Generic drug: darunavir and cobicistat
Brand name: Prezcobix
What is Prezcobix (darunavir and cobicistat), and how does it work?
What are the side effects of Prezcobix?
Prezcobix may cause serious side effects, including:
- Diabetes and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). Some people who take protease inhibitors including Prezcobix can get high blood sugar, develop diabetes, or your diabetes can get worse. Tell your healthcare provider if you notice an increase in thirst or urinate often while taking Prezcobix.
- Changes in body fat can happen in people who take HIV-1 medications. The changes may include an increased amount of fat in the upper back and neck (“buffalo hump”), breast, and around the middle of your body (trunk). Loss of fat from the legs, arms, and face may also happen. The exact cause and long-term health effects of these conditions are not known.
- Changes in your immune system (Immune Reconstitution Syndrome) can happen when you start taking HIV1 medicines. Your immune system may get stronger and begin to fight infections that have been hidden in your body for a long time. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you start having new symptoms after starting your HIV-1 medicine.
- Increased bleeding for hemophiliacs. Some people with hemophilia have increased bleeding with protease inhibitors including Prezcobix.
The most common side effects of darunavir, one of the medicines in Prezcobix, include:
These are not all of the possible side effects of Prezcobix. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What is the dosage for Prezcobix?
Prezcobix is a fixed-dose combination product containing 800 mg of darunavir and 150 mg of cobicistat. In treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced adults and pediatric patients weighing at least 40 kg with no darunavir resistance-associated substitutions, the recommended dosage of Prezcobix is one tablet taken once daily orally with food. Administer Prezcobix in conjunction with other antiretroviral agents.
Testing Prior To Initiation Of Prezcobix
HIV Genotypic Testing
- HIV genotypic testing is recommended for antiretroviral treatment-experienced patients.
- However, when HIV genotypic testing is not feasible, Prezcobix can be used in protease inhibitor-naïve patients, but is not recommended in protease inhibitor-experienced patients.
- Prior to starting Prezcobix, assess estimated creatinine clearance because cobicistat decreases estimated creatinine clearance due to inhibition of tubular secretion of creatinine without affecting actual renal glomerular function.
- When co-administering Prezcobix with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir DF) assess estimated creatinine clearance, urine glucose, and urine protein at baseline.
Not Recommended In Severe Renal Impairment
- Prezcobix co-administered with tenofovir DF is not recommended in patients who have an estimated creatinine clearance below 70 mL per minute.
Not Recommended In Severe Hepatic Impairment
- Prezcobix is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Not Recommended During Pregnancy
- Prezcobix is not recommended during pregnancy because of substantially lower exposures of darunavir and cobicistat during the second and third trimesters.
- Prezcobix should not be initiated in pregnant individuals. An alternative regimen is recommended for those who become pregnant during therapy with Prezcobix.
What drugs interact with Prezcobix?
Potential For Prezcobix To Affect Other Drugs
- Darunavir co-administered with cobicistat is an inhibitor of CYP3A and CYP2D6. Cobicistat inhibits the following transporters:
- P-glycoprotein (P-gp),
- BCRP, MATE1, OATP1B1 and
- Therefore, co-administration of Prezcobix with drugs that are primarily metabolized by CYP3A and/or CYP2D6 or are substrates of P-gp, BCRP, MATE1, OATP1B1 or OATP1B3 may result in increased plasma concentrations of such drugs, which could increase or prolong their therapeutic effect and can be associated with adverse events.
- Co-administration of Prezcobix with drugs that have active metabolite(s) formed by CYP3A may result in reduced plasma concentrations of these active metabolite(s), potentially leading to loss of their therapeutic effect (see Table 1).
Potential For Other Drugs To Affect Prezcobix
- Darunavir is metabolized by CYP3A. Cobicistat is metabolized by CYP3A, and to a minor extent, by CYP2D6.
- Co-administration of Prezcobix and drugs that induce CYP3A activity are expected to increase the clearance of darunavir and cobicistat, resulting in lowered plasma concentrations of darunavir and cobicistat which may lead to loss of therapeutic effect and development of resistance.
- Co-administration of Prezcobix and other drugs that inhibit CYP3A may result in increased plasma concentrations of darunavir and cobicistat (see Table 1).
Established And Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions
- Table 1 provides dosing recommendations for expected clinically relevant interactions with Prezcobix (this table is not all inclusive). These recommendations are based on either drug interaction trials or predicted interactions due to the expected magnitude of interaction and potential for serious adverse events or loss of therapeutic effect.
