Postpartum Depression: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Reviewed on 10/11/2021

What Is Postpartum Depression (PPD)?

Post pregnancy can be a tough time for some women.

New Mothers Can Suffer

Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that affects some women after pregnancy and childbirth. Symptoms can include anxiety, deep sadness, and exhaustion. The symptoms may be so severe that they interfere with a mom's ability to carry out daily activities and care for themselves, their babies, and others.

A Real Mental Health Condition

Postpartum depression is more than just the baby blues. It is not possible to just "snap out of" it. Postnatal depression is a real mental health condition that requires proper diagnosis and treatment. The feelings of sadness and depressive symptoms a mother has postpartum cannot be talked away. This is a physical illness that responds to medical intervention. Baby blues are less severe and resolve more quickly than PPD.

Depression Takes a Toll

Depression takes a toll on mental health.

It Lasts More Than a Few Weeks

A woman's hormones change after childbirth. It's an adjustment to have a new member of the family. Insomnia contributes to stress. Some depression and sadness after giving birth are normal, but if they persist for more than a few weeks, PPD may be present. The levels of two hormones, estrogen and progesterone, drop very quickly after a new mom gives birth. This change triggers postpartum depression mood swings. Treatment with antidepressants and therapy can help a mother feel better.

It's Hard to Sleep

Lack of sleep contributes to the condition.

Lack of Rest Contributes to the Condition

A new mother who has postnatal depression may have difficulty sleeping, either sleeping too much or too little. She may have trouble falling asleep. She may want to sleep when the infant does but may not be able to. When a woman has postpartum depression, sleep deprivation contributes to worsening of symptoms. Frequent nighttime feedings also make it difficult to get sufficient rest. It's important for a new mother to take naps during the day when the infant is sleeping to make up for nighttime sleep deficits. She will feel better if she rests whenever she can.

Appetite Changes

You may eat too much or too little with depression.

Depression and Appetite

Depressive episodes may cause a new mother to eat too much or too little. Complete loss of appetite may happen in some women who have postpartum depression. Pregnancy and childbirth can deplete the body of nutrients. Breastfeeding also increases a woman's nutritional requirements. It is critical that a mom get adequate nutrition throughout pregnancy and after giving birth to support her body, especially if she is breastfeeding. The body requires a lot of support during the postpartum period.

Anxiety and Irritability

Anxiety is a common symptom.

Hormones and Mood

Postpartum depression is associated with alterations in hormone levels. After giving birth, hormone levels drop, and anxiety may result. A mom who has depression in the postpartum period may feel anxious, restless, scared, and irritable. Her mind may race and she can worry excessively. Some women worry specifically about the health and safety of their baby. You may feel completely overwhelmed by having to take care of a new baby. Anxiety is a common symptom of PPD. Treatment is available so new mothers do not have to suffer and they are able to take care of their child.

Mood Swings

Mood swings may happen after pregnancy.

Ups and Downs May Occur

A woman who has postnatal depression may be laughing one minute and crying the next. Some mood changes are normal after giving birth, but if they persist weeks or months later, it may be a symptom of postpartum depression. Falling hormone levels after giving birth may trigger mood swings in some new mothers. Medication, specifically antidepressants, can treat mood swings and minimize symptoms.

Is It Baby Blues or Depression?

PPD is more than just the baby blues.

How to Tell the Difference

Having a baby is a life-changing event that affects a mother physically, mentally, and emotionally. It's normal to have some depression and mood swings in the first couple of weeks after giving birth. Crying spells and feelings of anxiety or sadness are also normal during this time. If, however, these symptoms persist or get worse over time, it may mean a new mom has PPD.

When to Get Help

Seek immediate help if you're considering suicide.

Reach Out

Women who have postpartum depression may suffer severe symptoms that require immediate intervention. If symptoms get worse or a mother has difficulty caring for herself or for her baby, it's time to seek help. If symptoms last more than 2 weeks, it's time to see a health care provider. If anyone has thoughts of harming themselves or others, including their child, call the national suicide hotline at 1-800-273- TALK.

Could It be Thyroid Trouble?

Rule out thyroid disorders and other health problems.

Depression vs. Thyroid Disorders

Do you have depression, or do you need thyroid hormone? Many symptoms associated with depression -- weight gain, fatigue, constipation, dry skin, and forgetfulness -- are also symptoms of an underactive thyroid gland. A new mom who is experiencing these symptoms may ask the doctor to run a blood test to check thyroid hormone levels. Thyroid medication can bring these levels back into an acceptable range. If thyroid hormones are in range, but a new mother is experiencing symptoms, she may have PPD.

Postpartum Depression Causes

Postpartum depression is likely caused by a variety of factors.

A Combination of Factors

Postpartum depression is likely caused by a variety of factors. The drop in estrogen and progesterone levels after a woman gives birth is one factor. This triggers chemical changes that contribute to mood swings. Lack of rest and the stress of taking care of a newborn also contribute to exhaustion, which can increase the risk of depression. A combination of physical and emotional factors affects the risk of developing postpartum depression. Having a prior history of depression is also a risk factor for mood problems during the postpartum period.

