What are the causes of prostate infection?
If the prostate gland becomes swollen and tender, it is called prostatitis or prostate infection. The prostate gland is a walnut-shaped organ that lies just below a man's urinary bladder. The prostate produces a fluid that goes into the semen. An inflamed or infected prostate gland may be seen in men of all ages. While the exact cause of prostate infection isn’t known, some cases of prostatitis are clearly related to bacterial infections. Bacterial prostatitis isn’t contagious and isn’t a sexually transmitted disease. Below are a few common causes of prostate infection:
What are the common symptoms of prostate infection?
There are four types of prostate infections. Each has its own symptoms:
Acute bacterial prostatitis: This kind of prostatitis is caused by an acute bacterial infection of the prostate. It is diagnosed by an increased presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the urine, semen, and prostatic secretion. Symptoms include:
- Joint and/or muscle aches
- Pain in the area of the perineum, pelvis, and genitals
- Pain/burning with urination and ejaculation
- Symptoms of urinary tract obstruction such as frequent urination (especially at night), urgency (sudden strong urge to urinate), hesitancy (unable to start stream), weak stream, and incomplete voiding
- Lower back and/or lower abdominal pain
- Spontaneous urethral discharge, which is a fluid that is not urine or sperm but the product of an infected or irritated urethra
- Decreased sexual activity or interest
Severe bacterial prostatitis: Severe bacterial prostatitis is caused by recurring bacterial infection of the prostate; the infection does not respond immediately to antibiotics and needs further treatment. Symptoms may be the same as acute bacterial prostatitis.
Severe nonbacterial prostatitis: It is also called chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Patients may exhibit the same symptoms like those of severe bacterial prostatitis, but no bacteria presence is detected in urine, semen, or prostate secretion. Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis is the most common type of prostatitis, but very little is understood about it.
Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: It occurs is when the prostate is inflamed, but the patient shows no symptoms at all. Because of the lack of symptoms, this condition is often diagnosed during tests for infertility or elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level when a large amount of white blood cells is found in ejaculation. The presence of high-level white blood cells in the semen can cause male infertility. Unless fertility is desired, acute inflammatory prostatitis is generally not treated.
What are the remedies for prostate infection?
The common remedies of prostate infection include:
Warm baths called sitz baths
Local heat therapy with hot water bottles or heating pads
- Kegel exercises: Tightening and relaxing the muscles that hold urine in the bladder and hold the bladder in its proper position. These are also called pelvic muscle exercises.
- Myofascial release: Pressing and stretching, sometimes with cooling and warming, of the muscles and soft tissues in the lower back, pelvic region, and upper legs. It is also known as myofascial trigger point release.
Phytotherapy: Plant extracts such as quercetin, bee pollen, and saw palmetto may help in relieve symptoms.
Using a cushion if you will be sitting for a long time
How is prostate infection treated?
Treatment depends on the type of prostatitis. Prostatitis is a treatable condition. Even if the problem cannot be cured, patients may usually get relief from their symptoms by following the recommended treatment.
Treatments include the following:
- Anti-inflammatory medicines such as ibuprofen or paracetmol
- Antibiotic medications may be initially started for 7-14 days; however, they may be taken longer for severe conditions.
- Alpha-blocking agents may improve the urinary stream and often reduce the other voiding symptoms in patients with chronic prostatitis. Alpha-blocking agents include Flomax (tamsulosin) or Uroxatral (alfusozin) for patients with voiding symptoms and those who do not empty their bladders well.
- Other treatments for severe noninfectious prostatitis include the drugs Proscar (finasteride), terazosin, and doxazosin. These drugs relax the muscles of the prostate and bladder to improve urine flow and reduce symptoms.
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Enlarged Prostate (BPH, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia)Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH or enlarged prostate) is very common in men over 50 years of age. Half of all men over the age of 50 develop symptoms of BPH, but few need medical treatment. This noncancerous enlargement of the prostate can impede urine flow, slow the flow of urine, create the urge to urinate frequently and cause other symptoms like complete blockage of urine and urinary tract infections. More serious symptoms are urinary tract infections (UTIs) and complete blockage of the urethra, which may be a medical emergency. BPH is not cancer. Not all men with the condition need treatment, and usually is closely monitored if no symptoms are present. Treatment measures usually are reserved for men with significant symptoms, and can include medications, surgery, microwave therapy, and laser procedures. Men can prevent prostate problems by having regular medical checkups that include a prostate exam.
BPH SlideshowBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition cause by an enlarged prostate. Get more information on how an enlarged prostate is diagnosed and available treatment for enlarged prostate glands.
