heart and postinfarction cardiosclerosis. Bull Exp.Biol Med 2009;147(3):331-334. View abstract.

Mattioli, L. and Perfumi, M. Rhodiola rosea L. extract reduces stress- and CRF-induced anorexia in rats. J Psychopharmacol. 2007;21(7):742-750. View abstract.

Mishra, K. P., Padwad, Y. S., Dutta, A., Ganju, L., Sairam, M., Banerjee, P. K., and Sawhney, R. C. Aqueous extract of Rhodiola imbricata rhizome inhibits proliferation of an erythroleukemic cell line K-562 by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Immunobiology 2008;213(2):125-131. View abstract.

Mishra, K. P., Padwad, Y. S., Jain, M., Karan, D., Ganju, L., and Sawhney, R. C. Aqueous extract of Rhodiola imbricata rhizome stimulates proinflammatory mediators via phosphorylated IkappaB and transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 2006;28(2):201-212. View abstract.

Nakamura, S., Li, X., Matsuda, H., and Yoshikawa, M. Bioactive constituents from Chinese natural medicines. XXVIII. Chemical structures of acyclic alcohol glycosides from the roots of Rhodiola crenulata. Chem.Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2008;56(4):536-540. View abstract.

Nakamura, S., Li, X., Matsuda, H., Ninomiya, K., Morikawa, T., Yamaguti, K., and Yoshikawa, M. Bioactive constituents from Chinese natural medicines. XXVI. Chemical structures and hepatoprotective effects of constituents from roots of Rhodiola sachalinensis. Chem.Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2007;55(10):1505-1511. View abstract.

Narimanian, M., Badalyan, M., Panosyan, V., Gabrielyan, E., Panossian, A., Wikman, G., and Wagner, H. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine 2005;12(10):723-729. View abstract.

Noreen, E., Buckley, J., and Lewis, S. The effects of an acute dose of Rhodiola rosea on exercise performance and cognitive function. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2009;6(Suppl 1):14p.

Ohsugi, M., Fan, W., Hase, K., Xiong, Q., Tezuka, Y., Komatsu, K., Namba, T., Saitoh, T., Tazawa, K., and Kadota, S. Active-oxygen scavenging activity of traditional nourishing-tonic herbal medicines and active constituents of Rhodiola sacra. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67(1):111-119. View abstract.

Ouyang, J. F., Lou, J., Yan, C., Ren, Z. H., Qiao, H. X., and Hong, D. S. In-vitro promoted differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards hepatocytes induced by salidroside. J Pharm Pharmacol 2010;62(4):530-538. View abstract.

Panossian, A. and Wagner, H. Stimulating effect of adaptogens: an overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration. Phytother Res 2005;19(10):819-838. View abstract.

Panossian, A., Hovhannisyan, A., Abrahamyan, H., Gabrielyan, E., and Wikman, G. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of interaction of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract with warfarin and theophylline in rats. Phytother.Res 2009;23(3):351-357. View abstract.

Panossian, A., Nikoyan, N., Ohanyan, N., Hovhannisyan, A., Abrahamyan, H., Gabrielyan, E., and Wikman, G. Comparative study of Rhodiola preparations on behavioral despair of rats. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(1-2):84-91. View abstract.

Panossian, A., Wikman, G., and Sarris, J. Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(7):481-493. View abstract.

Park, S. H., Kim, D. S., Park, S. H., Shin, J. W., Youn, S. W., and Park, K. C. Inhibitory effect of p-coumaric acid by Rhodiola sachalinensis on melanin synthesis in B16F10 cells. Pharmazie 2008;63(4):290-295. View abstract.

Petsalo, A., Jalonen, J., and Tolonen, A. Identification of flavonoids of Rhodiola rosea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr.A 12-9-2005; View abstract.

Provino, R. The role of adaptogens in stress management. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism 2010;22(2):41-49.

Qian, E. W., Ge, D. T., and Kong, S. K. Salidroside promotes erythropoiesis and protects erythroblasts against oxidative stress by up-regulating glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-27-2011;133(2):308-314. View abstract.

