Last Editorial Review: 6/11/2021
Other Name(s):

Anardana, Dadim, Dadima, Extrait de Feuille de Grenade, Extrait de Grenade, Extrait de Polyphénol de Grenade, Feuille de Grenade, Fleur de Grenade, Fruit du Grenadier, Fruit of the Dead, Granada, Grenade, Grenadier, PE, PLE, Pomegranate Extract, Pomegranate Flower, Pomegranate Fruit, Pomegranate Leaf, Pomegranate Leaf Extract, Pomegranate Polyphenol Extract, Pomme Grenade, Punica granatum, Roma, Shi Liu Gen Pi, Shi Liu Pi.


Pomegranate is a tree. Various parts of the tree and fruit are used to make medicine.

Pomegranate is used for many conditions, but so far, there isn't enough scientific evidence to rate pomegranate as effective for any of them. We do know, though, that pomegranate does not seem to be effective for reducing the symptoms of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or improving breathing in people with this condition.

Pomegranate is used for conditions of the heart and blood vessels, including high blood pressure, congestive heart failure (CHF), heart attack, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), and high cholesterol. It is also used for conditions of the digestive tract, including diarrhea, dysentery, and tapeworm and other intestinal parasites.

Some people use pomegranate for flu, swelling of the lining of the mouth (stomatitis), gum disease, erectile dysfunction (ED), diabetes and a complication called acidosis, bleeding, and HIV disease. It is also used for preventing prostate cancer, obesity, and weight loss. Some women use pomegranate to cause an abortion.

Pomegranate is used as a gargle for sore throat, and it is applied to the skin to treat hemorrhoids.

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is unique among plants. The only other plant that is closely related is a small tree commonly known as the pomegranate tree or Socotran pomegranate (Punica protopunica) and grows only on the Socotra island in Yemen.

Pomegranate has been used for thousands of years to treat a wide variety of diseases. It is in Greek, Hebrew, Buddhist, Islamic, and Christian mythology and writings. It is described in records dating from around 1500 BC as a treatment for tapeworm and other parasites.

Many cultures use pomegranate as a folk medicine. Pomegranate is native to Iran. It is primarily cultivated in Mediterranean counties, parts of the United States, Afghanistan, Russia, India, China, and Japan. You'll see pomegranate in some royal and medical coats of arms.

How does it work?

Pomegranate contains a variety of chemicals that might have antioxidant effects. Some preliminary research suggests that chemicals in pomegranate juice might slow the progression of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and possibly fight cancer cells. But it is not known if pomegranate has these effects when people drink the juice.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Uses & Effectiveness

Possibly Ineffective for...

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Early research suggests that drinking pomegranate juice might help to keep the arteries in the neck (carotid arteries) clear of the build-up of fatty deposits.
  • Clogged arteries (coronary heart disease). Some early research shows that drinking pomegranate juice might improve blood flow to the heart. However, drinking pomegranate juice does not seem to prevent narrowing of blood vessels in the heart (stenosis). Also, there is not enough information to know if drinking pomegranate juice helps to prevent heart disease-related events such as heart attack.
  • Dental plaque. Early research suggests that rinsing with pomegranate extract mouthwash for one minute once or twice daily reduces dental plaque.
  • Erectile dysfunction. Early research shows that drinking pomegranate juice daily for 4 weeks does not improve erectile dysfunction in men.
  • Muscle soreness after exercising. Early research suggests that drinking pomegranate juice twice daily for 15 days reduces muscle soreness after exercising in the elbow but not the knee.
  • High cholesterol (hyperlipidemia). Some studies show that pomegranate juice can lower total cholesterol and “bad” (LDL) cholesterol. However, other studies find no benefit. Pomegranate seed oil, but not pomegranate juice, may improve triglycerides and “good” (HDL) cholesterol levels.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension). Some research shows that drinking 50-200 mL of pomegranate juice daily for up to one year can lower systolic blood pressure (the top number) by 5% to 21%. Also, some research shows that drinking this amount of pomegranate juice can reduce diastolic pressure (the lower number), although other research shows no benefit. Drinking more than 240 mL of pomegranate juice daily does not seem to reduce blood pressure.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Early research suggests that drinking pomegranate juice daily for one month improves blood vessel function in adolescents with metabolic syndrome.
  • Muscle strength. Early research suggests that taking a specific pomegranate extract (POMx) twice daily improves muscle strength recovery after exercise.
  • Obesity. Early research suggests that taking a specific combination product (Xanthigen) containing pomegranate seed oil and brown marine algae reduces body weight in obese women with liver disease.
  • Gum disease. There is some evidence that painting the gum with pomegranate fruit peel extract in combination with gotu kola extract might improve gum disease.
  • Prostate cancer. Early research suggests that drinking pomegranate juice daily for up to 2 years might slow the progress of prostate cancer.
  • Inflamed and sore mouth (stomatitis). Applying a gel containing pomegranate extract to the gums improves symptoms in people with fungal infections in the mouth.
  • Sunburn. Early research suggests that taking pomegranate extract by mouth daily for 4 weeks does not reduce sunburn.
  • Sexually transmitted disease called trichomoniasis. Early research suggests that taking pomegranate extract might clear up trichomoniasis infections in women.
  • Intestinal worm infestations.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Dysentery.
  • Sore throat.
  • Hemorrhoids.
  • Menopausal symptoms.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate pomegranate for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Pomegranate juice is LIKELY SAFE ffor most people when taken by mouth. Most people do not experience side effects. Some people can have allergic reactions to pomegranate fruit.

