Framboise, Framboise Rouge, Framboisier Rouge, Framboisier Sauvage, Frambuesa Roja, Raspberry, Rubi Idaei Folium, Rubus, Rubus buschii, Rubus idaeus, Rubus strigosus.
Red raspberry is a plant that is the source of a widely eaten, tasty, sweet berry. However, red raspberry fruit and leaf have also been used as medicine for centuries. The therapeutic use of raspberry leaf was first described in 1597 in a book called "The Herbal," or "A General History of Plants." Today, red raspberry leaf and fruit are still used as medicine.
Red raspberry leaf is used for gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorders, including diarrhea; for respiratory system disorders, including flu and swine flu; and for heart problems, heart failure, high blood pressure, fever, diabetes, and vitamin deficiency.
In foods, red raspberry fruit is eaten and processed into jams and other foods. Red raspberry leaf in small quantities is a source of natural flavoring in Europe.
How does it work?
The chemicals in red raspberry might have antioxidant effects and help relax blood vessels. They might also cause muscles to contract or relax, depending on the dose and the muscle involved. This is the theory behind red raspberry's use in easing labor and delivery.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Making labor and delivery easier. Taking red raspberry leaf does not seem to reduce the length of labor or decrease the need for pain-relieving medication around the time of delivery.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Heart failure..
- Heart problems.
- High blood pressure.
- Morning sickness in pregnancy.
- Painful and heavy periods.
- Respiratory system problems.
- Skin rash.
- Sore throat.
- Stomach problems.
- Swine flu.
- Vitamin deficiencies.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Red raspberry fruit is LIKELY SAFE for most people when eaten in food amounts and POSSIBLY SAFE when taken in larger amounts as medicine.
No side effects from taking red raspberry have been reported. However, there have been reports of raspberries contaminated with bacteria and viruses, causing symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Not enough is known about the safety of taking red raspberry leaf during breast-feeding. It's best to stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Red raspberry might act like estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don't use red raspberry.
The appropriate dose of red raspberry depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for red raspberry. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Allen CT and Peden-Adams MM. Subchronic Exposure to Ellagic Acid Impairs Cytotoxic T-Cell Function and Supresses Humoral Immunity in Mice. Immunopharmacology & Immunotoxicology 2003;25(3):409.
Bagchi, D., Roy, S., Patel, V., He, G., Khanna, S., Ojha, N., Phillips, C., Ghosh, S., Bagchi, M., and Sen, C. K. Safety and whole-body antioxidant potential of a novel anthocyanin-rich formulation of edible berries. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2006;281(1-2):197-209. View abstract.
Beekwilder, J., Hall, R. D., and de Vos, C. H. Identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry. Biofactors 2005;23(4):197-205. View abstract.
Beekwilder, J., Jonker, H., Meesters, P., Hall, R. D., van, der Meer, I, and Ric, de, V. Antioxidants in raspberry: on-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites. J Agric.Food Chem 5-4-2005;53(9):3313-3320. View abstract.
Bresee, J. S., Widdowson, M. A., Monroe, S. S., and Glass, R. I. Foodborne viral gastroenteritis: challenges and opportunities. Clin Infect.Dis. 9-15-2002;35(6):748-753. View abstract.
Carnat, A. P., Pourrat, H., and Pourrat, A. [Antioxydant activity of raspberry seeds oil (author's transl)]. Ann.Pharm.Fr. 1979;37(3-4):119-123. View abstract.
Cavanagh, H. M., Hipwell, M., and Wilkinson, J. M. Antibacterial activity of berry fruits used for culinary purposes. J Med Food 2003;6(1):57-61. View abstract.
de Ancos, B., Ibanez, E., Reglero, G., and Cano, M. P. Frozen storage effects on anthocyanins and volatile compounds of raspberry fruit. J Agric.Food Chem. 2000;48(3):873-879. View abstract.
Gudej, J. Kaempferol and quercetin glycosides from Rubus idaeus L. Leaves. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research (Poland) 2003;60:313-315.
Hakkinen, S. H., Karenlampi, S. O., Mykkanen, H. M., and Torronen, A. R. Influence of domestic processing and storage on flavonol contents in berries. J Agric.Food Chem 2000;48(7):2960-2965. View abstract.
Herwaldt, B. L. and Ackers, M. L. An outbreak in 1996 of cyclosporiasis associated with imported raspberries. The Cyclospora Working Group. N Engl.J Med 5-29-1997;336(22):1548-1556. View abstract.