- The table includes potentially significant interactions but is not all inclusive. See prescribing information for the list of contraindicated drugs.
Table 1: Established and Other Potentially Significant* Drug Interactions: Alterations in Dose or Regimen May Be Recommended
|Concomitant Drug Class:|
|Effect on Concentration of Darunavir, Cobicistat, or Concomitant Drug||Clinical Comment|
|HIV-1 antiviral agents: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)|
|Didanosine||↔ darunavir||Didanosine should be administered one hour before or two hours after Prezcobix (administered with food).|
|HIV-1 antiviral agents: Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)|
|Efavirenz||↓ cobicistat||Co-administration with efavirenz is not recommended because it may result in loss oftherapeutic effect and development of resistance to darunavir.|
|Etravirine||↓ cobicistat darunavir: effect unknown||Co-administration with etravirine is not recommended because it may result in loss oftherapeutic effect and development of resistance todarunavir.|
|Nevirapine||↓ cobicistat darunavir: effect unknown||Co-administration with nevirapine is notrecommended because it may result in loss oftherapeutic effect and development of resistance to darunavir.|
|HIV-1 antiviral agents: CCR5 co-receptor antagonists|
|Maraviroc||↑ maraviroc||Maraviroc is a substrate of CYP3A. When co-administered with Prezcobix, patients shouldreceive maraviroc 150 mg twice daily.|
|Alpha 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist:||↑ alfuzosin||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for serious and/or life-threateningreactions such as hypotension.|
|clarithromycin, erythromycin, telithromycin||↑ darunavir||Consider alternative antibiotics with concomitant use of Prezcobix.|
|Anticancer agents:||↑ anticancer agent||A decrease in the dosage or an adjustment of the dosing interval of dasatinib or nilotinib may benecessary when co-administered with Prezcobix. Consult the dasatinib and nilotinib prescribing information for dosing instructions.|
|vinblastine, vincristine||For vincristine and vinblastine, consider temporarily withholding the cobicistat-containing antiretroviral regimen in patients who developsignificant hematologic or gastrointestinal sideeffects when Prezcobix is administered concurrently with vincristine or vinblastine. If the antiretroviral regimen must be withheld for aprolonged period, consider initiating a revised regimen that does not include a CYP3A or P-gpinhibitor.|
|Anticoagulants:||↑ apixaban||Due to potentially increased bleeding risk, dosingrecommendations for co-administration of apixabanwith Prezcobix depends on the apixaban dose. Refer to apixaban dosing instructions forco-administration with strong CYP3A and P-gpinhibitors in apixaban prescribing information.|
|Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs)|
|rivaroxaban||↑ rivaroxaban||Co-administration of rivaroxaban with Prezcobix is not recommended because it may lead to an increased bleeding risk.|
|betrixaban||↔ betrixaban||No dose adjustment is needed when betrixaban,dabigatran, or edoxaban is co-administered withPrezcobix.|
|warfarin||warfarin: effect unknown||Monitor the international normalized ratio (INR) when co-administering with warfarin.|
|Anticonvulsants:||↓ darunavir||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for reduced plasma concentrations of darunavir, which may result in loss of therapeuticeffect and development of resistance.|
|carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin||↓ cobicistat|
|Anticonvulsants with CYP3A induction effects that are NOT contraindicated:||↓ cobicistat darunavir: effect unknown||Consider alternative anticonvulsant or antiretroviral therapy to avoid potential changes in exposures. If co-administration is necessary, monitor for lack orloss of virologic response.|
|e.g. eslicarbazepine, oxcarbazepine|
|Anticonvulsants that are metabolized by CYP3A:||↑ clonazepam||Clinical monitoring of anticonvulsants is recommended.|
|Antidepressants:||SSRIs: effects unknown||When co-administering with SSRIs, TCAs, ortrazodone, careful dose titration of the antidepressant to the desired effect, including using the lowest feasible initial or maintenance dose, and monitoring for antidepressant response arerecommended.|
|Selective Serotonin ReuptakeInhibitors (SSRIs):|
|e.g. paroxetine, sertraline|
|Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs):||↑ TCAs|
|e.g. amitriptyline, desipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline|
|Other antidepressants:||↑ trazodone|
|Antifungals:||↑ darunavir||Monitor for increased darunavir or cobicistat and/or antifungal adverse reactions.|
|itraconazole, isavuconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole||↑ cobicistat|
|↑ itraconazole||Specific dosing recommendations are not available for co-administration with these antifungals.Monitor for increased itraconazole or ketoconazole adverse reactions.|
