Pulmonary fibrosis is scarring throughout the lungs. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by many conditions including chronic inflammatory processes, infections, environmental agents, exposure to ionizing radiation, chronic conditions, and certain medications. Symptoms include
Treatment options are dependent on the type of pulmonary fibrosis; lung transplant and/or medications are options.Read more: Pulmonary Fibrosis Article
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Related Disease Conditions
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Life Expectancy)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or IPF is a progressive lung disease. There is no known cause of IPF. Symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, mild fevers, muscle pain, clubbing fingers, and ankle swelling. Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is directed at managing the signs and symptoms of the disease. The prognosis and life expectancy of idiopathic fibrosis is poor.
Interstitial Cystitis (IC) and Painful Bladder Syndrome (PBS)
Interstitial cystitis (IC)/painful bladder syndrome (PBS) is an inflammatory disease of the bladder that can cause ulceration and bleeding of the bladder's lining and can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder. Symptoms of interstitial cystitis may vary among individuals and may even vary with time in the same individual.
Lung cancer kills more men and women than any other form of cancer. Eight out of 10 lung cancers are due to tobacco smoke. Lung cancers are classified as either small-cell or non-small-cell lung cancers.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. Because it can affect multiple other organs of the body, rheumatoid arthritis is referred to as a systemic illness and is sometimes called rheumatoid disease. The 16 characteristic early RA signs and symptoms include the following. Anemia Both sides of the body affected (symmetric) Depression Fatigue Fever Joint deformity Joint pain Joint redness Joint stiffness Joint swelling Joint tenderness Joint warmth Limping Loss of joint function Loss of joint range of motion Many joints affected (polyarthritis)
Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue. It is characterized by the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the skin and organs of the body, leading to thickness and firmness of involved areas. Scleroderma is also referred to as systemic sclerosis, and the cause is unknown. Treatment of scleroderma is directed toward the individual features that are most troubling to the patient.
Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of body tissues caused by autoimmune disease. Lupus can cause disease of the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, joints, and nervous system. When only the skin is involved, the condition is called discoid lupus. When internal organs are involved, the condition is called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a condition that usually affects young or middle-aged adults, is an inflammation of the arteries supplying blood to the sinuses, lungs, and kidneys. Symptoms of granulomatosis with polyangiitis include bloody sputum, fatigue, weight loss, joint pain, sinusitis, shortness of breath, and fever. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis may be fatal within months without treatment. Treatment aims to stop inflammation with high doses of prednisone and cyclophosphamide.
Pulmonary Hypertension (Symptoms, Treatment Medications, Life Expectancy)
Pulmonary hypertension is an increase pressure in the pulmonary arteries that carry blood from the lungs to the heart. The most common symptoms are fatigue and difficulty breathing. If the condition goes undiagnosed, more severe symptoms may occur, for example: Ankle swelling (edema) Heart palpitations Chest pain Dizziness Tiredness Decreased appetite Pain in the upper right side of the belly (abdomen) As pulmonary hypertension worsens, some people with the condition have difficulty performing any activities that require physical exertion. For example: Fainting (syncope) Lightheadedness, particularly during physical activity Swelling in the legs and ankles A bluish color to the lips and skin Researchers and doctors do not know what causes one type of pulmonary hypertension called idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. However, they do know that the can be caused diseases or condition you already have, for example, heart disease, high blood pressure, connective tissue disease, congenital heart disease, liver disease, pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lungs), COPD, and emphysema.People at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension are those who: Live at high altitudes Have a family history of the condition. Have diseases and conditions that may put them at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension Use illegal drugs like cocaine, and certain diet drugs. While there is no cure for pulmonary hypertension, it can be managed and treat it with drugs like diuretics, blood thinners, calcium channel blockers, and using supplemental oxygen to increase blood oxygen levels. The prognosis and life expectancy for a person with pulmonary hypertension depends upon the severity of their condition. REFERENCES: NIH. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. "What is Pulmonary Hypertension?" Updated: Aug 2011 NIH. PubMed Health. "Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)." CDC. Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. "Pulmonary Hypertension Fact Sheet." Updated: Jul 22, 2014.
Cough (Chronic, Persistent Cough in Adults and Children)
Chronic cough is a cough that does not go away and is generally a symptom of another disorder such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinus infection, cigarette smoking, GERD, postnasal drip, bronchitis, pneumonia, medications, and less frequently tumors or other lung disease. Chronic cough treatment is based on the cause, but may be soothed natural and home remedies.
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis is an inflammation of the lung caused by small airborne particles such as bacteria, mold, fungi, or inorganic matter. There are two types of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute and chronic. Symptoms include fever, chills, cough, shortness of breath, body aches. Examples of hypersensitivity pneumonitis include bagassosis, mushroom worker's disease, sauna taker's disease, pigeon breeder's disease, and farmer's lung disease. Most commonly, it results from exposure to pet birds.