Pomegranate extract is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth or applied to the skin. Some people have experienced sensitivity to pomegranate including itching, swelling, runny nose, and difficulty breathing.

Pomegranate is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when the root and stems are taken by mouth in large amounts. The root contains a poison.


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Pomegranate juice is POSSIBLY SAFE for pregnant and breast-feeding women. However there is not enough reliable information about the safety of using other forms of pomegranate, such as pomegranate extract. If you use pomegranate, stick with the juice during pregnancy or breast-feeding. Check with your healthcare provider first.

Low blood pressure: Drinking pomegranate juice can slightly lower blood pressure. Drinking pomegranate juice might increase the risk of blood pressure dropping too low in people who already have low blood pressure.

Allergies to plants: People with plant allergies seem to be more likely to have an allergic reaction to pomegranate.

Surgery: Pomegranate might affect blood pressure. This might interfere with blood pressure control during and after surgery. Stop taking pomegranate at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


Carbamazepine (Tegretol)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) is broken down by the body. Drinking pomegranate juice might decrease how fast the body breaks down carbamazepine (Tegretol). This might increase the effects and side effects of carbamazepine (Tegretol).

Medications changed by the body (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substratesInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the body. Pomegranate might decrease how quickly the body breaks down some medications. Taking pomegranate along with some medications that are changed by the body can increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking pomegranate, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the body.

Some medications that are changed by the body include celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), and S-warfarin (Coumadin).

Medications changed by the body (Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the body. Pomegranate might decrease how quickly the body breaks down some medications. Taking pomegranate along with some medications that are changed by the body can increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking pomegranate, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the body.

Some medications that are changed by the body include amitriptyline (Elavil), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), flecainide (Tambocor), fluoxetine (Prozac), ondansetron (Zofran), tramadol (Ultram), and others.

Medications changed by the body (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the body. Drinking pomegranate juice might decrease how quickly the body breaks down some medications. Drinking pomegranate juice and taking some medications that are broken down by the body can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before drinking pomegranate juice, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the body.

Some medications changed by the body include amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem), verapamil (Verelan, Calan, others), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir), saquinavir (Invirase), alfentanil (Alfenta), fentanyl (Sublimaze), midazolam (Versed), ondansetron (Zofran), propranolol (Inderal), and many others.

Medications for high blood pressure (ACE inhibitors)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Pomegranate juice seems to lower blood pressure. Taking pomegranate juice along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), ramipril (Altace), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Pomegranate seems to lower blood pressure. Taking pomegranate along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Rosuvastatin (Crestor)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Rosuvastatin (Crestor) is broken down by the body in the liver. Drinking pomegranate juice might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down rosuvastatin (Crestor). This might increase the effects and side effects of rosuvastatin (Crestor).

Tolbutamide (Orinase)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Tolbutamide (Orinase) is broken down by the body. Drinking pomegranate juice might decrease how fast the body breaks down tolbutamide (Orinase). This might increase the effects and side effects of tolbutamide (Orinase).

Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Warfarin (Coumadin) is broken down by the body. Drinking pomegranate juice might decrease how fast the body breaks down warfarin (Coumadin). This might increase the effects and side effects of warfarin (Coumadin).


The appropriate dose of pomegranate depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time, there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for pomegranate. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

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Adams, L. S., Seeram, N. P., Aggarwal, B. B., Takada, Y., Sand, D., and Heber, D. Pomegranate juice, total pomegranate ellagitannins, and punicalagin suppress inflammatory cell signaling in colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 2-8-2006;54(3):980-985. View abstract.

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Adhikari, A., Devkota, H. P., Takano, A., Masuda, K., Nakane, T., Basnet, P., and Skalko-Basnet, N. Screening of Nepalese crude drugs traditionally used to treat hyperpigmentation: in vitro tyrosinase inhibition. Int.J Cosmet.Sci 2008;30(5):353-360. View abstract.

