Reactive arthritis is a chronic, systemic rheumatic disease characterized by three conditions, including conjunctivitis, joint inflammation, and genital, urinary, or gastrointestinal system inflammation. Inflammation leads to pain, swelling, warmth, redness, and stiffness of the affected joints. Non-joint areas may experience irritation and pain. Treatment for reactive arthritis depends on which area of the body is affected. Joint inflammation is treated with anti-inflammatory medications. Read more: Reactive Arthritis Article
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Related Disease Conditions
Lower Back Pain
There are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area.
STDs in Men
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted during sexual contact. They may be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites. STDs in men cause no symptoms or symptoms like genital burning, itching, sores, rashes, or discharge. Common infections that are sexually transmitted in men include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, hepatitis C and B, genital warts, human papillomavirus (HPV), and genital herpes. Some STDs in men are treatable while others are not. STDs are diagnosed with tests that identify proteins or genetic material of the organisms causing the infection. The prognosis of an STD depends on whether the infection is treatable or not. Use of latex condoms can help reduce the risk of contracting an STD but it does not eliminate the risk entirely.
Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is typically caused by the consumption of contaminated foods. Symptoms of salmonellosis include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Salmonellosis typically resolves on its own in four to seven days. It's important to increase one's fluid intake to compensate for the fluid lost by vomiting and/or diarrhea.
Acute injuries, medical conditions, and chronic use conditions are causes of knee pain. Symptoms and signs that accompany knee pain include redness, swelling, difficulty walking, and locking of the knee. To diagnose knee pain, a physician will perform a physical exam and also may order X-rays, arthrocentesis, blood tests, or a CT scan or MRI. Treatment of knee pain depends upon the cause of the pain.
Ankle Pain (Tendinitis)
Ankle pain is commonly due to a sprain or tendinitis. The severity of ankle sprains ranges from mild (which can resolve within 24 hours) to severe (which can require surgical repair). Tendinitis of the ankle can be caused by trauma or inflammation.
Plantar fasciitis is inflammation of the ligament underneath the sole of the foot. Symptoms of plantar fasciitis include heel pain, foot pain, tenderness, stiffness, and difficulty walking on hard surfaces. Plantar fasciitis treatment involves icing the area, taking anti-inflammatory medications, using orthotics, and physical therapy.
Arthritis (Joint Inflammation)
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, warmth, swelling, redness and pain. There are over 100 types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus, gout, and pseudogout.
Bone spurs are pointy outgrowths of bone that develop in areas of inflammation or injury. They commonly occur on the heel and spine and may be the result of reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Symptoms include pain, numbness, and tenderness. Treatment focuses on decreasing inflammation and avoiding re-injury.
Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of arthritis that causes chronic inflammation of the spine. The tendency to develop ankylosing spondylitis is genetically inherited. Treatment incorporates medications, physical therapy, and exercise.
Heel spurs -- pointed, bony outgrowths of the heel -- cause localized soft-tissue inflammation and can be located at the back of the heel or under the heel, or beneath the sole of the foot. Heel spurs are treated with ice application and anti-inflammatory medications. Orthotics may also provide some relief.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammation of the colon. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Ulcerative colitis is closely related to Crohn's disease, and together they are referred to as inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment depends upon the type of ulcerative colitis diagnosed.
Balanitis (Inflammation of the Head of the Penis)
Balanitis is a condition in which the skin of the head of the penis becomes inflamed. If the foreskin is also inflamed, it is referred to as balanoposthitis. Balanitis usually occurs in uncircumcised males with symptoms of pain, swelling, and redness at the head of the penis. Often, balanitis is caused by poor hygiene or some medical conditions such as diabetes, and yeast infections. Treatment for balanitis is directed at the cause of the condition and may include creams or other medications.Balanitis is not an STD; however, it may have similar symptoms.
Costochondritis and Tietze Syndrome
Costochondritis is inflammation of the cartilage where the ribs attach to the sternum. Tietze syndrome affects the same region of the chest and causes inflammation, tenderness, and swelling. Anti-inflammatory medications, rest, physical therapy, and cortisone injections are suitable methods of treatment for both costochondritis and Tietze syndrome.
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid. Some of the symptoms of Graves' disease include hand tremors, rapid heartbeat, trouble sleeping, enlarged thyroid, thinning of the skin or fine brittle hair. Causes of Graves' disease are thought to be multifactorial such as genes, gender, stress, and infection. Treatment for Graves' disease is generally medication.
Scleritis is inflammation of the white part of the eye. It may be caused by a serious underlying condition, such as an autoimmune disease. Symptoms include redness, pain, tearing, sensitivity to light, and decreased visual acuity. Treatment may include eye drops as well as treatment for any underlying disease process. Scleritis cannot be prevented.
Psoriatic arthritis is a disease that causes skin and joint inflammation. Symptoms and signs include painful, stiff, and swollen joints, tendinitis, and organ inflammation. Treatment involves anti-inflammatory medications and exercise.
