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What is endoscopy?
- Standard upper gastrointestinal endoscopes (120 cm flexible tubes with a light and camera on their tips) are capable of reaching only a foot or so past the stomach into the small intestine.
- If abnormalities are located within this area, these endoscopes have working channels through which surgical instruments can be passed so that diagnostic and therapeutic procedures such as biopsy and electrocautery can be done.
- Many abnormalities of the small bowel, however, lie further along the small intestine beyond the reach of the standard upper gastrointestinal endoscopes.
- Sometimes a colonoscope, similar to the upper gastrointestinal endoscope but 180 cm in length, can be used to reach a little further into the small intestine, but the additional reach of colonoscopes is limited.
- It is not the length of the endoscope that is the most important problem in reaching further into the small intestine.
- The problem is that the path of the endoscope through the stomach and duodenum is twisty and the endoscopes curl in the stomach. In addition, the small intestine is not fixed in place, and this makes advancement of the endoscopes even more difficult.
What is push endoscopy?
Push endoscopy (also referred to as push enteroscopy) is a procedure that allows diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the upper small intestine. Push endoscopy reaches further into the small intestine than the standard upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (also known as esophagogastroduodenoscopy, EGD).
Endoscopes for push endoscopy are similar in length to colonoscopes, approximately 200cm and have working channels for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. After the endoscope is passed into the duodenum, a more rigid overtube is passed over the endoscope to straighten its path. With the overtube in place, the endoscope then can be advanced without coiling in the stomach.
What are the advantages of push endoscopy?
Push endoscopy is a useful procedure for examining and delivering therapy in the small intestine. For example, for patients with intermittently bleeding angiodysplasias (clusters of weakened blood vessels) located in the small intestine beyond the reach of a standard upper endoscope, push endoscopy can be helpful in both diagnosing the bleeding site as well as in stopping the bleeding.
What are the limitations of push endoscopy?
Push endoscopy has its limitations. Its reach is still limited and cannot diagnose lesions in the distal small intestine (intestine closer to the colon). The major risks of push endoscopy are the same as other endoscopic procedures, bleeding and perforation of the intestine, either due to passage of the endoscope or the accompanying therapeutic procedures. Because of the use of an overtube, the risk of perforation probably is increased over the risks of an endoscope alone.
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Balloon EndoscopyBalloon endoscopy is a procedure to view the small intestine and the digestive track. There are two types of balloon endoscopy, single balloon and double balloon. Balloon endoscopy requires approximately one to three hours for the procedure. Balloon endoscopy is used to treat of diseases of the
- duodenum, and
- colon (large intestine).
CancerCancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Capsule EndoscopyCapsule endoscopy is a video capsule that is swallowed and takes photographs of the small intestine. Preparation for capsule endoscopy is similar to that of colonoscopy. There are limitations to capsule endoscopy, however capsule endoscopy is generally able to diagnose:
- small intestinal tumors,
- and Crohn's disease.
Colon Cancer Prevention
Colorectal cancer is both curable and preventable if it is detected early and completely removed before the cancerous cells metastasize to other parts of the body. Colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy (along with digital rectal examination and stool occult blood testing) are both effective at preventing colo-rectal cancers and detecting early colo-rectal cancers.
Colon Cancer ScreeningColon cancer is preventable by removing precancerous colon polyps, and it is curable if early cancer is surgically removed before cancer spreads to other parts of the body. Therefore, if screening and surveillance programs were practiced universally, there would be a major reduction in the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer.
ColonoscopyA colonoscopy is a procedure whereby a docotor inserts a viewing tube (colonoscope) into the rectum for the purpose of inspecting the colon. Colonoscopy is the best method currently available to diagnose, detect, and treat abnormalities within the colon.
Crohn's DiseaseCrohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease, primarily involving the small and large intestine, but which can affect other parts of the digestive system as well. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and weight loss are common symptoms.
Crohns Disease vs Ulcerative Colitis UCCrohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are diseases that cause inflammation of part of or the entire digestive tract (GI). Crohn's affects the entire GI tract (from the mouth to the anus), while ulcerative colitis or UC only affects the large and small intestine and ilium. Researchers do not know the exact cause of either disease. About 20% of people with Crohn's disease also have a family member with the disease. Researchers believe that certain factors may play a role in causing UC. Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are a type of inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD.
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis both have similar symptoms and signs, for example, nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, weight loss, episodic and/or persistent diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain and cramping, rectal bleeding, bloody stools, joint pain and soreness, eye redness, or pain. Symptoms unique to Crohn’s disease include anemia and skin changes. Symptoms of unique to ulcerative colitis include, certain rashes, an urgency to defecate (have a bowel movement). Doctors diagnose both diseases with similar tests and procedures. While there is no cure for either disease, doctors and other health care professionals can help you treat disease flares, and manage your Crohn's or UC with medication, diet, nutritional supplements, and/or surgery.
Endoscopic UltrasoundEndoscopic ultrasound (EUS) uses ultrasound and endoscopy to take pictures of the digestive tract and the surrounding tissues and organs. EUS may be useful in making several medical determinations, including:
- staging of cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas and rectum,
- staging of lung cancer,
- evaluating chronic pancreatitis,
- studying gallstones and tumors in the bile duct, gallbladder, and liver,
- evaluating reasons for fecal incontinence,
- and studying submucosal lesions.
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- and a lump in the skin where the IV was placed.
Endoscopy is a broad term used to described examining the inside of the body using an lighted, flexible instrument called an endoscope. Endoscopy procedure is performed on a patient to examine the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum; and look for causes of symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, or intestinal bleeding.
IBS-D Irrititable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea
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- loose stools,
- frequent stools,
- abdominal pain,
- diarrhea, and
New non-FDA approved IBS tests may help diagnose IBS and IBS-D. Treatment of IBS-D is geared to toward managing symptoms with diet, medication, and lifestyle changes.
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magnesium citrate-oralMagnesium citrate (Citrate of Magnesia, Citroma) is an OTC medicine that retains water in the intestines to relieve constipation. A magnesium citrate supplement is used for treating heartburn. Side effects include abdominal cramps, diarrhea, bloating, and an electrolyte imbalance. Dosage depends whether it is an adult or child being treated. Magnesium citrate interacts with some antibiotics.
Magnesium citrate (Citrate of Magnesia, Citroma) is an over-the-counter medicine that helps relieve and treat constipation. Magnesium citrate supplements also are used for treating heartburn.
Side effects of magnesium citrate include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, bloating, and an electrolyte imbalance.
Dosage of magnesium citrate depends on a person’s age. Magnesium citrate should not be combined with some antibiotics, for example, doxycycline (Vibramycin), tetracycline, minocycline (Minocin), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), and levofloxacin (Levaquin).
polyethylene glycol (peg) 3350-oralPolyethylene glycol 3350 (Miralax, Glycolax) is a drug used to treat occasional constipation and for bowel preparation prior to procedures. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing, storage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed prior to using this medications.
The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions)Digestion is the complex process of turning the food you eat into the energy you need to survive. The digestive process also involves creating waste to be eliminated, and is made of a series of muscles that coordinate the movement of food. Learn more about digestion and the body parts that make it possible, including the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, anus, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.
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