Adiga, S. Trivedi P. Ravichandra V. Deb D. and Mehta F. Effect of Punica granatum peel extract on learning and memory in rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 2010;3(9):687-690.

Afaq, F., Khan, N., Syed, D. N., and Mukhtar, H. Oral feeding of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits early biomarkers of UVB radiation-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse epidermis. Photochem.Photobiol. 2010;86(6):1318-1326. View abstract.

Afaq, F., Malik, A., Syed, D., Maes, D., Matsui, M. S., and Mukhtar, H. Pomegranate fruit extract modulates UV-B-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and activation of nuclear factor kappa B in normal human epidermal keratinocytes paragraph sign. Photochem Photobiol 2005;81(1):38-45. View abstract.

Afaq, F., Saleem, M., Krueger, C. G., Reed, J. D., and Mukhtar, H. Anthocyanin- and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD-1 mice. Int J Cancer 1-20-2005;113(3):423-433. View abstract.

Afaq, F., Zaid, M. A., Khan, N., Dreher, M., and Mukhtar, H. Protective effect of pomegranate-derived products on UVB-mediated damage in human reconstituted skin. Exp.Dermatol. 2009;18(6):553-561. View abstract.

Ahshawat, M. S., Saraf, S., and Saraf, S. Preparation and characterization of herbal creams for improvement of skin viscoelastic properties. Int.J Cosmet.Sci. 2008;30(3):183-193. View abstract.

Akpnar-Bayzt, A. Analysis of mineral content in pomegranate juice by ICP-OES. Asian Journal of Chemistry 2010;22(8):6542-6546.

Al-Mustafa, A. H. and Al-Thunibat, O. Y. Antioxidant activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. Pak.J.Biol.Sci. 2-1-2008;11(3):351-358. View abstract.

Al-Zoreky, N. S. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit peels. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 9-15-2009;134(3):244-248. View abstract.

Alam, M. S., Alam, M. A., Ahmad, S., Najmi, A. K., Asif, M., and Jahangir, T. Protective effects of Punica granatum in experimentally-induced gastric ulcers. Toxicol.Mech.Methods 2010;20(9):572-578. View abstract.

Albrecht, M., Schneider, O., and Schmidt, A. Redox active donor-substituted punicin derivatives. Org.Biomol.Chem. 4-7-2009;7(7):1445-1453. View abstract.

Alighourchi, H. Barzegar M. and Abbasi S. Effect of gamma irradiation on the stability of anthocyanins and shelf-life of various pomegranate juices. Food Chemistry 2008;110(4):1036-1040.

Aviram, M., Dornfeld, L., Kaplan, M., Coleman, R., Gaitini, D., Nitecki, S., Hofman, A., Rosenblat, M., Volkova, N., Presser, D., Attias, J., Hayek, T., and Fuhrman, B. Pomegranate juice flavonoids inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation and cardiovascular diseases: studies in atherosclerotic mice and in humans. Drugs Exp.Clin.Res. 2002;28(2-3):49-62. View abstract.

Aviram, M., Dornfeld, L., Rosenblat, M., Volkova, N., Kaplan, M., Coleman, R., Hayek, T., Presser, D., and Fuhrman, B. Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2000;71(5):1062-1076. View abstract.

Babish, J. G., Pacioretty, L. M., Bland, J. S., Minich, D. M., Hu, J., and Tripp, M. L. Antidiabetic screening of commercial botanical products in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and db/db mice. J Med Food 2010;13(3):535-547. View abstract.

Bachoual, R., Talmoudi, W., Boussetta, T., Braut, F., and El-Benna, J. An aqueous pomegranate peel extract inhibits neutrophil myeloperoxidase in vitro and attenuates lung inflammation in mice. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2011;49(6):1224-1228. View abstract.

Bae, J. Y., Choi, J. S., Kang, S. W., Lee, Y. J., Park, J., and Kang, Y. H. Dietary compound ellagic acid alleviates skin wrinkle and inflammation induced by UV-B irradiation. Exp.Dermatol. 2010;19(8):e182-e190. View abstract.

Bagri, P., Ali, M., Aeri, V., Bhowmik, M., and Sultana, S. Antidiabetic effect of Punica granatum flowers: effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(1):50-54. View abstract.

Bagri, P., Ali, M., Sultana, S., and Aeri, V. New sterol esters from the flowers of Punica granatum Linn. J.Asian Nat.Prod.Res. 2009;11(8):710-715. View abstract.

Balwani, S., Nandi, D., Jaisankar, P., and Ghosh, B. 2-Methyl-pyran-4-one-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside isolated from leaves of Punica granatum inhibits the TNFalpha-induced cell adhesion molecules expression by blocking nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Biochimie 2011;93(5):921-930. View abstract.

