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What are repetitive motion disorders (RMDs?
- Repetitive motion disorders (RMDs) are a family of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work or daily activities. RMDs include
- RMDs are caused by too many uninterrupted repetitions of an activity or motion, unnatural or awkward motions such as twisting the arm or wrist, overexertion, incorrect posture, or muscle fatigue.
- RMDs occur most commonly in the hands, wrists, elbows, and shoulders, but can also happen in the neck, back, hips, knees, feet, legs, and ankles.
- The disorders are characterized by pain, tingling, numbness, visible swelling or redness of the affected area, and the loss of flexibility and strength.
- For some individuals, there may be no visible sign of injury, although they may find it hard to perform easy tasks.
- Over time, RMDs can cause temporary or permanent damage to the soft tissues in the body -- such as the muscles, nerves, tendons, and ligaments - and compression of nerves or tissue.
- Generally, RMDs affect individuals who perform repetitive tasks such as assembly line work, meat-packing, sewing, playing musical instruments, and computer work.
- The disorders may also affect individuals who engage in activities such as carpentry, gardening, and tennis.
Is there any treatment for repetitive motion disorders?
- Treatment for RMDs usually includes reducing or stopping the motions that cause symptoms.
- Options include taking breaks to give the affected area time to rest, and adopting stretching and relaxation exercises.
- Applying ice to the affected area and using medications such as pain relievers, cortisone, and anti-inflammatory drugs can reduce pain and swelling.
- Splints may be able to relieve pressure on the muscles and nerves.
- Physical therapy may relieve the soreness and pain in the muscles and joints.
- In rare cases, surgery may be required to relieve symptoms and prevent permanent damage.
- Some employers have developed ergonomic programs to help workers adjust their pace of work and arrange office equipment to minimize problems.
IMAGESSee a medical illustration of the foot plus our entire medical gallery of human anatomy and physiology See Images
What is the prognosis for repetitive motion disorders?
- Most individuals with RMDs recover completely and can avoid re-injury by changing the way they perform repetitive movements, the frequency with which they perform them, and the amount of time they rest between movements.
- Without treatment, RMDs may result in permanent injury and complete loss of function in the affected area.
What research is being done?
Select this link to view a list of studies currently seeking patients.
Source: National Institutes of Health (www.nih.gov)
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Acetaminophen treats a variety of diseases or other medical problems that cause pain or fever. Examples of conditions acetaminophen treats include, headache, minor arthritis pain, back pain, tooth pain, menstrual cramps, PMS, osteoarthritis, common cold, tension headache, chronic pain, hip pain, shoulder and neck pain, sore throat, sinus infection, teething, TMJ, bites and stings, and sprains and strains.
Acetaminophen generally has no side effects when taken as prescribed. When side effects are experienced, the most common are headache, rash, and nausea.
In 2014, the FDA recommended that doctors and other health care professionals only prescribe acetaminophen in doses of 325 mg or less. This warning highlights the potential for allergic reactions, for example, face, mouth, and throat swelling, difficulty breathing, itching, or rash. This action also will help reduce the risk of severe liver injury and serious allergic reactions associated with this drug. Other possible serious side effects adverse effects include anemia, kidney damage, thrombocytopenia (a reduced number of platelets in the blood), and liver problems.
Other patient information. Do not take more than one product that contains acetaminophen at the same time. Do not take more than one acetaminophen-containing drug than directed. Do not drink alcohol while taking medicine that contains acetaminophen due to severe liver damage.
REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information.
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Ibuprofen is prescribed to treat diseases and conditions that cause mild to moderate pain, fever, and inflammation. For example, Pain from strains and sprains; pain from cuts, scrapes, and puncture wounds; muscle aches and pains; tooth pain; common cold; mild headache; some arthritis conditions; joint pain; and to reduce fever.
Common side effects of ibuprofen include, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, heartburn, belly pain, drowsiness, headaches, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and mild rash.
More serious side effects and adverse effects include, increased bleeding after injury, stomach ulcers, impaired kidney function, severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), blood clots, heart attack, heart failure, and high blood pressure.
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REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information.
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