|voriconazole||↔ posaconazole voriconazole: effects unknown||Co-administration with voriconazole is not recommended unless benefit/risk assessmentjustifies the use of voriconazole.|
|↑ colchicine||Co-administration is contraindicated in patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment due topotential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions.|
|For patients without renal or hepatic impairment:|
|Antimalarial:||artemether: effect unknown||Monitor for a potential decrease of antimalarial efficacy or potential QT prolongation.|
|artemether/lumefantrine||lumefantrine: effect unknown|
|Antimycobacterials:||↓ darunavir||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for loss of therapeutic effect anddevelopment of resistance.|
|rifabutin||↑ rifabutin cobicistat: effects unknown darunavir: effects unknown||When used in combination with Prezcobix, the recommended dose of rifabutin is 150 mg everyother day. Monitor for rifabutin-associated adverse reactions including neutropenia and uveitis.|
|rifapentine||↓ darunavir||Co-administration with rifapentine is not recommended.|
|↑ lurasidone||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions.|
|pimozide||↑ pimozide||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as cardiac arrhythmias.|
|e.g. perphenazine, risperidone, thioridazine||↑ antipsychotic||A decrease in the dose of antipsychotics that aremetabolized by CYP3A or CYP2D6 may be needed when co-administered with Prezcobix.|
|quetiapine||↑ quetiapine||Initiation of Prezcobix in patients taking quetiapine: Consider alternative antiretroviral therapy to avoid increases in quetiapine exposure. Ifco-administration is necessary, reduce thequetiapine dose to 1/6 of the current dose and monitor for quetiapine-associated adverse reactions. Refer to the quetiapine prescribinginformation for recommendations on adverse reaction monitoring.|
|Initiation of quetiapine in patients taking Prezcobix: Refer to the quetiapine prescribinginformation for initial dosing and titration of quetiapine.|
|β-Blockers:||↑ beta-blockers||Clinical monitoring is recommended for co-administration with beta-blockers that are metabolized by CYP2D6.|
|e.g. carvedilol, metoprolol,timolol|
|Calcium channel blockers:||↑ calcium channel blockers||Clinical monitoring is recommended for co-administration with calcium channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A.|
|e.g. amlodipine, diltiazem, felodipine, nifedipine, verapamil|
|ranolazine, ivabradine||↑ ranolazine||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions.|
|dronedarone||↑ dronedarone||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for serious and/or life-threateningreactions such as cardiac arrhythmias.|
|e.g. amiodarone, disopyramide, flecainide, lidocaine (systemic), mexiletine, propafenone, quinidine digoxin||↑ antiarrhythmics||Clinical monitoring is recommended upon co-administration with antiarrhythmics.|
|↑ digoxin||When co-administering with digoxin, titrate thedigoxin dose and monitor digoxin concentrations.|
|Systemic/Inhaled/ Nasal/ Ophthalmic Corticosteroids: e.g.||↓ darunavir||Co-administration with systemic dexamethasone or other systemic corticosteroids that induce CYP3Amay result in loss of therapeutic effect anddevelopment of resistance to Prezcobix. Consider alternative corticosteroids.|
|betamethasone||Co-administration with corticosteroids of which exposures are significantly increased by strongCYP3A inhibitors can increase the risk for Cushing’s syndrome and adrenal suppression.Alternative corticosteroids includingbeclomethasone, prednisone and prednisolone (for which PK and/or PD are less affected by strongCYP3A inhibitors relative to other steroids) shouldbe considered, particularly for long term use.|
|Endothelin receptor antagonists:||↓ darunavir||Initiation of bosentan in patients taking Prezcobix: In patients who have been receiving Prezcobix for at least 10 days, start bosentan at 62.5 mg once daily or every other day based uponindividual tolerability.|
|Initiation of Prezcobix in patients on bosentan: Discontinue use of bosentan at least 36 hours priorto initiation of Prezcobix. After at least 10 days following the initiation of Prezcobix, resumebosentan at 62.5 mg once daily or every other day based upon individual tolerability.|
|Switching from darunavir co-administered with ritonavir to Prezcobix in patients on bosentan: Maintain bosentan dose.|
|Ergot derivatives:||↑ ergot derivatives||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as acute ergot toxicity characterized by peripheral vasospasm and ischemia of the extremities and other tissues.|
|e.g. dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methylergonovine|