Qin, Y. J., Zeng, Y. S., Zhou, C. C., Li, Y., and Zhong, Z. Q. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on level of 5-hydroxytryptamine, cell proliferation and differentiation, and number of neuron in cerebral hippocampus of rats with depression induced by chronic mild stress]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33(23):2842-2846. View abstract.

Qu, Z. Q., Zhou, Y., Zeng, Y. S., Li, Y., and Chung, P. Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. Biomed.Environ Sci 2009;22(4):318-326. View abstract.

Rege, N. N., Thatte, U. M., and Dahanukar, S. A. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother.Res 1999;13(4):275-291. View abstract.

Reviews of articles on medicinal herbs. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism 2009;21(2):49-51.

Rohloff, J. Volatiles from rhizomes of Rhodiola rosea L. Phytochemistry 2002;59(6):655-661. View abstract.

Schriner, S. E., Abrahamyan, A., Avanessian, A., Bussel, I., Maler, S., Gazarian, M., Holmbeck, M. A., and Jafari, M. Decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels and enhanced protection against paraquat in Drosophila melanogaster supplemented with Rhodiola rosea. Free Radic.Res 2009;43(9):836-843. View abstract.

Schriner, S. E., Avanesian, A., Liu, Y., Luesch, H., and Jafari, M. Protection of human cultured cells against oxidative stress by Rhodiola rosea without activation of antioxidant defenses. Free Radic.Biol Med 9-1-2009;47(5):577-584. View abstract.

Schulzz, V. Rhodiola rosea radix extract for the treatment of mild to moderate depression? Results of a placebo-controlled clinical study. KIM - Komplementare und Integrative Medizin, Artztezeitschrift fur Naturheilverfahren 2009;3(2):36-41.

Scott, I. M., Leduc, R. I., Burt, A. J., Marles, R. J., and Foster, B. C. The inhibition of human cytochrome P450 by ethanol extracts of North American botanicals. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2006;44:315-327.

Shen, W., Fan, W. H., and Shi, H. M. [Effects of rhodiola on expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor and angiogenesis in aortic atherosclerotic plaque of rabbits]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2008;28(11):1022-1025. View abstract.

Shih, C. D., Kuo, D. H., Huang, C. W., Gu, Y. H., and Chen, F. A. Autonomic nervous system mediates the cardiovascular effects of Rhodiola sacra radix in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 9-26-2008;119(2):284-290. View abstract.

Skarpanska-Stejnborn, A., Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, L., Basta, P., and Deskur-Smielecka, E. The influence of supplementation with Rhodiola rosea L. extract on selected redox parameters in professional rowers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2009;19(2):186-199. View abstract.

Song, E. K., Kim, J. H., Kim, J. S., Cho, H., Nan, J. X., Sohn, D. H., Ko, G. I., Oh, H., and Kim, Y. C. Hepatoprotective phenolic constituents of Rhodiola sachalinensis on tacrine-induced cytotoxicity in Hep G2 cells. Phytother Res 2003;17(5):563-565. View abstract.

Ssaratikov, A. S., Krasnov, E. A., Chnikina, L. A., Duvidson, L. M., Sotova, M. I., Marina, T. F., Nechoda, M. F., Axenova, R. A., and Tscherdinzeff, S. G. [Rhodiolosid, a new glycoside from Rhodiola rosea and its pharmacological properties]. Pharmazie 1968;23(7):392-395. View abstract.

Staneva, J., Todorova, M., Neykov, N., and Evstatieva, L. Ultrasonically assisted extraction of total phenols and flavonoids from Rhodiola rosea. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2009;4(7):935-938. View abstract.

Sui, X. L., Yang, F., Chen, R. H., Ga, B., Yan, H., Zhang, S. F., and Zhang, J. L. [Inhibition of rhodiola on the growth of EVC-304 cell line]. Xi.Bao.Yu Fen.Zi.Mian.Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 2006;22(4):524-525. View abstract.

Tan, C. B., Gao, M., Xu, W. R., Yang, X. Y., Zhu, X. M., and Du, G. H. Protective effects of salidroside on endothelial cell apoptosis induced by cobalt chloride. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32(8):1359-1363. View abstract.