Banerjee, K., Dasgupta, S., Jadhav, M. R., Naik, D. G., Ligon, A. P., Oulkar, D. P., Savant, R. H., and Adsule, P. G. A fast, inexpensive, and safe method for residue analysis of meptyldinocap in different fruits by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J.AOAC Int. 2010;93(6):1957-1964. View abstract.

Banerjee, K., Oulkar, D. P., Patil, S. B., Patil, S. H., Dasgupta, S., Savant, R., and Adsule, P. G. Single-laboratory validation and uncertainty analysis of 82 pesticides determined in pomegranate, apple, and orange by ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J.AOAC Int. 2008;91(6):1435-1445. View abstract.

Belal, S. K. M. Abdel-Rahman A. H. Mohamed D. S. Osman H. E. H. and Hassan N. A. Protective effect of pomegranate fruit juice against Aeromonas hydrophila-induced intestinal histopathological changes in mice. World Applied Sciences Journal 2009;7(2):245-254.

Bell, C. and Hawthorne, S. Ellagic acid, pomegranate and prostate cancer -- a mini review. J.Pharm.Pharmacol. 2008;60(2):139-144. View abstract.

Beltz, J. McNeil C. Fisher M. Shaw P. Breece L. Sellers T. andBrown K. Investigation of the antihyperalgesic effects of the pomegranate extract ellagic acid. AANA Journal 2008;76(5):365-366.

Ben-Simhon, Z., Judeinstein, S., Nadler-Hassar, T., Trainin, T., Bar-Ya'akov, I., Borochov-Neori, H., and Holland, D. A pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) WD40-repeat gene is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis TTG1 and is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during pomegranate fruit development. Planta 2011;234(5):865-881. View abstract.

Benherlal, P. S. and Arumughan, C. Studies on modulation of DNA integrity in Fenton's system by phytochemicals. Mutat.Res. 12-15-2008;648(1-2):1-8. View abstract.

Benzer, F. Kandemir F. M. Yildirim N. C. and Ozan S. T. Effect of pomegranate seed extract on free radical damage and antioxidant activity under cisplatin-induced oxidative stress conditions in rabbit testes. Asian Journal of Chemistry 2011;23(7):3131-3234.

Bhadbhade, S. J., Acharya, A. B., Rodrigues, S. V., and Thakur, S. L. The antiplaque efficacy of pomegranate mouthrinse. Quintessence.Int. 2011;42(1):29-36. View abstract.

Bialonska, D., Kasimsetty, S. G., Khan, S. I., and Ferreira, D. Urolithins, intestinal microbial metabolites of Pomegranate ellagitannins, exhibit potent antioxidant activity in a cell-based assay. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-11-2009;57(21):10181-10186. View abstract.

Bialonska, D., Kasimsetty, S. G., Schrader, K. K., and Ferreira, D. The effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) byproducts and ellagitannins on the growth of human gut bacteria. J.Agric.Food Chem. 9-23-2009;57(18):8344-8349. View abstract.

Bialonska, D., Ramnani, P., Kasimsetty, S. G., Muntha, K. R., Gibson, G. R., and Ferreira, D. The influence of pomegranate by-product and punicalagins on selected groups of human intestinal microbiota. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 6-15-2010;140(2-3):175-182. View abstract.

Birk, T., Gronlund, A. C., Christensen, B. B., Knochel, S., Lohse, K., and Rosenquist, H. Effect of organic acids and marination ingredients on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni on meat. J.Food Prot. 2010;73(2):258-265. View abstract.

Bishayee, A., Bhatia, D., Thoppil, R. J., Darvesh, A. S., Nevo, E., and Lansky, E. P. Pomegranate-mediated chemoprevention of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis involves Nrf2-regulated antioxidant mechanisms. Carcinogenesis 2011;32(6):888-896. View abstract.

Borochov-Neori, H., Judeinstein, S., Harari, M., Bar-Ya'akov, I., Patil, B. S., Lurie, S., and Holland, D. Climate effects on anthocyanin accumulation and composition in the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit arils. J.Agric.Food Chem. 5-25-2011;59(10):5325-5334. View abstract.

Bouroshaki, M. T., Sadeghnia, H. R., Banihasan, M., and Yavari, S. Protective effect of pomegranate seed oil on hexachlorobutadiene-induced nephrotoxicity in rat kidneys. Ren Fail. 2010;32(5):612-617. View abstract.

Boussetta, T., Raad, H., Letteron, P., Gougerot-Pocidalo, M. A., Marie, J. C., Driss, F., and El-Benna, J. Punicic acid a conjugated linolenic acid inhibits TNFalpha-induced neutrophil hyperactivation and protects from experimental colon inflammation in rats. PLoS.One. 2009;4(7):e6458. View abstract.

