- What Kind of Doctor Do I Need? Slideshow
- Dental (Oral) Health Quiz
- Causes of a Heart Attack Slideshow
- What is prochlorperazine-rectal, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for prochlorperazine-rectal?
- Is prochlorperazine-rectal available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for prochlorperazine-rectal?
- What are the side effects of prochlorperazine-rectal?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with prochlorperazine-rectal?
- Is prochlorperazine-rectal safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about prochlorperazine-rectal?
What is prochlorperazine-rectal, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Prochlorperazine is an antiemetic (to control nausea and vomiting) and first generation antipsychotic agent. Prochlorperazine is one of the older first-generation piperazine phenothiazine antipsychotic medications. Examples of other phenothiazines include:
- fluphenazine (Permitil, Prolixin)
- chlorpromazine (Promapar, Thorazine)
- fluphenazine (Permitil, Prolixin)
- perphenazine, trifluoperazine (Stelazine)
- thioridazine (Mellaril)
Although, the exact mechanism of phenothiazine antipsychotics is unknown, scientists believe that they may work by blocking the action of dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter (chemical) that nerves use to communicate with one another. Phenothiazine antipsychotics are used when patients do not respond to other antipsychotics.
The antiemetic benefits of prochlorperazine are due to dopamine blockade in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the brain. Additionally, prochlorperazine has moderate effects on other neurotransmitters and receptors. Blockade of certain receptors called alpha-adrenergic receptors causes drowsiness, muscle relaxation, and adverse cardiovascular effects such as low blood pressure, reflex tachycardia, and changes in heart rhythm.
Prochlorperazine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1956.
What are the side effects of prochlorperazine-rectal?
Side effects associated with prochlorperazine treatment include:
- Amenorrhea (absence of menstruation)
- Blurred vision
- Skin reactions
- Low blood pressure
The following also have been reported are movement disorders (extrapyramidal symptoms) including:
- Motor restlessness
- Tardive dyskinesia
Additionally, cardiac (heart) and liver abnormalities have occurred in some patients.
Children are prone to develop extrapyramidal reactions more than adults.
Which drugs or supplements interact with prochlorperazine-rectal?
- Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may decrease the effectives of prochlorperazine. Centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may increase the neurotoxic effects of antipsychotic agents.
- Combining prochlorperazine with alcohol, kava kava, CNS depressants, and cannabis may increase the risk of CNS depressant side effects.
- Antacids may decrease the absorption of prochlorperazine.
- Prochlorperazine may cause anticholinergic side effects such as dry mouth, constipation, dry eyes, decreased urinary output, and mental confusion. Combining agents with similar anticholinergic effects increases the risk of experiencing such adverse events.
- Prochlorperazine may increase the blood levels of dofetilide (Tikosyn). Use of both drugs is not recommended.
- Deferoxamine (Desferal) may increase the risk of experiencing side effects of prochlorperazine treatment. Combination use has resulted in the prolonged loss of consciousness.
- Metoclopramide (Reglan) may increase the side effects of antipsychotic agents. Combination use is not recommended.
- Prochlorperazine may increase the CNS depressant effects of orphenadrine (Norflex) or paraldehyde (Paral). Combination use is not recommended.
- Combining prochlorperazine and potassium chloride may result in an increase in the ulcerogenic effect of potassium chloride (Klor-Con). Combination use is generally not recommended.
- Combining prochlorperazine with thalidomide (Thalomid) may increase the risk of experiencing CNS depressant side effects. This combination is generally not recommended.
Is prochlorperazine-rectal safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Prochlorperazine has not been adequately evaluated in pregnant women. Due to the lack of conclusive safety data, prochlorperazine should be avoided in pregnancy except in cases of severe nausea and vomiting that requires treatment and potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is not known if prochlorperazine is excreted into human milk. Other phenothiazines are excreted into breast milk. If clearly needed, prochlorperazine should be used cautiously in females who are nursing.
What else should I know about prochlorperazine-rectal?
What preparations of prochlorperazine-rectal are available?
- Prochlorperazine Edisylate solution for injection: 5 mg/ml
- Prochlorperazine Maleate oral tablet: 5 mg, 10 mg
- Prochlorperazine rectal suppository: 2.5, 5, 25 mg
How should I keep prochlorperazine-rectal stored?
Prochlorperazine injection solution is recommended to be stored below 30 C (86 F). All other dosage forms may be stored between 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F).
Treatment of severe nausea and vomiting
- The dosage must be adjusted based on individual patient response.
- Patients are generally started on the lowest recommended dosage.
- Oral tablets: The usual recommended dose is one 5 mg or 10 mg tablet orally 3-4 times daily.
