What are the causes of prostate infection?
If the prostate gland becomes swollen and tender, it is called prostatitis or prostate infection. The prostate gland is a walnut-shaped organ that lies just below a man's urinary bladder. The prostate produces a fluid that goes into the semen. An inflamed or infected prostate gland may be seen in men of all ages. While the exact cause of prostate infection isn’t known, some cases of prostatitis are clearly related to bacterial infections. Bacterial prostatitis isn’t contagious and isn’t a sexually transmitted disease. Below are a few common causes of prostate infection:
- Urinary tract infection
- Severe injury to the groin
- Recurrent use of a urinary catheter
- Prostate biopsy
- Pre-existing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)
What are the common symptoms of prostate infection?
There are four types of prostate infections. Each has its own symptoms:
Acute bacterial prostatitis: This kind of prostatitis is caused by an acute bacterial infection of the prostate. It is diagnosed by an increased presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the urine, semen, and prostatic secretion. Symptoms include:
- Joint and/or muscle aches
- Pain in the area of the perineum, pelvis, and genitals
- Pain/burning with urination and ejaculation
- Symptoms of urinary tract obstruction such as frequent urination (especially at night), urgency (sudden strong urge to urinate), hesitancy (unable to start stream), weak stream, and incomplete voiding
- Lower back and/or lower abdominal pain
- Spontaneous urethral discharge, which is a fluid that is not urine or sperm but the product of an infected or irritated urethra
- Decreased sexual activity or interest
Severe bacterial prostatitis: Severe bacterial prostatitis is caused by recurring bacterial infection of the prostate; the infection does not respond immediately to antibiotics and needs further treatment. Symptoms may be the same as acute bacterial prostatitis.
Severe nonbacterial prostatitis: It is also called chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Patients may exhibit the same symptoms like those of severe bacterial prostatitis, but no bacteria presence is detected in urine, semen, or prostate secretion. Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis is the most common type of prostatitis, but very little is understood about it.
Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: It occurs is when the prostate is inflamed, but the patient shows no symptoms at all. Because of the lack of symptoms, this condition is often diagnosed during tests for infertility or elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level when a large amount of white blood cells is found in ejaculation. The presence of high-level white blood cells in the semen can cause male infertility. Unless fertility is desired, acute inflammatory prostatitis is generally not treated.
What are the remedies for prostate infection?
The common remedies of prostate infection include:
Warm baths called sitz baths
Local heat therapy with hot water bottles or heating pads
- Kegel exercises: Tightening and relaxing the muscles that hold urine in the bladder and hold the bladder in its proper position. These are also called pelvic muscle exercises.
- Myofascial release: Pressing and stretching, sometimes with cooling and warming, of the muscles and soft tissues in the lower back, pelvic region, and upper legs. It is also known as myofascial trigger point release.
Phytotherapy: Plant extracts such as quercetin, bee pollen, and saw palmetto may help in relieve symptoms.
Avoiding food that triggers symptoms such as caffeine, spicy foods, and alcohol
Using a cushion if you will be sitting for a long time
How is prostate infection treated?
Treatment depends on the type of prostatitis. Prostatitis is a treatable condition. Even if the problem cannot be cured, patients may usually get relief from their symptoms by following the recommended treatment.
Treatments include the following:
- Anti-inflammatory medicines such as ibuprofen or paracetmol
- Antibiotic medications may be initially started for 7-14 days; however, they may be taken longer for severe conditions.
- Alpha-blocking agents may improve the urinary stream and often reduce the other voiding symptoms in patients with chronic prostatitis. Alpha-blocking agents include Flomax (tamsulosin) or Uroxatral (alfusozin) for patients with voiding symptoms and those who do not empty their bladders well.
- Other treatments for severe noninfectious prostatitis include the drugs Proscar (finasteride), terazosin, and doxazosin. These drugs relax the muscles of the prostate and bladder to improve urine flow and reduce symptoms.
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Enlarged Prostate (BPH, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia)Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH or enlarged prostate) is very common in men over 50 years of age. Half of all men over the age of 50 develop symptoms of BPH, but few need medical treatment. This noncancerous enlargement of the prostate can impede urine flow, slow the flow of urine, create the urge to urinate frequently and cause other symptoms like complete blockage of urine and urinary tract infections. More serious symptoms are urinary tract infections (UTIs) and complete blockage of the urethra, which may be a medical emergency. BPH is not cancer. Not all men with the condition need treatment, and usually is closely monitored if no symptoms are present. Treatment measures usually are reserved for men with significant symptoms, and can include medications, surgery, microwave therapy, and laser procedures. Men can prevent prostate problems by having regular medical checkups that include a prostate exam.
Common Medical Abbreviations & Terms
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions and information in regard to a patient's health condition, prescription drugs they are to take, or medical procedures that have been ordered. There is no approved this list of common medical abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology used by doctors and other health- care professionals. You can use this list of medical abbreviations and acronyms written by our doctors the next time you can't understand what is on your prescription package, blood test results, or medical procedure orders. Examples include:
- ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
- ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
- cap: Capsule.
- CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea.
- DJD: Degenerative joint disease. Another term for osteoarthritis.
- DM: Diabetes mellitus. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
- HA: Headache
- IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
- JT: Joint
- N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
- p.o.: By mouth. From the Latin terminology per os.
- q.i.d.: Four times daily. As in taking a medicine four times daily.
- RA: Rheumatoid arthritis
- SOB: Shortness of breath.