Ho, AY. Outbreak of Cyclosporiasis Associated with Imported Raspberries, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000;8(8):783.
Kowalczyk, E., Krzesinski, P., Fijalkowski, P., Blaszczyk, J., and Kowalski, J. [The use of anthocyanins in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases]. Pol.Merkuriusz.Lek. 2005;19(109):108-110. View abstract.
Liu, M., Li, X. Q., Weber, C., Lee, C. Y., Brown, J., and Liu, R. H. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of raspberries. J Agric.Food Chem 5-8-2002;50(10):2926-2930. View abstract.
Man, R. Y., Lynn, E. G., Cheung, F., Tsang, P. S., and O K. Cholestin inhibits cholesterol synthesis and secretion in hepatic cells (HepG2). Mol Cell Biochem 2002;233(1-2):153-158. View abstract.
Morillas-Ruiz, J., Zafrilla, P., Almar, M., Cuevas, M. J., Lopez, F. J., Abellan, P., Villegas, J. A., and Gonzalez-Gallego, J. The effects of an antioxidant-supplemented beverage on exercise-induced oxidative stress: results from a placebo-controlled double-blind study in cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol 2005;95(5-6):543-549. View abstract.
Mullen, W., Lean, M. E., and Crozier, A. Rapid characterization of anthocyanins in red raspberry fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to single quadrupole mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr.A 8-9-2002;966(1-2):63-70. View abstract.
Nohynek, L. J., Alakomi, H. L., Kahkonen, M. P., Heinonen, M., Helander, I. M., Oksman-Caldentey, K. M., and Puupponen-Pimia, R. H. Berry phenolics: antimicrobial properties and mechanisms of action against severe human pathogens. Nutr Cancer 2006;54(1):18-32. View abstract.
Puupponen-Pimia, R., Nohynek, L., Hartmann-Schmidlin, S., Kahkonen, M., Heinonen, M., Maatta-Riihinen, K., and Oksman-Caldentey, K. M. Berry phenolics selectively inhibit the growth of intestinal pathogens. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;98(4):991-1000. View abstract.
Rice-Evans. The Antioxidant Activity of Regularly Consumed Fruit and Vegetables Reflects their Phenolic and Vitamin C Composition. Free Radical Research 2002;36(2):217-233.
Rojas-Vera, J., Patel, A. V., and Dacke, C. G. Relaxant activity of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaf extract in guinea-pig ileum in vitro. Phytother.Res. 2002;16(7):665-668. View abstract.
Ryan, T., Wilkinson, J. M., and Cavanagh, H. M. Antibacterial activity of raspberry cordial in vitro. Res.Vet.Sci. 2001;71(3):155-159. View abstract.
Sherson, D., Andersen, B., Hansen, I., and Kjoller, H. Occupational asthma due to freeze-dried raspberry. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;90(6):660-663. View abstract.
Bamford DS, Percival RC, Tothill AU. Raspberry leaf tea: a new aspect to an old problem. Br J Pharmacol 1970;40:161P-162P. View abstract.
Eagon PK, Elm MS, Hunter DS, et al. Medicinal herbs: modulation of estrogen action. Era of Hope Mtg, Dept Defense; Breast Cancer Res Prog, Atlanta, GA 2000;Jun 8-11.
McFarlin BL, Gibson MH, O'Rear J, Harman P. A national survey of herbal preparation use by nurse-midwives for labor stimulation. Review of the literature and recommendations for practice. J Nurse Midwifery 1999;44:205-16. View abstract.
Morimoto C, Satoh Y, Hara M, et al. Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone. Life Sci 2005;77:194-204. . View abstract.
Mullen W, McGinn J, Lean ME, et al. Ellagitannins, flavonoids, and other phenolics in red raspberries and their contribution to antioxidant capacity and vasorelaxation properties. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:5191-6.. View abstract.
Parsons M, Simpson M, Ponton T. Raspberry leaf and its effects on labour: safety and efficacy. Aust Coll Midwives Inc J 1999;12:20-5. View abstract.
Simpson M, Parsons M, Greenwood J, Wade K. Raspberry leaf in pregnancy: its safety and efficacy in labor. J Midwifery Womens Health 2001;46:51-9.. View abstract.
Wada L, Ou B. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Oregon caneberries. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:3495-500.. View abstract.
Wang SY, Jiao H. Scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:5677-84.. View abstract.
Wang SY, Lin HS. Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:140-6.. View abstract.