Tan, L., Guo, Z. J., and Xu, Y. [Preliminary study on purification technics of total flavonoids in Rhodiola dumulosa by macroporous resin]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2008;31(11):1740-1743. View abstract.

Tu, Y., Roberts, L., Shetty, K., and Schneider, S. S. Rhodiola crenulata induces death and inhibits growth of breast cancer cell lines. J Med Food 2008;11(3):413-423. View abstract.

Udintsev, S. N. and Schakhov, V. P. Decrease of cyclophosphamide haematotoxicity by Rhodiola rosea root extract in mice with Ehrlich and Lewis transplantable tumors. Eur.J Cancer 1991;27(9):1182. View abstract.

Udintsev, S. N. and Shakhov, V. P. The role of humoral factors of regenerating liver in the development of experimental tumors and the effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on this process. Neoplasma 1991;38(3):323-331. View abstract.

van, Diermen D., Marston, A., Bravo, J., Reist, M., Carrupt, P. A., and Hostettmann, K. Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots. J Ethnopharmacol. 3-18-2009;122(2):397-401. View abstract.

Visioli, F., Galli, C., Bornet, F., Mattei, A., Patelli, R., Galli, G., and Caruso, D. Olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed in humans. FEBS Lett. 2-25-2000;468(2-3):159-160. View abstract.

Walker, T. B. and Robergs, R. A. Does Rhodiola rosea possess ergogenic properties? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2006;16(3):305-315. View abstract.

Walker, T., Altobelli, S., Caprihan, A., and Robergs, R. Muscle phosphate kinetics following Rhodiola Rosea ingestion. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online 2006;9(2):11.

Wang, H., Ding, Y., Zhou, J., Sun, X., and Wang, S. The in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects of salidroside from Rhodiola rosea L. against coxsackievirus B3. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(2-3):146-155. View abstract.

Wang, J. X., Luo, D. Q., and Zhao, X. Y. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Rhodiola dumulosa (II)]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2006;29(4):335-336. View abstract.

Wang, Q., Ruan, X., Jiang, H., Meng, Q., and Wang, L. [Genetic diversity of different geographical populations of Rhodiola rosea based on AFLP markers]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34(18):2279-2284. View abstract.

Wang, Q., Wang, J., Sun, L. J., Hu, L. P., Li, J., Shao, J. Q., Lu, B., Wang, Y. T., Wu, B., and Wang, G. H. [Salidroside protects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis of male rats undergoing negative psychological stress in experimental navigation and intensive exercise]. Zhonghua Nan.Ke.Xue. 2009;15(4):331-336. View abstract.

Wiegant, F. A., Surinova, S., Ytsma, E., Langelaar-Makkinje, M., Wikman, G., and Post, J. A. Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans. Biogerontology. 2009;10(1):27-42. View abstract.

Wojcik, R., Siwicki, A. K., Skopinska-Rozewska, E., Wasiutynski, A., Sommer, E., and Furmanowa, M. The effect of Chinese medicinal herb Rhodiola kirilowii extracts on cellular immunity in mice and rats. Pol.J Vet.Sci 2009;12(3):399-405. View abstract.

Wu, T., Zhou, H., Jin, Z., Bi, S., Yang, X., Yi, D., and Liu, W. Cardioprotection of salidroside from ischemia/reperfusion injury by increasing N-acetylglucosamine linkage to cellular proteins. Eur J Pharmacol 6-24-2009;613(1-3):93-99. View abstract.

Wu, Y. L., Lian, L. H., Jiang, Y. Z., and Nan, J. X. Hepatoprotective effects of salidroside on fulminant hepatic failure induced by D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;61(10):1375-1382. View abstract.

Wu, Y. L., Piao, D. M., Han, X. H., and Nan, J. X. Protective effects of salidroside against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2008;31(8):1523-1529. View abstract.

Xie Y and Zhan J. Effects of Compound Rhodiola Crenulata on Exercise Performance During Hypoxia. Chin J Appl Phys 1994;10(3):234-236.