- T: Temperature. Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the "vital signs."
dutasterideDutasteride is a medication used to treat prostate enlargement (benign prostatic hyperplasia) in adult males by shrinking and slowing the growth of prostate tissue, and relieving urinary symptoms. Dutasteride is not intended for use in women or children. Common side effects of dutasteride include impotence, reduced sexual drive (libido), ejaculation disorder, breast tissue enlargement (gynecomastia) and tenderness, increase in the levels of hormones (luteinizing hormone, testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone), and testicular pain and swelling.
BPH SlideshowBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition cause by an enlarged prostate. Get more information on how an enlarged prostate is diagnosed and available treatment for enlarged prostate glands.
BPH QuizTake the Enlarge Prostate Quiz and challenge your knowledge of prostate problems. Learn causes, symptoms, treatments, and diagnosis as well as little-known facts about the prostate, and what happens to men when the prostate is enlarged.
finasteride (Proscar)Finasteride (Proscar) is a drug prescribed for the treatment of prostate gland enlargement (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH). Side effects are rare but can include impotence and decreased sex drive. Finasteride should not be used by women, children, or male partners of women trying to become pregnant.
Flomax and Viagra for BPH TreatmentFlomax (brand name tamsulosin) is a medication doctors prescribe to males who have an enlarged prostate gland and who are having difficulty urinating due to a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Viagra (brand name sildenafil) is a medication doctors prescribe to men who are having problems getting and sustaining an erection (erectile dysfunction, ED, impotence). Viagra works by increasing blood flow to the penis, which allows for a man to get and keep an erection. Common side effects of Flomax include headache, dizziness, hay fever, anemia, abnormal taste in the mouth, weakness, nausea, and vomiting. Common side effects of Viagra include flushing, muscle pain (myalgia), nausea, back pain, problems with vision, indigestion, headache, rash, nasal congestion, and dizziness.
Is Drinking a Lot of Water Good for Your Prostate?Doctors recommend drinking six to eight glasses of water (or 1.5 to 2 liters) daily. For prostate problems, limit water intake before going to bed at night. This will keep you from waking up at night to urinate repeatedly.
Orgovyx (relugolix)Orgovyx (relugolix) is a prescription medicine used in adults for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Orgovyx may cause serious side effects, including changes in the electrical activity of your heart (QT prolongation). The most common side effects of Orgovyx include hot flashes, increased blood sugar levels, increased blood fat (triglyceride) levels, muscle and joint pain, decreased blood hemoglobin levels, increased liver enzymes, tiredness, constipation, and diarrhea.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men after skin cancer.
- Risk factors include age, family history, ethnicity, and diet.
- Prostate cancer is diagnosed by a digital rectal exam, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, and prostate biopsy.
- Symptoms may include
- frequent need to urinate,
- incontinence, pain,
- blood in the urine,
- fatigue, and more.
- Prognosis and treatment depend on cancer staging.
- Watchful waiting,
- cryotherapy, and
- other management strategies are available.
- Research and clinical trials strive to find new and better treatments for prostate cancer.
Illustrations of ProstateSide View of the Prostate. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis. See a picture of the Prostate and learn more about the health topic.
Prostatitis (Inflammation of the Prostate Gland)Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland. Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include painful or difficulty urinating; fever; chills; body aches; blood in the urine; pain in the rectum, groin, abdomen, or low back; and painful ejaculation or sexual dysfunction. Causes of prostatitis include STDs, bacteria from urinary tract infections, or E. coli. Treatment for prostatitis depends on if it is a bacterial infection or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland.
Prostatitis vs. BPH (Enlarged Prostate): What Is the Difference?Prostatitis and BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia, enlarged prostate gland) are both conditions of the prostate gland. Check out the center below for more medical references on prostate gland conditions, including multimedia (slideshows, images, and quizzes), related disease conditions, treatment and diagnosis, medications, and prevention or wellness.
tamsulosinTamsulosin is a drug prescribed for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, enlarged prostate). The most common adverse effects of tamsulosin are anemia (decreased red blood cells), decreased white blood cells, nausea, vomiting, abnormal taste, increased triglycerides, and weakness. Other side effects include low blood pressure, dizziness, fainting, headache, abdominal pain, weight loss, muscle pain, abnormal ejaculation, upper respiratory tract infections, and rash.
terazosinTerazosin is a medication prescribed for the treatment of the symptoms of urinary obstruction due to an enlarged prostate caused by BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy). Terazosin is also used alone or in combination with another blood pressure medication for the treatment of high blood pressure. Commonly reported side effects of terazosin include postural hypotension, dizziness, weakness, fatigue, headaches, swelling of the legs (edema), palpitations, nasal congestion, sleepiness, decreased libido, impotence, and blurred vision.
testosterone gelTestosterone gel is a topical medication containing testosterone and is prescribed for the treatment of low testosterone levels. The most common side effects of testosterone gel are headache, high blood pressure, acne, abnormal lab tests (for example, glucose and cholesterol tests), application site reactions (for example, itching, blisters, and redness), enlarged prostate, and increased serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels.
Why Do I Have Discharge From My Penis?Penis discharge that is not due to sexual arousal is considered abnormal and may be caused by various conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), STDs, and more. Learn more about causes, types, and treatments.
yohimbineYohimbine is a prescription medicine used to treat male impotence (erectile dysfunction) due to diabetes, vascular conditions or psychological origin. Yohimbine has also been used as a street drug, promoted as an aphrodisiac, hallucinogen, and for weight loss with little scientific evidence Yohimbine is a prescription medicine used to treat male impotence (erectile dysfunction) due to diabetes, vascular conditions, or psychological origin. Yohimbine should not be used by women and children. Yohimbine is not for use in women and pregnant or nursing women certainly should not take it.