Caligiani, A., Bonzanini, F., Palla, G., Cirlini, M., and Bruni, R. Characterization of a potential nutraceutical ingredient: pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil unsaponifiable fraction. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 2010;65(3):277-283. View abstract.

Calin-Sanchez, A., Martinez, J. J., Vazquez-Araujo, L., Burlo, F., Melgarejo, P., and Carbonell-Barrachina, A. A. Volatile composition and sensory quality of Spanish pomegranates (Punica granatum L.). J.Sci.Food Agric. 2011;91(3):586-592. View abstract.

Carpenter, L. A. Conway C. J. and Pipkin F. B. Pomegranates (Punica granatum) and their effect on blood pressure: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2010;69(1):95.

Cayir, K., Karadeniz, A., Simsek, N., Yildirim, S., Karakus, E., Kara, A., Akkoyun, H. T., and Sengul, E. Pomegranate seed extract attenuates chemotherapy-induced acute nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats. J.Med.Food 2011;14(10):1254-1262. View abstract.

Celik, I., Temur, A., and Isik, I. Hepatoprotective role and antioxidant capacity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) flowers infusion against trichloroacetic acid-exposed in rats. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(1):145-149. View abstract.

Cerda, B., Ceron, J. J., Tomas-Barberan, F. A., and Espin, J. C. Repeated oral administration of high doses of the pomegranate ellagitannin punicalagin to rats for 37 days is not toxic. J Agric Food Chem 5-21-2003;51(11):3493-3501. View abstract.

Cerda, B., Espin, J. C., Parra, S., Martinez, P., and Tomas-Barberan, F. A. The potent in vitro antioxidant ellagitannins from pomegranate juice are metabolised into bioavailable but poor antioxidant hydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one derivatives by the colonic microflora of healthy humans. Eur.J.Nutr. 2004;43(4):205-220. View abstract.

Choi, J. G., Kang, O. H., Lee, Y. S., Chae, H. S., Oh, Y. C., Brice, O. O., Kim, M. S., Sohn, D. H., Kim, H. S., Park, H., Shin, D. W., Rho, J. R., and Kwon, D. Y. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of Punica granatum Peel Ethanol Extract against Salmonella. Evid.Based.Complement Alternat.Med. 2011;2011:690518. View abstract.

Choi, S. J., Lee, J. H., Heo, H. J., Cho, H. Y., Kim, H. K., Kim, C. J., Kim, M. O., Suh, S. H., and Shin, D. H. Punica granatum protects against oxidative stress in PC12 cells and oxidative stress-induced Alzheimer's symptoms in mice. J.Med.Food 2011;14(7-8):695-701. View abstract.

Chong, M. F., Macdonald, R., and Lovegrove, J. A. Fruit polyphenols and CVD risk: a review of human intervention studies. Br.J.Nutr. 2010;104 Suppl 3:S28-S39. View abstract.

Conway, C. J. Carpenter L. Pipkin F. B. and Fox S. C. The effect of pomegranate juice (POM Wonderful) on platelet function. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2010;69(1):94.

Cuccioloni, M., Mozzicafreddo, M., Sparapani, L., Spina, M., Eleuteri, A. M., Fioretti, E., and Angeletti, M. Pomegranate fruit components modulate human thrombin. Fitoterapia 2009;80(5):301-305. View abstract.

Dahham, S. S. Ali M. N. Tabassum H. and Khan M. Studies on antibacterial and antifungal activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science 2010;9(3):273-281.

Dai, Z., Nair, V., Khan, M., and Ciolino, H. P. Pomegranate extract inhibits the proliferation and viability of MMTV-Wnt-1 mouse mammary cancer stem cells in vitro. Oncol.Rep. 2010;24(4):1087-1091. View abstract.

Darji, V. C. Bariya A. H. Deshpande S. S. and Patel D. A. Effect of Punica granatum fruits in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010;3(12):2850-2852.