Xu, K. J., Zhang, S. F., and Li, Q. X. [Preventive and treatment effect of composite Rhodiolae on acute lung injury in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension during extracorporeal circulation]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2003;23(9):648-650. View abstract.

Yin Z. The Effects of Rhodiola Crenulata Compound on Exercise Performance during Hypoxia. Chinese Sports Medicine Journal 1996;15(4):265-270.

Yin, D., Yao, W., Chen, S., Hu, R., and Gao, X. Salidroside, the main active compound of Rhodiola plants, inhibits high glucose-induced mesangial cell proliferation. Planta Med 2009;75(11):1191-1195. View abstract.

Yousef, G. G., Grace, M. H., Cheng, D. M., Belolipov, I. V., Raskin, I., and Lila, M. A. Comparative phytochemical characterization of three Rhodiola species. Phytochemistry 2006;67(21):2380-2391. View abstract.

Yu, S., Liu, L., Wen, T., Liu, Y., Wang, D., He, Y., Liang, Y., Liu, X., Xie, L., Wang, G., and Wei, W. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method for the determination of salidroside in rat plasma: application to the pharmacokinetics study. J Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life Sci 1-1-2008;861(1):10-15. View abstract.

Yu, S., Liu, M., Gu, X., and Ding, F. Neuroprotective effects of salidroside in the PC12 cell model exposed to hypoglycemia and serum limitation. Cell Mol.Neurobiol. 2008;28(8):1067-1078. View abstract.

Yu, S., Shen, Y., Liu, J., and Ding, F. Involvement of ERK1/2 pathway in neuroprotection by salidroside against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death. J Mol.Neurosci. 2010;40(3):321-331. View abstract.

Zaiteva, S. I., Matveeva, S. L., Gerasimova, T. G., Pashkov, Y. N., Butov, D. A., Pylypchuck, V. S., Frolov, V. M., and Kutsyna, G. A. Efficacy and safety of phytoconcentrate Dzherelo (Immunoxel) in treatment of patients with multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) in comparison to standartd chemotherapy. Research Journal of Medical Sciences 2009;3(2):36-41.

Zhang, L., Yu, H., Zhao, X., Lin, X., Tan, C., Cao, G., and Wang, Z. Neuroprotective effects of salidroside against beta-amyloid-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Neurochem.Int 2010;57(5):547-555. View abstract.

Zhang, S., Liu, C., Bi, H., and Wang, C. Extraction of flavonoids from Rhodiola sachlinesis A. Bor by UPE and the antioxidant activity of its extract. Nat.Prod.Res 1-20-2008;22(2):178-187. View abstract.

Zhang, W. S., Zhu, L. Q., Niu, F. L., Deng, R. C., and Ma, C. X. [Protective effects of salidroside on injury induced by hypoxia/hypoglycemia in cultured neurons]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29(5):459-462. View abstract.

Zhang, X. S., Zhu, B. D., Hung, X. Q., and Chen, Y. F. [Effect of salidroside on bone marrow cell cycle and expression of apoptosis-related proteins in bone marrow cells of bone marrow depressed anemia mice]. Sichuan.Da Xue.Xue.Bao.Yi.Xue.Ban. 2005;36(6):820-3, 846. View abstract.

Zhang, Y. and Liu, Y. [Study on effects of salidroside on lipid peroxidation on oxidative stress in rat hepatic stellate cells]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2005;28(9):794-796. View abstract.

Zhang, Z. H., Feng, S. H., Hu, G. D., Cao, Z. K., and Wang, L. Y. [Effect of Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel.) Maxim on preventing high altitude reactions. A comparison of cardiopulmonary function in villagers at various altitudes]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 1989;14(11):687-90, 704. View abstract.

Zhang, Z. H., Liu, J. S., Chu, J. N., Shang, X. H., Lin, C. R., Ma, X. B., Shi, T. R., Wang, M., Wang, Y. H., Li, Y. R., Liu, J. H., Wu, X. Y., Zhang, X. D., Zhang, D. S., and Zhao, Z. H. [The effect of Hongjingtian (Gadol) injection on cardiac hemodynamics and myocardial oxygen consumption of dogs]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30(13):1001-1005. View abstract.