|GI motility agent:||↑ cisapride||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for serious and/or life-threateningreactions such as cardiac arrhythmias.|
|Hepatitis C virus (HCV):||↑ elbasvir/grazoprevir||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for the increased risk of alanine transaminase (ALT) elevations.|
|glecaprevir/pibrentasvir||↑ glecaprevir||Co-administration of Prezcobix with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir is not recommended.|
|Herbal product:||↓ darunavir||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for reduced plasma concentrations of darunavir, which may result in loss of therapeuticeffect and development of resistance.|
|St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum)||↓ cobicistat|
|Hormonal contraceptives:||Additional or alternative (non-hormonal) forms of contraception should be considered when estrogen-containing contraceptives are co-administered with Prezcobix [see Use In Specific Populations].|
|drospirenone/ ethinylestradiol||↑ drospirenone|
|↓ ethinylestradiol||For co-administration with drospirenone, clinical monitoring is recommended due to the potential forhyperkalemia.|
|Other progestin/ estrogen contraceptives||progestin: effectsunknown estrogen: effects unknown||No data are available to make recommendations on co-administration with other hormonal contraceptives.|
|Immunosuppressants:||↑ immunosuppressants||These immunosuppressant agents are metabolizedby CYP3A. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended with concomitant use|
|cyclosporine, sirolimus, tacrolimus|
|Immunosuppressant /neoplastic:||↑ immunosuppressants||Co-administration of everolimus and Prezcobix is not recommended.|
|irinotecan||Discontinue Prezcobix at least 1 week prior tostarting irinotecan therapy. Do not administer Prezcobix with irinotecan unless there are no therapeutic alternatives.|
|Inhaled beta agonist:||↑ salmeterol||Co-administration with salmeterol is not recommended and may result in increased risk ofcardiovascular adverse events associated with salmeterol, including QT prolongation, palpitations, and sinus tachycardia.|
|Lipid Modifying Agents|
|HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors:||↑ lovastatin||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for serious reactions such as myopathy including rhabdomyolysis.|
|lovastatin, simvastatin||↑ simvastatin|
|atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin||↑ atorvastatin||For atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin,pravastatin, and rosuvastatin, start with the lowest recommended dose and titrate while monitoring forsafety (e.g. myopathy).|
|↑ rosuvastatin pitavastatin: effect unknown||Dosage recommendations with atorvastatin orrosuvastatin are as follows:|
|Other lipid modifying agents:||↑ lomitapide||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for markedly increased transaminases associated with increased plasma concentrations oflomitapide.|
|Narcotic analgesics metabolized by CYP3A:||↑ fentanyl||Careful monitoring of therapeutic effects and adverse reactions associated with CYP3Ae metabolized narcotic analgesics (includingpotentially fatal respiratory depression) is recommended with co-administration.|
|e.g. fentanyl, oxycodone||↑ oxycodone|
|tramadol||↑ tramadol||A dose decrease may be needed for tramadol with concomitant use.|
|Narcotic analgesic for treatment of opioiddependence:||buprenorphine or buprenorphine/ naloxone:effects unknown methadone: effects unknown||Initiation of buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone or methadone in patientstaking Prezcobix: Carefully titrate the dose of buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone ormethadone to the desired effect; use the lowest feasible initial or maintenance dose.|
|buprenorphine, buprenorphine/ naloxone, methadone|
|Initiation of Prezcobix in patients takingbuprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone or methadone: A dose adjustment for buprenorphine,buprenorphine/naloxone or methadone may be needed. Monitor clinical signs and symptoms.|
|↑ naloxegol||Co-administration of Prezcobix and naloxegolis contraindicated due to potential for precipitating opioid withdrawal symptoms.|
|Phosphodiesterase PDE-5 inhibitors:||↑ PDE-5 inhibitors||Co-administration with avanafil is not recommended because a safe and effective avanafil dosage regimen has not been established.|
|e.g. avanafil, sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil|
|Co-administration with PDE-5 inhibitors may result in an increase in PDE-5 inhibitor-associated adverse reactions including hypotension, syncope, visualdisturbances and priapism.|
|Use of PDE-5 inhibitors for pulmonary arterialhypertension (PAH):|
Co-administration with sildenafil used for PAH is contraindicated due to potential for sildenafil associated adverse reactions (which include visualdisturbances, hypotension, prolonged erection, andsyncope).