Das, A. K., Mandal, S. C., Banerjee, S. K., Sinha, S., Das, J., Saha, B. P., and Pal, M. Studies on antidiarrhoeal activity of Punica granatum seed extract in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 12-15-1999;68(1-3):205-208. View abstract.

de Nigris, F., Balestrieri, M. L., Williams-Ignarro, S., D'Armiento, F. P., Fiorito, C., Ignarro, L. J., and Napoli, C. The influence of pomegranate fruit extract in comparison to regular pomegranate juice and seed oil on nitric oxide and arterial function in obese Zucker rats. Nitric.Oxide. 2007;17(1):50-54. View abstract.

de Nigris, F., Williams-Ignarro, S., Botti, C., Sica, V., Ignarro, L. J., and Napoli, C. Pomegranate juice reduces oxidized low-density lipoprotein downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human coronary endothelial cells. Nitric.Oxide. 2006;15(3):259-263. View abstract.

de Nigris, F., Williams-Ignarro, S., Sica, V., Lerman, L. O., D'Armiento, F. P., Byrns, R. E., Casamassimi, A., Carpentiero, D., Schiano, C., Sumi, D., Fiorito, C., Ignarro, L. J., and Napoli, C. Effects of a pomegranate fruit extract rich in punicalagin on oxidation-sensitive genes and eNOS activity at sites of perturbed shear stress and atherogenesis. Cardiovasc.Res 1-15-2007;73(2):414-423. View abstract.

De, M., Krishna, De A., and Banerjee, A. B. Antimicrobial screening of some Indian spices. Phytother.Res. 1999;13(7):616-618. View abstract.

Dell'Agli, M., Galli, G. V., Bulgari, M., Basilico, N., Romeo, S., Bhattacharya, D., Taramelli, D., and Bosisio, E. Ellagitannins of the fruit rind of pomegranate (Punica granatum) antagonize in vitro the host inflammatory response mechanisms involved in the onset of malaria. Malar.J. 2010;9:208. View abstract.

Dell'Agli, M., Galli, G. V., Corbett, Y., Taramelli, D., Lucantoni, L., Habluetzel, A., Maschi, O., Caruso, D., Giavarini, F., Romeo, S., Bhattacharya, D., and Bosisio, E. Antiplasmodial activity of Punica granatum L. fruit rind. J.Ethnopharmacol. 9-7-2009;125(2):279-285. View abstract.

Devatkal, S. K. and Naveena, B. M. Effect of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat during refrigerated storage. Meat.Sci. 2010;85(2):306-311. View abstract.

Devatkal, S. K., Narsaiah, K., and Borah, A. Anti-oxidant effect of extracts of kinnow rind, pomegranate rind and seed powders in cooked goat meat patties. Meat.Sci. 2010;85(1):155-159. View abstract.

Duman, A. D., Ozgen, M., Dayisoylu, K. S., Erbil, N., and Durgac, C. Antimicrobial activity of six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties and their relation to some of their pomological and phytonutrient characteristics. Molecules. 2009;14(5):1808-1817. View abstract.

Ehling, S. and Cole, S. Analysis of organic acids in fruit juices by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: an enhanced tool for authenticity testing. J.Agric.Food Chem. 3-23-2011;59(6):2229-2234. View abstract.

Eksi, A. and Özhamamc I. Chemical composition and guide values of pomegranate juice. GIDA - Journal of Food 2009;34(5):265-270.

El Nemr SE, Ismail IA, and Ragab M. The chemical composition of the juice and seeds of pomegranate fruits. Fluessiges Obst 1992;59(suppl 11):162-164.

El, Kar C., Ferchichi, A., Attia, F., and Bouajila, J. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices: chemical composition, micronutrient cations, and antioxidant capacity. J.Food Sci. 2011;76(6):C795-C800. View abstract.

El-Sherbini, G. M., Ibrahim, K. M., El Sherbiny, E. T., Abdel-Hady, N. M., and Morsy, T. A. Efficacy of Punica granatum extract on in-vitro and in-vivo control of Trichomonas vaginalis. J.Egypt.Soc.Parasitol. 2010;40(1):229-244. View abstract.

Elfalleh, W. Tlili N. Nasri N. Yahia Y. Hannachi H. Chaira N. Ying M. and Ferchichi A. Antioxidant Capacities of Phenolic Compounds and Tocopherols from Tunisian Pomegranate ( Punica granatum) Fruits. Journal of Food Science 2011;76(5):c707-c713.

Elfalleh, W., Nasri, N., Marzougui, N., Thabti, I., M'rabet, A., Yahya, Y., Lachiheb, B., Guasmi, F., and Ferchichi, A. Physico-chemical properties and DPPH-ABTS scavenging activity of some local pomegranate (Punica granatum) ecotypes. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 2:197-210. View abstract.

Elfalleh, W., Ying, M., Nasri, N., Sheng-Hua, H., Guasmi, F., and Ferchichi, A. Fatty acids from Tunisian and Chinese pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seeds. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2011;62(3):200-206. View abstract.

Endo, E. H., Cortez, D. A., Ueda-Nakamura, T., Nakamura, C. V., and Dias Filho, B. P. Potent antifungal activity of extracts and pure compound isolated from pomegranate peels and synergism with fluconazole against Candida albicans. Res.Microbiol. 2010;161(7):534-540. View abstract.