Zhao, H. W., Li, Q. W., Ning, G. Z., Han, Z. S., Jiang, Z. L., and Duan, Y. F. Rhodiola sacra aqueous extract (RSAE) improves biochemical and sperm characteristics in cryopreserved boar semen. Theriogenology 3-15-2009;71(5):849-857. View abstract.

Zhao, X., Zuo, L., and Zhong, Z. Q. [Rhodiola sachalinensis suppresses T241 fibrosarcoma tumor cells proliferation in vitro and growth in vivo]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2008;31(9):1377-1380. View abstract.

Zheng, K. Y., Guo, A. J., Bi, C. W., Zhu, K. Y., Chan, G. K., Fu, Q., Xu, S. L., Zhan, J. Y., Lau, D. T., Dong, T. T., Choi, R. C., and Tsim, K. W. The Extract of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma Induces the Accumulation of HIF-1alpha via Blocking the Degradation Pathway in Cultured Kidney Fibroblasts. Planta Med 12-14-2010; View abstract.

Zhong, H., Xin, H., Wu, L. X., and Zhu, Y. Z. Salidroside attenuates apoptosis in ischemic cardiomyocytes: a mechanism through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. J Pharmacol Sci 2010;114(4):399-408. View abstract.

Zhu BW, Sun YM Yun X. Reduction of noise-stress-induced physiological damage by radices of Astragali and Rhodiolae: glycogen, lactic acid and cholesterol contents in the liver of the rat. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2003;67(9):1930-1936.

Zhu, J., Wan, X., Zhu, Y., Ma, X., Zheng, Y., and Zhang, T. Evaluation of salidroside in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity. Drug Chem.Toxicol. 2010;33(2):220-226. View abstract.

Zong, Y., Lowell, K., Ping, J. A., Che, C. T., Pezzuto, J. M., and Fong, H. H. Phenolic constituents of Rhodiola coccinea, a Tibetan folk medicine. Planta Med 1991;57(6):589. View abstract.

Zotova MI. The effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on mental working activity in man. In Collection of Reports at 3rd Scientific Conference of Physiologists, Biochemists and Pharmacologists of Western Siberia, Tomsk 1965;298-299.

Zuo, G., Li, Z., Chen, L., and Xu, X. Activity of compounds from Chinese herbal medicine Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim against HCV NS3 serine protease. Antiviral Res 2007;76(1):86-92. View abstract.

Abidov M, Grachev S, Seifulla RD, Ziegenfuss TN. Extract of Rhodiola rosea radix reduces the level of C-reactive protein and creatinine kinase in the blood. Bull Exp Biol Med 2004;138:63-4. View abstract.

Akgul Y, Ferreira D, Abourashed EA, Khan IA. Lotaustralin from Rhodiola rosea roots. Fitoterapia 2004;75:612-4. View abstract.

Apostolidis E, Kwon YI, Shetty K. Potential of cranberry-based herbal synergies for diabetes and hypertension management. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006;15:433-41. View abstract.

Arbuzov, A. G., Maslov, L. N., Burkova, V. N., Krylatov, A. V., Konkovskaia, IuN, and Safronov, S. M. [Phytoadaptogens-induced phenomenon similar to ischemic preconditioning]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2009;95(4):398-404. View abstract.

Aslanyan G, Amroyan E, Gabrielyan E, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study of single dose effects of ADAPT-232 on cognitive functions. Phytomedicine 2010;17:494-9. View abstract.

Azizov, A. P. and Seifulla, R. D. [The effect of elton, leveton, fitoton and adapton on the work capacity of experimental animals]. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1998;61(3):61-63. View abstract.

Bhardwaj RK, Glaeser H, Becquemont L, et al. Piperine, a major constituent of black pepper, inhibits human P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002;302:645-50. View abstract.

Bocharova OA, Matveev BP, Baryshnikov AI, et al. [The effect of a Rhodiola rosea extract on the incidence of recurrences of a superficial bladder cancer]. Urol Nefrol (Mosk) 1995;:46-7. View abstract.