- Rectal suppository: 25 mg twice daily.
- Intramuscular injection: The usual starting dose is 5 to 10 mg injected deeply into the upper outer quadrant of the buttock. Additional doses may be given every 3 or 4 hours as necessary. Total daily dose should not exceed 40 mg per day except in resistant patients.
- Intravenous (IV) dosage: The usual recommended dose is 2.5 to10 mg by slow IV injection or infusion at a rate not to exceed 5 mg per minute. A single dose should not exceed 10 mg. The total daily dose should not exceed 40 mg per day.
Adult surgery patients with severe nausea or vomiting
- The total daily dose should not exceed 40 mg per day.
- Intramuscular injection: The usual recommended dose is 5 to 10 mg, 1 to 2 hours before the administration of anesthesia. A second dose may be given in 30 minutes if necessary. Repeat doses may also be given to control acute symptoms during and after surgery as needed.
- IV dosage: The usual recommended dose is 5 to 10 mg as a slow IV injection or infusion 15 to 30 minutes before the administration of anesthesia, or to control acute symptoms during or after surgery.
Adult psychiatric disorders
- Individual patient dosage is adjusted based on response and severity of the condition. Treatment is started with the lowest recommended dose.
- Oral dosage: non-psychotic anxiety: The usual recommended dose is 5 mg 3-4 times daily.
- Psychotic disorders including schizophrenia (mild): The usual recommended dose is 5 to 10 mg 3-4 times daily.
- Psychotic disorders including schizophrenia (moderate to severe conditions): The recommended usual starting dose in hospitalized or adequately supervised patients is 10 mg 3-4 times daily. Dosage should be increased in small increments every 2-3 days to minimize the occurrence of side effects. Some patients may have a satisfactory response to 50 to 75 mg per day. Patient with severe symptoms may require 100 to 150 mg per day.
- Intramuscular dosage: For the immediate control of severe schizophrenia symptoms in adult patients, patients may be started with an initial dose of 10 to 20 mg administered deeply into the upper outer quadrant of the buttock. Repeat injections may be given every 2 to 4 hours if necessary.
Pediatric use (dose calculation) is weight-based and the drug should not be used in children < 2 years old.
Prochlorperazine (Compazine, Compro) is an antimetic drug prescribed to treat nausea and vomiting in adults and the management of schizophrenia, and non-psychotic anxiety. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing and storage information, and pregnancy safety should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Schizophrenia Quiz: What is Schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder. Learn more about the challenges of mental illness with the Schizophrenia Quiz....
Surprising Reasons for Weight Gain
There are many reasons for sudden weight gain when there are no changes in diet or exercise. Sudden weight gain could be caused...
Schizophrenia: Symptoms, Types, Causes, Treatment
What is schizophrenia? Learn about schizophrenia symptoms, signs, and treatment. Read about schizophrenia types such as paranoid...
How to Get Rid of Nausea and Vomiting
What is nausea? Do you want to know how to get rid of nausea and how to stop vomiting? Learn home remedies for nausea,...
Epilepsy: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment
Learn about epilepsy stages, symptoms and treatment for this disorder of the brain's electrical system. Epileptic seizures cause...
Anxiety Disorder Pictures: Symptoms, Panic Attacks, and More with Pictures
Learn about generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). See if your worries are normal or something more by learning about symptoms,...
Postpartum Depression: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment
Postpartum depression is a treatable medical illness which affects women after giving birth. Learn about the symptoms, diagnosis...
Related Disease Conditions
Migraine headaches are severe headaches that are sensitive to light, sounds, and smells. Some people who suffer from...
Panic attacks are sudden feelings of terror that strike without warning. These episodes can occur at any time, even during sleep....
Schizophrenia is a disabling brain disorder that may cause hallucinations and delusions and affect a person's ability to...
Holiday Depression, Anxiety, and Stress
Though the holidays are a fun time for most, for others, they're a sad, lonely and anxiety-filled time. Get tips on how to avoid...
Separation anxiety disorder is a common childhood anxiety disorder that has many causes. Infants, children, older kids and adults...
Nausea and Vomiting (Causes, Natural Remedies, Diet, Medication)
Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms...
Schizoaffective disorder is a mental illness that features schizophrenia and a mood disorder, either major depression or bipolar...
Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by symptoms such as trouble concentrating, headaches, sleep problems,...
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by odd behaviors, feelings, perceptions, and ways of relating to others that...
Migraine vs. Headache: Differences and Similarities
Headaches are the most common reason why a person goes to the doctor or other healthcare professional for treatment. There are...