|The following dose adjustments are recommendedfor use of tadalafil with
|Use of PDE-5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction: Sildenafil at a single dose not exceeding 25 mg in48 hours, vardenafil at a single dose not exceeding 2.5 mg dose in 72 hours, or tadalafil at a single dose not exceeding 10 mg dose in 72 hours can be used with increased monitoring for PDE-5inhibitor-associated adverse reactions.|
|Platelet aggregation inhibitor:|
|ticagrelor||↑ ticagrelor||Co-administration of Prezcobix and ticagrelor isnot recommended.|
|clopidogrel||↓ clopidogrel active metabolite||Co-administration of Prezcobix with clopidogrel is not recommended due to the potential reduction of the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel.|
|prasugrel1||↔ prasugrel activemetabolite||No dose adjustment is needed when prasugrel isco-administered with Prezcobix.|
|orally administeredmidazolam, triazolam||↑ triazolam||Co-administration is contraindicated due to potential for serious and/or life-threateningreactions such as prolonged or increased sedation orrespiratory depression. Triazolam and orally administered midazolam are extensivelymetabolized by CYP3A. Co-administration oftriazolam or orally administered midazolam with Prezcobix may cause large increases in theconcentrations of these benzodiazepines. With concomitant use, titration is recommended with sedatives/hypnotics metabolized by CYP3Aand a lower dose of the sedatives/hypnotics should be considered with monitoring for increased andprolonged effects or adverse reactions. Co-administration of parenteral midazolam should be done in a setting that ensures close clinicalmonitoring and appropriate medical management in case of respiratory depression and/or prolongedsedation. Dose reduction for parenteral midazolamshould be considered, especially if more than a single dose of midazolam is administered.|
|metabolized by CYP3A:|
e.g. buspirone, diazepam, estazolam, zolpidem
|parenterally administered midazolam|
|fesoterodine||↑ fesoterodine||When fesoterodine is co-administered with Prezcobix, do not exceed a fesoterodine dose of 4 mg once daily.|
|solifenacin||↑ solifenacin||When solifenacin is co-administered with Prezcobix, do not exceed a solifenacin dose of 5 mg once daily.|
|* this table is not all inclusive|
Drugs Without Clinically Significant Interactions With Prezcobix
- Clinically relevant drug-drug interactions have not been observed or are not anticipated with concomitant use of darunavir and cobicistat with rilpivirine, dolutegravir, raltegravir, abacavir, emtricitabine, emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide, tenofovir DF, lamivudine, stavudine, zidovudine, or acid modifying medications (antacids, H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors).
Latest HIV News
Daily Health News
Is Prezcobix safe to use while pregnant or breastfeeding?
- There are insufficient data with Prezcobix in pregnant individuals from the APR to inform a drug-associated risk of pregnancy outcomes.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV.
- There are no data on the presence of darunavir or cobicistat in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production.
- Darunavir and cobicistat are present in the milk of lactating rats (see Data). Because of the potential for (1) HIV transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants), and (3) serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving Prezcobix.
Prezcobix (darunavir and cobicistat) is a prescription medicine that is used with other HIV-1 medicines to treat HIV-1 infection in adults and in children who weigh at least 88 pounds (40 kg). Serious side effects of Prezcobix include diabetes and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), changes in body fat, changes in your immune system (Immune Reconstitution Syndrome), and increased bleeding for hemophiliacs.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
HIV AIDS: Myths and Facts
What is HIV versus AIDS? What are the symptoms of HIV? Is there an HIV cure? Discover myths and facts about living with HIV/AIDS....
What Are HIV & AIDS? Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Learn about HIV positive, being HIV...
HIV & AIDS Quiz: HIV Testing & Symptoms
Now, more than ever, you should know about HIV/AIDS, especially its causes, symptoms treatments, and complications. Take the...
Picture of HIV Lipodystrophy
HIV lipodystrophy describes a constellation of changes in subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution in patients on...
Picture of HIV Lipodystrophy Treatment
HIV lipodystrophy describes a constellation of changes in subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution in patients on...
Related Disease Conditions
HIV Early Signs and Stages
Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV, destroys important cells that fight disease and infection, which weakens a person's immune system. Some people with HIV don’t have any signs or symptoms. Early signs and symptoms of HIV infection include mononucleosis-like or flu-like symptoms, which include body aches, fever, and headache. Signs and symptoms begin around seven or eight years after HIV infection, which include weight loss, loss of energy and appetite, and swollen lymph nodes. There are 3 stages of HIV.
HIV and AIDS
Second Source article from WebMD
Can HIV be Cured Naturally?