BPH QuizTake the Enlarge Prostate Quiz and challenge your knowledge of prostate problems. Learn causes, symptoms, treatments, and diagnosis as well as little-known facts about the prostate, and what happens to men when the prostate is enlarged.
Is Drinking a Lot of Water Good for Your Prostate?Doctors recommend drinking six to eight glasses of water (or 1.5 to 2 liters) daily. For prostate problems, limit water intake before going to bed at night. This will keep you from waking up at night to urinate repeatedly.
Jalyn (dutasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride)Jalyn (dutasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride) is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men with an enlarged prostate. The 2 medications in Jalyn work in different ways to improve symptoms of BPH. Dutasteride shrinks the enlarged prostate and tamsulosin relaxes muscles in the prostate and neck of the bladder. These 2 medications, when used together, can improve symptoms of BPH better than either medication when used alone. Jalyn may cause serious side effects including decreased blood pressure, rare and serious allergic reactions, a higher chance of a more serious form of prostate cancer, eye problems, and a painful erection that will not go away.
Orgovyx (relugolix)Orgovyx (relugolix) is a prescription medicine used in adults for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Orgovyx may cause serious side effects, including changes in the electrical activity of your heart (QT prolongation). The most common side effects of Orgovyx include hot flashes, increased blood sugar levels, increased blood fat (triglyceride) levels, muscle and joint pain, decreased blood hemoglobin levels, increased liver enzymes, tiredness, constipation, and diarrhea.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men after skin cancer.
- Risk factors include age, family history, ethnicity, and diet.
- Prostate cancer is diagnosed by a digital rectal exam, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, and prostate biopsy.
- Symptoms may include
- frequent need to urinate,
- incontinence, pain,
- blood in the urine,
- fatigue, and more.
- Prognosis and treatment depend on cancer staging.
- Watchful waiting,
- cryotherapy, and
- other management strategies are available.
- Research and clinical trials strive to find new and better treatments for prostate cancer.
Illustrations of ProstateSide View of the Prostate. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis. See a picture of the Prostate and learn more about the health topic.
Prostate ProblemsThe prostate is a gland that is part of the male reproductive system and is located between the bladder and penis. Signs and symptoms of prostate problems include painful ejaculation, burning or pain while urinating, blood in the urine or semen, dribbling urine, frequent urination, urinary incontinence, and pain in the lower back, hips, upper thighs, or the pelvic or rectal area. Common causes of prostate problems in men are prostatitis, enlargement of the prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Causes of prostate problems can assist in diagnosing prostate cancer. Treatments for prostate problems include medications, surgery, and hormone or radiation therapy.
Prostatitis (Inflammation of the Prostate Gland)Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland. Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include painful or difficulty urinating; fever; chills; body aches; blood in the urine; pain in the rectum, groin, abdomen, or low back; and painful ejaculation or sexual dysfunction. Causes of prostatitis include STDs, bacteria from urinary tract infections, or E. coli. Treatment for prostatitis depends on if it is a bacterial infection or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland.
Prostatitis vs. BPH (Enlarged Prostate): What Is the Difference?
Prostatitis and BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia, enlarged prostate gland) are both conditions of the prostate gland.
There are four types of prostatitis that can be caused by infections (usually bacterial) or other health conditions or problems, acute bacterial prostatitis (type I), chronic bacterial prostatitis (type II), chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (type III), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (type IV).
BPH is inflammation of the prostate gland, and most men have the condition by age 50. Doctor's don't know what causes this inflammation, but they theorize that it may be related to hormones. Both of these conditions can cause similar symptoms like low back pain, pain during urination, or difficulty or the inability to urinate. However, prostatitis has many more symptoms and signs than BPH, and they based on the type of prostatitis. Examples include low back pain and/or abdominal pain, painful urination, fever, chills, feeling tired, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), painful urination intermittently, intermittent obstruction urinary tract symptoms (frequent, painful, or incomplete urination), pelvic pain and/or discomfort, pain with ejaculation, and erectile dysfunction (ED).
If you think you have either of these conditions contact your doctor or other health care professional. Bacterial prostatitis can be cured with antibiotics; however, there is no cure for BPH.
Rapaflo (silodosin)Rapaflo (silodosin) is an alpha-adrenergic blocker used to improve urination in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate). Side effects of Rapaflo include dizziness, weakness, headache, sleep problems (insomnia), diarrhea, stomach pain, decreased amount of semen released during sex, abnormal ejaculation, runny or stuffy nose, or sore throat.
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