Pulmonary fibrosis is scarring throughout the lungs. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by many conditions including chronic inflammatory processes, infections, environmental agents, exposure to ionizing radiation, chronic conditions, and certain medications. Symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing, and diminished exercise tolerance. Treatment options are dependent on the type of pulmonary fibrosis; lung transplant and/or medications are options.
Sarcoidosis, a disease resulting from chronic inflammation, causes small lumps (granulomas) to develop in a great range of body tissues and can appear in almost any body organ. However, sarcoidosis most often starts in the lungs or lymph nodes.
Lung Anatomy (Structure and Function)
The lungs are primarily responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air we breathe and the blood. Eliminating carbon dioxide from the blood is important, because as it builds up in the blood, headaches, drowsiness, coma, and eventually death may occur. The air we breathe in (inhalation) is warmed, humidified, and cleaned by the nose and the lungs.
Asbestos (Exposure Dangers, Testing, Symptoms)
Asbestos is a mineral fiber that is found in soil and rock. Asbestos exposure occurs when asbestos fibers are disturbed and released into the air then and inhaled. Inhaling asbestos fibers causes three lung diseases; asbestosis, lung cancer, and noncancerous lung disease. In asbestosis, the asbestos fibers scar the lungs. Asbestosis and lung cancer have the same symptoms of cough and shortness of breath.Asbestosis progresses slowly, frequently even 20 to 40 years after asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure include can come from a variety of products, for example, drinking water due to the decay of asbestos cement in water mains and erosion of natural deposits (which increases your risk of developing benign intestinal polyps), insulation, vinyl floor tiles, some paints and patching compounds, oil and coal furnaces and doors, heat-resistant fabrics, and automobiles brakes and clutches. Some uses of asbestos are banned; however, most are not. Examples of products banned from using asbestos are commercial, corrugated, and specialty paper, flooring felt, and artificial fireplace embers that contain asbestos. Examples of products not banned from using asbestos include vinyl flooring, clothing, roof and non-roof coatings, friction materials, and some car components.Cancers of the larynx, throat, kidney, esophagusand gallbladder have been linked to asbestos exposure. Treatment is dependent upon the type of condition related to asbestos exposure.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a respiratory disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV. Symptoms include fever and shortness of breath. Patients with SARS often require oxygen and severe cases require mechanical ventilation.
Radon (A Citizen's Guide to Radon)
Radon is a radioactive gas that has been confirmed to cause cancers. About 21,000 individuals die each year due to radon exposure. Radon can be found in the ground, water supply, and the air you breathe. It is found in schools, homes, offices, and other buildings. You can purchase a Radon Test Kit and have the sample sent to the state radon office. Research has shown that the risk of lung cancer from breathing radon in air is much greater than the risk of stomach cancer from swallowing water with radon in it. The EPA offers a Consumers Guide to Radon Reduction so you can take action to reduce radon levels in your home, school, or office. Scientists are more certain about radon risks than from most other cancer-causing substances.
Pulmonary edema (swelling or fluid in the lungs) can either be caused by cardiogenic causes (congestive heart failure, heart attacks, abnormal heart valves) or noncardiogenic causes such as: ARDS, kidney failure, high altitude, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, aspirin overdose, pulmonary embolism, and infections. The treatment of pulmonary edema depends on the cause of the condition.
Interstitial Pneumonitis (Interstitial Lung Disease)
Interstitial lung disease refers to a variety of diseased that thicken the tissue between the lungs' air sacks. Viruses, bacteria, tobacco smoke, environmental factors, cancer, and heart or kidney failure can all cause interstitial lung disease. Shortness of breath, cough, and vascular problems are symptoms caused by interstitial lung disease, and their treatment depends on the underlying cause of the tissue thickening.
Is a Cough Contagious?
There are many types of coughs: for example, dry cough, wet cough, a barking cough, whooping cough, stress induced cough, acute cough, and chronic cough. Cough is a symptom of an underlying condition or disease. Treatment of cough as a symptom is generally with OTC lozenges and liquids. The cause of the cough will be necessary to treat.
Local ResourcesFind a local Pulmonologist in your town
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
- Predinsone Side Effects (Adverse Effects)
- colchicine (Colcrys)
- penicillamine (Cuprimine, Depen)
- azathioprine (Azasan)
- prednisone (Prednisone Intensol, Rayos) Corticosteroid
- prednisolone (Orapred, Pediapred)
- methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall)
- cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
- pirfenidone (Esbriet)
Prevention & Wellness
- Study Spots Ties Between Rheumatoid Arthritis, Other Diseases
- Cluster of Lung Disease Cases Found Among Dentists
- Health Tip: Living with Pulmonary Fibrosis
- Esbriet, Ofev Approved to Treat Deadly Lung Disease
- Donor-Lung Preservation Device Approved
- Scientists Spot New Clues to a Deadly Lung Disease
- Man Dies of Lung Disease After Working With Countertops, Doctors Report
- 2 Drugs Offer Hope for Fatal Lung Disease
- Scleroderma Complications Worse in Blacks Than Whites: Study
- Screening for Other Health Problems May Aid COPD Survival