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If someone has HIV it means that they have been diagnosed with the HIV infection. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome); however, is the most advanced or final stage of the HIV infection. It is important to get tested for HIV in the early stages of infection to minimize the damage to the immune system. Successful treatment aims to reduce HIV load to a level that is harmless to the body.
HIV vs. AIDS
Human immunodeficiency virus causes HIV infection. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition that results after HIV has extensively damaged a person's immune system. Risk factors for HIV and AIDS include use of contaminated needles or syringes, unprotected sex, STDs, receiving a blood transfusion prior to 1985 in the United States, having many sex partners, and transmission from a mother to her child.
HIV/AIDS Testing: Diagnosis and Monitoring
HIV/AIDS diagnosis and monitoring have come a long way from the days when a diagnosis was a death sentence. Crucial parts of the effective treatment regimens developed in the last 40 years are consistent monitoring of the viral load (the amount of virus in the blood), and the immune cell count, which function as biological markers of the disease’s progression. Doctors also must test for drug resistance.
HIV/AIDS Facts: What Is HIV?
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the precursor infection to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). HIV is transmitted through blood and genital secretions; most people get it through sexual contact or sharing needles for illegal IV drug use. HIV can be controlled by a strict drug regimen, but left unchecked, it leads to AIDS. In AIDS, the immune system collapses and the body falls prey to secondary, opportunistic infections and cancers that typically kill the person.
HIV/AIDS Infection Transmission and Prevention
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is spread through contact with genital fluids or blood of an infected person. The spread of HIV can occur when these secretions come in contact with tissues such as those lining the vagina, anal area, mouth, eyes (the mucus membranes), or with a break in the skin, such as from a cut or puncture by a needle.
HIV Medications List and Drug Charts
The ultimate goal of HIV treatment is getting the viral load down below detectable levels. As long as those viral load and antibody levels are below a proscribed range, people with HIV can stave off AIDS and other serious symptoms. Antiviral treatment options usually include combinations of two NRTIs, often referred to as "nucs," and a third drug, typically being a boosted protease inhibitor, a NNRTI, often called "non-nucs," and integrase strand transfer inhibitors.
When should you start HIV medication?
Nearly everyone who is infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) should start antiviral medication therapy as soon as they are diagnosed. Older guidelines recommended delaying treatment to help reduce the potential for drug side effects and viral resistance to treatment. Current thinking theorizes that early treatment may preserve more of the body's immune function.
What Are the Side Effects of HIV Medications?
It’s important to know the potential side effects of all the drugs you take to control your HIV infection, as well as potential drug interactions. All of the NNRTIs (nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors), for example, are associated with important drug-drug interactions so they must be used with caution in patients on other medications. Learn more about the side effects of the drugs in standard treatment regimens.
HIV Life Expectancy and Long-term Outlook
With early diagnosis and proper treatment, people with HIV can live a healthy and long life. There is no generalized definitive period for which a person with HIV can live.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- HIV-AIDS FAQs
- HIV Treatment, Medications, and Prevention
- HIV Urine Test Approved
- HIV Treatment - To Interrupt or Not
- Unprotected Sex Between HIV-Infected Partners: What's the Harm?
- HIV Transmission and Progression to AIDS Continues
- Physical and Biochemical Changes in HIV Disease
- Babies On The Breast Of HIV Moms
- Retrovirus & Opportunistic Infections Part II
- Can HIV Cause Kaposi's Sarcoma?
- Do You Need Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV with No Symptoms?
- Does HIV Cause Colorectal Cancer?
- Does Anti-Retroviral Therapy for HIV Cause Diabetes?
- How Long Should You Wait to Get an HIV Test?
- What Liver Problems Does HIV Cause?
- Does Circumcision Prevent HIV and AIDS?
- HIV Infection Facts, History, Causes, and Risk Factors
- HIV Tests, Symptoms, Signs, and Stages of Infection
- Baby "Cured" of HIV Infection
Medications & Supplements
- How Effective Is ART for HIV Infection?
- What Are NNRTIs In Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection?
- What Are NRTIs in Antiretroviral Therapy For HIV Infection?
- How Do Protease Inhibitors Work in Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection?
- What ART Drugs Prevent HIV Entry into the Human Immune Cell?
- How Do Integrase Strand-Transfer Inhibitors Work in Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection?
- Symtuza (darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide)
- Stribild (elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate)
- Genvoya (elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide)
- What Are the Single-Tablet ART Regimens for HIV Infection?
- darunavir, TMC-114; Prezista
- Prezista (darunavir)
- Tybost (cobicistat)
Subscribe to MedicineNet's General Health Newsletter
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.