Treatment & Diagnosis
Medications & Supplements
Daily Health News
Subscribe to MedicineNet's General Health Newsletter
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Top prochlorperazine-rectal Related Articles
AnxietyAnxiety is a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by symptoms such as trouble concentrating, headaches, sleep problems, and irritability. Anxiety disorders are serious medical illnesses that affect approximately 19 million American adults. Treatment for anxiety may incorporate medications and psychotherapy.
Epilepsy SlideshowLearn about epilepsy stages, symptoms and treatment for this disorder of the brain's electrical system. Epileptic seizures cause brief impulses in movement, behavior, sensation or awareness that may cause brain damage.
Holiday Depression And StressThough the holidays are a fun time for most, for others, they're a sad, lonely and anxiety-filled time. Get tips on how to avoid depression and stress during the holiday season.
Migraine headaches are severe headaches that are sensitive to light, sounds, and smells. Some people who suffer from migraines also have severe head pain. People also have symptoms of nausea and vomiting. Common migraine triggers may include:
- Certain foods
- Changes in barometric pressure
- Other phenomenon
They are diagnosed by a doctor if the headache pattern fits established migraine headache criteria. Over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications are sometime used to treat acute migraines. To prevent or reduce the frequency and severity of them doctors recommend supplements and prescription medications, for example:
- Blood pressure drugs
- Anti-seizure drugs
Lifestyle modification helps in migraine management. Many people who suffer from migraines get relief from their condition by keeping a headache diary, identifying and avoiding triggers, and taking appropriate medication.
Nausea and Vomiting
Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms of many conditions. There are numerous cases of nausea and vomiting. Some causes may not require medical treatment, for example, motion sickness, and other causes may require medical treatment by a doctor, for example, heart attack, lung infections, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Some causes of nausea and vomiting may be life threatening, for example, heart attack, abdominal obstruction, and cancers.
Treatment of nausea and vomiting depends upon the cause.
Nausea & Vomiting GuideWhat is nausea? Do you want to know how to get rid of nausea and how to stop vomiting? Learn home remedies for nausea, anti-nausea medication, what causes nausea, and other info crucial to nausea relief. Understand why we vomit, how vomiting can be treated or prevented, and more.
Panic DisorderPanic attacks are sudden feelings of terror that strike without warning. These episodes can occur at any time, even during sleep. A person experiencing a panic attack may believe that he or she is having a heart attack or that death is imminent. The fear and terror that a person experiences during a panic attack are not in proportion to the true situation and may be unrelated to what is happening around them. Most people with panic attacks experience several of the following symptoms: racing heartbeat, faintness, dizziness, numbness or tingling in the hands and fingers, chills, chest pains, difficulty breathing, and a feeling of loss or control. There are several treatments for panic attacks.
Schizoaffective DisorderSchizoaffective disorder is a mental illness that features schizophrenia and a mood disorder, either major depression or bipolar disorder. Symptoms include agitation, suicidal thoughts, little need for sleep, delusions, hallucinations, and poor motivation. Treatment may involve psychotherapy, medication, skills training, or hospitalization.
SchizophreniaSchizophrenia is a disabling brain disorder that may cause hallucinations and delusions and affect a person's ability to communicate and pay attention. Symptoms of psychosis appear in men in their late teens and early 20s and in women in their mid-20s to early 30s. With treatment involving the use of antipsychotic medications and psychosocial treatment, schizophrenia patients can lead rewarding and meaningful lives.
Schizophrenia SlideshowWhat is schizophrenia? Learn about schizophrenia symptoms, signs, and treatment. Read about schizophrenia types such as paranoid schizophrenia, catatonic schizophrenia, and disorganized schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia QuizSchizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder. Learn more about the challenges of mental illness with the Schizophrenia Quiz.
Schizotypal Personality DisorderSchizotypal personality disorder is characterized by odd behaviors, feelings, perceptions, and ways of relating to others that interfere with one's ability to function. Medication and psychotherapy can help the sufferer to manage their symptoms.
Separation AnxietySeparation anxiety disorder is a common childhood anxiety disorder that has many causes. Infants, children, older kids and adults can suffer from symptoms of separation anxiety disorder. Common separation anxiety treatment methods include therapy and medications. Factors that contribute to how quickly or successfully a child moves past separation anxiety by preschool age include:
- how well the parent and child reunite,
- the skills the child and adult have at coping with the separation, and
- how well the adult responds to the infant's separation issues.
Surgery QuestionsSurgery is the branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or injury. Prior to surgery you might consider asking your surgeon questions about the operation (procedure).
Weight Gain ShockersThere are many reasons for sudden weight gain when there are no changes in diet or exercise. Sudden weight gain could be caused by sleep issues, medical conditions, certain medications, stress, and more.