Postpartum Psychosis

Postpartum psychosis is a severe mental illness that some women experience, particularly those who have a personal or family history of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

It Is Serious

Postpartum psychosis is a severe mental illness that some women experience, particularly those who have a personal or family history of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. A mother may exhibit serious postpartum psychosis symptoms including severe restlessness, irritability, erratic behavior, delusional thinking, confusion, or rapidly changing moods. A woman with this illness is a potential risk to herself and her child so it is important to seek immediate medical evaluation and treatment. Hospitalization or inpatient treatment in a clinic may be required for these severe disorders.

PPD Diagnosis

See your doctor for a health evaluation.

Seek Help If You Need It

Many women are embarrassed if they experience feelings of sadness or an inability to cope after having a child. Some moms may not want to admit that they are struggling or having bad thoughts about themselves or their babies. There is no reason to feel ashamed for having postpartum blues or full-blown PPD. A woman who suspects she may have postpartum depression should see her health care provider for an evaluation. The doctor can tell the difference between postpartum blues and PPD.

Postpartum Depression Therapy

Psychotherapy can be helpful after a pregnancy.

A Good Therapist Can Help

A doctor may recommend that a woman with postpartum depression seek therapy from a knowledgeable therapist. Qualified practitioners skilled in postpartum depression therapy interventions include counselors, psychiatrists, social workers, and psychologists. Two kinds of therapy have been found to be very effective in treating postpartum depression. Interpersonal therapy (IPT) helps people gain a deeper understanding of their relationships and helps them work through problem areas. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) involves examining and changing negative thoughts and behaviors. The doctor or therapist may also suggest a referral for a support group. Psychiatric intervention can be very helpful to combat negative thoughts and feelings associated with PPD.

Postpartum Depression Treatment

SSRIs and other antidepressants can help.

Medication Can Help

Antidepressants are commonly prescribed for women suffering from postpartum depression. These medications are effective, but they may not be appropriate for every woman who has postpartum depression. Antidepressants may be associated with side effects or interact with other medications a woman is taking. They may also take a few weeks to or longer to be effective. Never start, stop, or change the dose of any medication, especially an antidepressant, without consulting with a doctor first. Stopping an antidepressant abruptly may be associated with withdrawal and other serious side effects. A doctor may order electroconvulsive therapy for rare, severe cases of PPD that do not respond to medication.

Breastfeeding and Antidepressants

SSRIs and other meds end up in breast milk.

Medication in Breast Milk

Antidepressants may be passed to a baby via the mother's breast milk. The levels of many drugs passed in this way are safe, but make sure to let the doctor know if you are breastfeeding. Postpartum depression is dangerous for mothers and babies, so it's important to treat it. Follow the doctor's recommendations regarding safe, effective treatment for both mother and child.

Dangers of Untreated Postpartum Depression

Untreated PPD affects mom and child.

Potential Complications

Untreated, postpartum depression symptoms can continue for months to years. It can be incredibly disruptive to a mother's health and her ability to bond with her baby and care for herself and her family. Postpartum depression affects both mother and child, including their ability to eat and sleep. Behavior is affected as well.

How to Help Yourself

Walking helps you feel better.

Tips to Feel Better

It's difficult to live with a depressive disorder, especially in the postpartum period. Ask for help from family and friends when you need it. Network with other moms to share your feelings and struggles. You are truly not alone. Ask family and friends to watch the baby to get some much needed time to yourself. Hire a babysitter if you have to. Get as much rest as you can. Try to sleep when the baby sleeps and take naps during the day to make up for lack of rest at night.

Count on Diet and Exercise

If you suffer from postpartum depression, exercise and eating a healthy diet can go a long way to help alleviate depression during the postpartum period.

Step Up Your Lifestyle

If you suffer from postpartum depression, exercise and eating a healthy diet can go a long way to help alleviate depression during the postpartum period. Reach for fresh produce, lean meats, complex carbs, and plenty of water to provide your body with essential nutrients. Join a mom's group and go on walks together. Spending time with friends and out in the sunshine can help improve mood. Eating right and exercising helps alleviate depression, reduces your risk of conditions like diabetes, and boosts overall health. Getting back in shape after having a baby can be a boon to your self-esteem.

Family Can Help

Family and friends can support your health.

Reach Out for Support

If you have postpartum depression, support from family and friends is very important. They may be the first to notice that she is struggling with sad feelings or suffering from postpartum depression. If she is neglecting her baby or her mental health is suffering, family and friends can encourage her to seek psychiatric help. They can help by caring for the baby or helping out with tasks around the house. Family and friends can offer emotional support, too.

PPD Prognosis

You can regain your health and smile again.

It Will Get Better

One of the main feelings people experience when they have depression is the fear that things will never get better. Pregnancy and childbirth are some of the most life-changing stressors one can go through. Most people are overwhelmed by the experience. Just know you can get better. Proper treatment, medication, and support groups can help you feel better.

Postpartum Depression: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

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