Bystritsky A, Kerwin L, Feusner JD. A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). J Altern Complement Med 2008;14:175-80. View abstract.

Colson SN, Wyatt FB, Johnston DL, et al. Cordyceps sinensis- and Rhodiola rosea-based supplementation in male cyclists and its effect on muscle tissue oxygen saturation. J Strength Cond Res 2005;19:358-63. View abstract.

Darbinyan G, Aslanyan G, Amroyan E. Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Nord J Psychiatry 2007;61:343-8. View abstract.

Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, et al. Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue - a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine 2000;7:365-71. View abstract.

De Bock K, Eijnde BO, Ramaekers M, Hespel P. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004;14:298-307. View abstract.

Ha Z, Zhu Y, Zhang X, et al. The effect of rhodiola and acetazolamide on the sleep architecture and blood oxygen saturation in men living at high altitude. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2002;25:527-30. View abstract.

Hellum BH, Tosse A, Hoybakk K, et al. Potent in vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein by Rhodiola rosea. Planta Med 2010;76:331-8. View abstract.

Kelly GS. Rhodiola rosea: a possible plant adaptogen. Altern Med Rev 2001;6:293-302. View abstract.

Kim SH, Hyun SH, Choung SY. Antioxidative effects of Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts in liver of diabetic mice. Biofactors 2006;26:209-19. View abstract.

Kormosh, N., Laktionov, K., and Antoshechkina, M. Effect of a combination of extract from several plants on cell-mediated and humoral immunity of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Phytother Res 2006;20(5):424-425. View abstract.

Kwon YI, Jang HD, Shetty K. Evaluation of Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola rosea for management of type II diabetes and hypertension. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006;15:425-32. View abstract.

Li HX, Sze SC, Tong Y, Ng TB. Production of Th1- and Th2-dependent cytokines induced by the Chinese medicine herb, Rhodiola algida, on human peripheral blood monocytes. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;123:257-66. View abstract.

Li T, Xu L, Sun C. Pharmacological studies on the sedative and hypnotic effect of salidroside from the Chinese medicinal plant Rhodiola sachalinensis. Phytomedicine 2007;14:601-4. View abstract.

Lishmanov IB, Maslova LV, Maslov LN, Dan'shina EN. [The anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea and its possible mechanism]. Bull Eksp Biol Med 1993;116:175-6. View abstract.

Lishmanov IB, Naumova AV, Afanas'ev SA, Maslov LN. [Contribution of the opioid system to realization of inotropic effects of Rhodiola rosea extracts in ischemic and reperfusion heart damage in vitro]. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997;60:34-6. View abstract.

Ma G, Li W, Dou D, et al. Rhodiolosides A-E, monoterpene glycosides from Rhodiola rosea. Chem Pharm Bull 2006;54:1229-33. View abstract.

Maimeskulova LA, Maslov LN, Lishmanov IB, Krasnov EA. [The participation of the mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in the realization of the anti-arrhythmia effect of Rhodiola rosea]. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997;60:38-9. View abstract.

Majewska A, Hoser G, Furmanowa M, et al. Antiproliferative and antimitotic effect, S phase accumulation and induction of apoptosis and necrosis after treatment of extract from Rhodiola rosea rhizomes on HL-60 cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;103:43-52. View abstract.

Maslova LV, Kondrat'ev BI, Maslov LN, Lishmanov IB. [The cardioprotective and antiadrenergic activity of an extract of Rhodiola rosea in stress]. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1994;57:61-3. View abstract.

McGovern E, McDonnell TJ. Herbal medicine-sets the heart racing! Ir Med J 2010;103:219. View abstract.

Ming DS, Hillhouse BJ, Guns ES, et al. Bioactive compounds from Rhodiola rosea (Crassulaceae). Phytother Res 2005;19:740-3. View abstract.

Mishra KP, Chanda S, Shukla K, Ganju L. Adjuvant effect of aqueous extract of Rhodiola imbricate rhizome on the immune responses to tetanus toxoid and ovalbumin in rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2010;32:141-6. View abstract.