Ergin, C. and Kaleli, I. [Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from living tree trunk hollows in Denizli City Center, Turkey]. Mikrobiyol.Bul. 2010;44(1):79-85. View abstract.

Esmaillzadeh, A., Tahbaz, F., Gaieni, I., Alavi-Majd, H., and Azadbakht, L. Cholesterol-lowering effect of concentrated pomegranate juice consumption in type II diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2006;76(3):147-151. View abstract.

Fahmy, Z. H. El-Shennawy A. M. El-Komy W. Ali E. and Hamid S. S. A. Potential antiparasitic activity of pomegranate extracts against shistosomules and mature worms of Schistosoma mansoni: in vitro and in vivo study. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2009;3(4):4634-4643.

Faria, A., Monteiro, R., Azevedo, I., and Calhau, C. Comment on safety and antioxidant activity of a pomegranate ellagitannin-enriched polyphenol dietary supplement in overweight individuals with increased waist size. J.Agric.Food Chem. 12-24-2008;56(24):12143-12144. View abstract.

Fazeli, M. R., Bahmani, S., Jamalifar, H., and Samadi, N. Effect of probiotication on antioxidant and antibacterial activities of pomegranate juices from sour and sweet cultivars. Nat.Prod.Res. 2011;25(3):288-297. View abstract.

Fazio, M. L. S. Gonçalves T. M. V. and Hoffmann F. L. Determination of antibacterial activity of pomegranate (Punicea granatum L.). / Determinação da atividade antibacteriana de romã (Punica granatum L.). Higiene Alimentar 2009;23(168/169):54-56.

Fimognari, C., Sestili, P., Lenzi, M., Bucchini, A., Cantelli-Forti, G., and Hrelia, P. RNA as a new target for toxic and protective agents. Mutat.Res. 12-15-2008;648(1-2):15-22. View abstract.

Forest, C. P., Padma-Nathan, H., and Liker, H. R. Efficacy and safety of pomegranate juice on improvement of erectile dysfunction in male patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Int J Impot.Res 2007;19(6):564-567. View abstract.

Fuhrman, B., Volkova, N., and Aviram, M. Pomegranate juice inhibits oxidized LDL uptake and cholesterol biosynthesis in macrophages. J Nutr Biochem 2005;16(9):570-576. View abstract.

Fuhrman, B., Volkova, N., and Aviram, M. Pomegranate juice polyphenols increase recombinant paraoxonase-1 binding to high-density lipoprotein: studies in vitro and in diabetic patients. Nutrition 2010;26(4):359-366. View abstract.

Gaig, P., Botey, J., Gutierrez, V., Pena, M., Eseverri, J. L., and Marin, A. Allergy to pomegranate (Punica granatum). J.Investig.Allergol.Clin.Immunol. 1992;2(4):216-218. View abstract.

Garcia, M., Monzote, L., Montalvo, A. M., and Scull, R. Screening of medicinal plants against Leishmania amazonensis. Pharm.Biol. 2010;48(9):1053-1058. View abstract.

Gasmi, J. and Sanderson, J. T. Growth Inhibitory, Antiandrogenic, and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Punicic Acid in LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cells. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-10-2010; View abstract.

George, J., Singh, M., Srivastava, A. K., Bhui, K., and Shukla, Y. Synergistic growth inhibition of mouse skin tumors by pomegranate fruit extract and diallyl sulfide: evidence for inhibition of activated MAPKs/NF-kappaB and reduced cell proliferation. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2011;49(7):1511-1520. View abstract.

Ghosh, A., Das, B. K., Roy, A., Mandal, B., and Chandra, G. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts. J.Nat.Med. 2008;62(2):259-262. View abstract.

Ghosh, D. and Scheepens, A. Vascular action of polyphenols. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2009;53(3):322-331. View abstract.

Gillis, T. Johnson G. King B. Wilson J. andDominguez J. Investigation of ellagic acid, a pomegranate fruit extract, as a non-anti-inflammatory pathway analgesic. AANA Journal 2008;76(5):373-374.

Gonzalez-Sarrias, A., Azorin-Ortuno, M., Yanez-Gascon, M. J., Tomas-Barberan, F. A., Garcia-Conesa, M. T., and Espin, J. C. Dissimilar in vitro and in vivo effects of ellagic acid and its microbiota-derived metabolites, urolithins, on the cytochrome P450 1A1. J.Agric.Food Chem. 6-24-2009;57(12):5623-5632. View abstract.

Gonzalez-Sarrias, A., Larrosa, M., Tomas-Barberan, F. A., Dolara, P., and Espin, J. C. NF-kappaB-dependent anti-inflammatory activity of urolithins, gut microbiota ellagic acid-derived metabolites, in human colonic fibroblasts. Br.J.Nutr. 2010;104(4):503-512. View abstract.

