Generic Name: red blood cells
Other Names: RBCs
Drug Class: Blood Components
What are red blood cells, and what are they used for?
Red blood cells (RBCs), also known as erythrocytes, are cellular components of blood that give blood its characteristic red color.
Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, an iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to all the tissues, and carbon dioxide back to the lungs to be eliminated in exhalation. Red blood cells are used for transfusion in patients who have insufficient tissue oxygen because of active bleeding or symptomatic anemia, to increase the red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, and consequently, blood’s oxygen carrying capacity.
Red blood cells, also known as packed red blood cells, used for transfusion are separated by centrifugal process from whole blood collected from donors and screened for infectious diseases. Red blood cells may also be collected directly from donors by apheresis, a process in which the donor’s blood is passed through a medical device that selectively removes red blood cells and the plasma and other components are infused back into the donor.
Red blood cells may undergo further processes such as washing, special filtering or irradiation to remove other blood components before transfusion in certain patients with special requirements. Red blood cells are matched for blood group (ABO) compatibility with the recipient before transfusion.
- Do not use red blood cell transfusion to treat anemia that can be corrected with non-transfusion treatments such as iron therapy, unless immediate correction is required.
- Do not administer RBC transfusion to merely increase blood volume and/or oncotic pressure, improve wound healing or provide a sense of wellbeing.
- Monitor patients for signs of transfusion reaction, including vital signs, before, during, and after transfusion. If transfusion reaction is suspected, stop the transfusion, assess and stabilize the patient, and notify the blood bank to initiate an investigation.
- All RBC transfusions must be given using blood administration sets containing 170- to 260-micron filters or 20- to 40-micron microaggregate filters.
- RBC transfusion should be given through an exclusive venous port and no other medications or fluids other than normal saline should be simultaneously given through the same line without prior consultation with the medical director of the blood bank.
- Monitor for iron overload in patients chronically transfused with RBCs due to hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia.
- RBC transfusions carry a risk for non-septic infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), West Nile virus (WNV), parvovirus B19, Lyme disease, babesiosis, malaria, Chagas disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD).
- Consult with the blood bank medical director or a hematologist if you have questions regarding special transfusion requirements.
What are the side effects of red blood cells?
Common side effects of red blood cells include:
- Hemolytic transfusion reactions that destroy red blood cells
- Feverish (febrile) non-hemolytic reactions
- Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI)
- Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO)
- Allergic reactions such as:
- Serious allergic (anaphylactic) reactions including:
- Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD)
- Transfusion-transmitted infections and septic reactions
- Post-transfusion bruising (purpura)
Call your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms or serious side effects while using this drug:
- Serious heart symptoms include fast or pounding heartbeats, fluttering in your chest, shortness of breath, and sudden dizziness;
- Severe headache, confusion, slurred speech, severe weakness, vomiting, loss of coordination, feeling unsteady;
- Severe nervous system reaction with very stiff muscles, high fever, sweating, confusion, fast or uneven heartbeats, tremors, and feeling like you might pass out; or
- Serious eye symptoms include blurred vision, tunnel vision, eye pain or swelling, or seeing halos around lights.
This is not a complete list of all side effects or adverse reactions that may occur from the use of this drug. Call your doctor for medical advice about serious side effects or adverse reactions. You may also report side effects or health problems to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What are the dosages of red blood cells?
Insufficient Tissue Oxygen Delivery Due to Active Bleeding or Symptomatic Anemia
- 1 unit increase hemoglobin 1 g/dL in average-sized adults without active bleeding or hemolysis; usually given over 1-2 hours but not longer than 4 hours
- Rarely necessary to transfuse to hemoglobin over 10 g/dL
- Actively bleeding patients dosing and rate of administration varies depending on rate of bleeding and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis
- 10-15 mL/kg increases hemoglobin 2-3 g/dL in patients without active bleeding or hemolysis
- Actively bleeding patients dosing and rate of administration varies depending on rate of bleeding and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis
- Usually, blood loss over 20% of estimated total blood volume
What drugs interact with red blood cells?
Inform your doctor of all medications you are currently taking, who can advise you on any possible drug interactions. Never begin taking, suddenly discontinue, or change the dosage of any medication without your doctor’s recommendation.
- Red blood cells have no known severe, serious, moderate, or mild interactions with other drugs.
The drug interactions listed above are not all of the possible interactions or adverse effects. For more information on drug interactions, visit the RxList Drug Interaction Checker.
It is important to always tell your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider of all prescription and over-the-counter medications you use, as well as the dosage for each, and keep a list of the information. Check with your doctor or health care provider if you have any questions about the medication.