Mishra KP, Ganju L, Chanda S, et al. Aqueous extract of Rhodiola imbricate rhizome stimulates Toll-like receptor 4, granzyme-B and Th1 cytokines in vitro. Immunobiology 2009;214:27-31. View abstract.

Olsson EM, von Scheele B, Panossian AG. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardized extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress related fatigue. Planta Med 2009;75:105-12. View abstract.

Parisi A, Tranchita E, Duranti G, et al. Effects of chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation on sport performance and antioxidant capacity in trained male: preliminary results. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2010;50:57-63. View abstract.

Perfumi M, Mattioli L. Adaptogenic and central nervous system effects of single doses of 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside Rhodiola rosea L. extract in mice. Phytother Res 2007;21:37-43. View abstract.

Petkov VD, Yonkov D, Mosharoff A, et al. Effects of alcohol aqueous extract from Rhodiola rosea L. roots on learning and memory. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg 1986;12:3-16. View abstract.

Salikhova RA, Aleksandrova IV, Mazurik VK, et al. [Effect of Rhodiola rosea on the yield of mutation alterations and DNA repair in bone marrow cells]. Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter 1997;:22-4. View abstract.

Schutgens FW, Neogi P, van Wijk EP, et al. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: a pilot-experiment. Phytother Res 2009;23:1103-8. View abstract.

Shevtsov VA, Zholus BI, Shervarly VI, et al. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine 2003;10:95-105. View abstract.

Skopriska-Rozewska E, Wojcik R, Siwicki AK, et al. The effect of Rhodiola quadrifida extracts on cellular immunity in mice and rats. Pol J Vet Sci 2008;11:105-11. View abstract.

Spasov AA, Mandrikov VB, Mironova IA. The effect of a preparation rodakson on the psychophysiological and physical adaptation of students to an academic load. Eksp Klin Farmakol 2000;63:76-8. View abstract.

Spasov AA, Wikman GK, Mandrikov VB, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine 2000;7:85-89. View abstract.

Udintsev SN, Krylova SG, Fomina TI. [The enhancement of the efficacy of adriamycin by using hepatoprotectors of plant origin in metastases of Ehrlich's adenocarcinoma to the liver in mice]. Vopr Onkol 1992;38:1217-22. View abstract.

Udintsev SN, Shakhov VP. [Changes in clonogenic properties of bone marrow and transplantable mice tumor cells during combined use of cyclophosphane and biological response modifiers of adaptogenic origin]. Eksp Onko 1990;12:55-6. View abstract.

Walker TB, Altobelli SA, Caprihan A, Robergs RA. Failure of Rhodiola rosea to alter skeletal muscle phosphate kinetics in trained men. Metabolism 2007;56:1111-7. View abstract.

Wiedenfeld H, Dumaa M, Malinowski M, et al. Phytochemical and analytical studies of extracts from Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola quadrifida. Pharmazie 2007;62:308-11. View abstract.

Wing SL, Askew EW, Luetkemeier MJ, et al. Lack of effect of Rhodiola or oxygenated water supplementation on hypoxemia and oxidative stress. Wilderness Environ Med 2003;14:9-16. View abstract.

Zaiteva SI, Matveeva SL, Gerasimova TG, et al. Efficacy and safety of phytoconcentrate Dzherelo (Immunoxel) in treatment of patients with multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) in comparison to standard chemotherapy. Research Journal of Medical Sciences 2009;3:36-41.

Zhang L, Yu H, Sun Y, et al. Protective effects of salidroside on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;564:18-25. View abstract.

Zhang ZJ, Tong Y, Zou J, et al. Dietary supplement with a combination of Rhodiola crenulata and Ginkgo biloba enhances the endurance performance in healthy volunteers. Chin J Integr Med 2009;15:177-83. View abstract.

Zubeldia JM, Nabi HA, Jimenez del Río M, Genovese J. Exploring new applications for Rhodiola rosea: can we improve the quality of life of patients with short-term hypothyroidism induced by hormone withdrawal? J Med Food 2010;13:1287-92. View abstract.