Connective Tissue Disease
Connective tissue disease is when the body's connective tissues come under attack, possibly becoming injured by inflammation. Inherited connective tissue diseases include Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, polymositis, and dermatomyositis are examples of connective tissue diseases that have no known cause.
Enthesitis and Enthesopathy
The area where ligament or tendon inserts to bone is called the enthesis. Inflammation of the enthesis is called enthesitis. An abnormality of the entheses is referred to as enthesopathy. Swelling, stiffness, pain, and warmth are symptoms of enthesitis and enthesopathy. Treatment involves anti-inflammatory drugs, rest, and applying cold packs.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection left untreated causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Still incurable, AIDS describes immune system collapse that opens the way for opportunistic infections and cancers to kill the patient. Early symptoms and signs of HIV infection include flu-like symptoms and fungal infections, but some people may not show any symptoms for years. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the standard treatment for HIV infection. These combination drug regimens have made HIV much less deadly, but a cure or vaccine for the pandemic remains out of reach. HIV is usually transmitted through sexual contact or sharing IV drug needles, but can also infect someone through contact with infected blood. Sexual abstinence, safe sex practices, quitting IV drugs (or at least using clean needles), and proper safety equipment by clinicians and first responders can drastically reduce transmission rates for HIV/AIDS.
SAPHO syndrome is a chronic disorder that involves the skin, bone, and joints. SAPHO syndrome is an eponym for the combination of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis. SAPHO syndrome is related to arthritic conditions such as ankylosing spondylitis and reactive arthritis. Treatment is directed toward the individual symptoms that are present, and includes medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and cortisone medications.
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV infection. Symptoms and signs of AIDS include pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jiroveci, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, seizures, weakness, meningitis, yeast infection of the esophagus, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is used in the treatment of AIDS.
Rheumatology is the study of rheumatic diseases and conditions. Rheumatologists are internal medicine physicians who treat these illnesses, in particular arthritis.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) annually affects one child in every thousand. There are six types of JRA. Treatment of juvenile arthritis depends upon the type the child has and should focus on treating the symptoms that manifest.
Shigellosis is a disease caused by the Shigella bacteria. Bloody diarrhea, stomach cramps, and fever are common symptoms. Mild infections usually resolve on their own. Antibiotics are used to treat more severe cases.
Rheumatoid Arthritis vs. Arthritis
Arthritis is a general term used to describe joint disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a type of arthritis in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the joints, causing chronic inflammation.
Local ResourcesFind a local Rheumatologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Cortisone Injection
- Rheumatoid Factor
- Urinalysis (Urine Test)
- Steroids: for the Treatment of Arthritis
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan)
- Sedimentation Rate
- What Is Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)?
- How Is Knee Arthrocentesis Performed?
- What Is Hip Arthroscopy?
- What Is an Ulnar Gutter Splint Used For?
- What Is Ankle Arthrocentesis?
- What Is Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)?
- What Is Metacarpophalangeal Arthrocentesis?
- What Is a Medial Epicondyle Injection For?
- What Is an Osteochondral Grafting of Articular Cartilage Injuries?
- What Is a Metatarsophalangeal Arthrocentesis?
- What Is the Treatment for Septic Arthritis?
- Buttock Pain
- Burning Urination (Dysuria)
- Penile Pain
- Joint Pain
- Ankle Pain
- Lower Back Pain
- Joint Redness
- Joint Stiffness
- Swollen Joints
- Swollen Knee
- Knee Pain
- Joint Warmth
- Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis)
- Chronic Pain
- Reactive Arthritis
- How to Choose a Doctor
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Doctor: Getting the Most from Your Doctor's Appointment
- Arthritis or Injury: Ice or Heat - Which To Apply
- Can Costochondritis Swelling Extend to the Neck & Back?
- What Kind of Doctor Treats Ankylosing Spodylitis & Reactive Arthritis?
- How Does Ankylosing Spondylitis Affect Eyes and How Is It Treated?
- What Is Meant by Seronegative Arthritis?
- What Causes Early Onset of Hip Osteoarthritis?
- What Causes Heel Spurs?
- What Is Reiter Syndrome?
Medications & Supplements
- Predinsone Side Effects (Adverse Effects)
- Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
- prednisone (Prednisone Intensol, Rayos) Corticosteroid
- ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Nuprin)
- naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn)
- celecoxib (Celebrex)
- indomethacin, Indocin, Indocin-SR (Discontinued Brand in U.S.)
- triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% dental paste (Kenalog Orabase, Oralone)
- methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall)
- sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)
- Aspirin Therapy (Guidelines for Heart Attack and Stroke Prevention)
- sulindac (Clinoril)
- tolmetin (Tolectin [Discontinued Brand])
- Otezla (apremilast) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Side Effects of Xeljanz (tofacitinib)
- Side Effects of Actemra (tocilizumab)
- Side Effects of Tolectin (tolmetin)
- Side Effects of Kineret (anakinra)
- Orencia (abatacept) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions
- Side Effects of Rayos (prednisone)