Red blood cells (RBCs), also known as erythrocytes, are cellular components of blood that give blood its characteristic red color. Red blood cells are used for transfusion in patients who have insufficient tissue oxygen because of active bleeding or symptomatic anemia, to increase the red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, and consequently, blood’s oxygen carrying capacity. Common side effects of red blood cells include hemolytic transfusion reactions that destroy red blood cells, feverish (febrile) non-hemolytic reactions, transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), allergic reactions, transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), transfusion-transmitted infections and septic reactions, and post-transfusion bruising (purpura). Consult your doctor if pregnant or breastfeeding.
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Related Disease Conditions
Anemia is the condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is, therefore, decreased. There are several types of anemia such as iron deficiency anemia (the most common type), sickle cell anemia, vitamin B12 anemia, pernicious anemia, and aplastic anemia. Symptoms of anemia may include fatigue, malaise, hair loss, palpitations, menstruation, and medications. Treatment for anemia includes treating the underlying cause for the condition. Iron supplements, vitamin B12 injections, and certain medications may also be necessary.
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High Red Blood Cell Count (Polycythemia)
Polycythemia (elevated red blood cell count) is a rare blood disease in which the body produces too many red blood cells. Causes of polycythemia are either primary (acquired or genetic mutations) or secondary (diseases, conditions, high altitude).
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The Glycated Hemoglobin Test (HbA1c)
Second Source WebMD Medical Reference
Do All Cancers Show Up on Blood Tests?
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Sickle Cell Disease (Anemia)
Sickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease), a blood disease that shortens life expectancy, is caused by inherited abnormal hemoglobin. Symptoms of sickle cell anemia may include bacterial infections, painful swelling of the hands and feet, fever, leg ulcers, fatigue, anemia, eye damage, and lung and heart injury. Treatment for sickle cell anemia aims to manage and prevent the worst manifestations of the disease and focuses on therapies that block red blood cells from stacking together, which can lead to tissue and organ damage and pain.
What Does It Mean When Your Hemoglobin Is Low?
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What Foods Are Good and Bad for Your Diet if You Have Anemia?
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What Does It Mean When Your Hemoglobin A1C Is High?
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Can Cancer Be Detected by a Blood Test?
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Can Liver Cancer Be Detected by a Blood Test?
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Do Blood Tests Show Pancreatic Cancer?
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Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Detected by Blood Test?
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Can Cancer Be Detected in Blood Tests?
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How Is Liver Cancer Usually Diagnosed?
The liver is the second largest organ (the first being the skin) in the human body. One blood test used to help diagnose liver cancer is the tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), but it is not specific to liver cancer.
How Do You Fix Anemia?
Anemia describes a condition in which you have a low red blood cell count and low hemoglobin levels. This is a serious condition as red blood cells and hemoglobin carry oxygen to all your cells, allowing them to burn energy. If you’re anemic, you’ll likely feel fatigued and short of breath, lacking physical stamina. You may have heart problems and appear pale. Anemia is often a symptom of some other disease or condition, so treatment varies widely depending on the root cause.
How Does Anemia Affect Your Baby During Pregnancy?
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What Blood Tests Are Done in First Trimester of Pregnancy?
When you are pregnant, your doctor will do blood tests to check complete blood count, blood type, Rh factor, infections, birth defects, and more.
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What Is Macrocytic Anemia?
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Is There a Blood Test for Ovarian Cancer?
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Treatment & Diagnosis
- Liver Blood Tests
- Creatinine Blood Test
- Hemoglobin: Normal, High, Low Levels, Age & Gender
- Ferritin Blood Test (Normal, High, Low, Levels)
- Complete Blood Count (CBC)
- Hemoglobin A1c Test
- CA 125 Ovarian Tumor Marker Blood Test
- Alpha-Fetoprotein Blood Test
- Is It OK to Smoke Before a Blood Test?
- Homocysteine (Normal and Elevated Levels Blood Test)
- Blood Transfusion
- Hemoglobin vs. Hematocrit
- What Does a Positive Occult Blood Test Indicate?
- Thyroid Blood Tests
- Fecal Occult Blood Test
- What Is an ALT Blood Test? Liver Function Test
- Acquired Methemoglobinemia
- Heart Attack - New Blood Test For Earlier Accurate Diagnosis
- Hepatitis C: What blood tests?
- West Nile: Halting West Nile By Transfusion
- Are Gout and Aplastic Anemia Related?
- Are Pernicious Anemia and Low Back Pain Related?
- Can Gout Cause Aplastic Anemia?
- What Is Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)?
- How Is Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Measured?
- Why Is Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Measured?
- Anemia During Pregnancy
Medications & Supplements
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