Gould, S. W., Fielder, M. D., Kelly, A. F., and Naughton, D. P. Anti-microbial activities of pomegranate rind extracts: enhancement by cupric sulphate against clinical isolates of S. aureus, MRSA and PVL positive CA-MSSA. BMC.Complement Altern.Med. 2009;9:23. View abstract.

Gould, S. W., Fielder, M. D., Kelly, A. F., El, Sankary W., and Naughton, D. P. Antimicrobial pomegranate rind extracts: enhancement by Cu(II) and vitamin C combinations against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Br.J.Biomed.Sci. 2009;66(3):129-132. View abstract.

Gozlekci, S., Saracoglu, O., Onursal, E., and Ozgen, M. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars. Pharmacogn.Mag. 2011;7(26):161-164. View abstract.

Gracious, Ross R., Selvasubramanian, S., and Jayasundar, S. Immunomodulatory activity of Punica granatum in rabbits--a preliminary study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;78(1):85-87. View abstract.

Grossmann, M. E., Mizuno, N. K., Schuster, T., and Cleary, M. P. Punicic acid is an omega-5 fatty acid capable of inhibiting breast cancer proliferation. Int.J.Oncol. 2010;36(2):421-426. View abstract.

Gugliucci, A. Beyond the antioxidant properties: pomegranate juice polyphenols increase hepatocyte paraoxonase 1 secretion. Atherosclerosis 2010;208(1):28-29. View abstract.

Guo, C., Wei, J., Yang, J., Xu, J., Pang, W., and Jiang, Y. Pomegranate juice is potentially better than apple juice in improving antioxidant function in elderly subjects. Nutr.Res. 2008;28(2):72-77. View abstract.

Guo, G., Wang, H. X., and Ng, T. B. Pomegranin, an antifungal peptide from pomegranate peels. Protein Pept.Lett. 2009;16(1):82-85. View abstract.

Haber, S. L., Joy, J. K., and Largent, R. Antioxidant and antiatherogenic effects of pomegranate. Am.J.Health Syst.Pharm. 7-15-2011;68(14):1302-1305. View abstract.

Hadipour-Jahromy, M. and Mozaffari-Kermani, R. Chondroprotective effects of pomegranate juice on monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis of the knee joint of mice. Phytother.Res. 2010;24(2):182-185. View abstract.

Hajimahmoodi, M. Oveisi M. R. Sadeghi N. Jannat B. and Nateghi M. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after pomegranate intake in human volunteers. 2009;47(2):125-132. Acta Medica Iranica 2009;47(2):125-132.

Hajimahmoodi, M., Oveisi, M. R., Sadeghi, N., Jannat, B., Hadjibabaie, M., Farahani, E., Akrami, M. R., and Namdar, R. Antioxidant properties of peel and pulp hydro extract in ten Persian pomegranate cultivars. Pak.J.Biol.Sci. 6-15-2008;11(12):1600-1604. View abstract.

Hajimahmoodi, M., Shams-Ardakani, M., Saniee, P., Siavoshi, F., Mehrabani, M., Hosseinzadeh, H., Foroumadi, P., Safavi, M., Khanavi, M., Akbarzadeh, T., Shafiee, A., and Foroumadi, A. In vitro antibacterial activity of some Iranian medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori. Nat.Prod.Res. 2011;25(11):1059-1066. View abstract.

Hanif, S., Shamim, U., Ullah, M. F., Azmi, A. S., Bhat, S. H., and Hadi, S. M. The anthocyanidin delphinidin mobilizes endogenous copper ions from human lymphocytes leading to oxidative degradation of cellular DNA. Toxicology 7-10-2008;249(1):19-25. View abstract.

Harikrishnan, R., Balasundaram, C., Kim, M. C., Kim, J. S., Han, Y. J., and Heo, M. S. Effect of a mixed herb-enriched diet on the innate immune response and disease resistance of Paralichthys olivaceus against Philasterides dicentrarchi infection. J.Aquat.Anim Health 2010;22(4):235-243. View abstract.

Harikrishnan, R., Heo, J., Balasundaram, C., Kim, M. C., Kim, J. S., Han, Y. J., and Heo, M. S. Effect of Punica granatum solvent extracts on immune system and disease resistance in Paralichthys olivaceus against lymphocystis disease virus (LDV). Fish.Shellfish.Immunol. 2010;29(4):668-673. View abstract.

Harikrishnan, R., Heo, J., Balasundaram, C., Kim, M. C., Kim, J. S., Han, Y. J., and Heo, M. S. Effect of traditional Korean medicinal (TKM) triherbal extract on the innate immune system and disease resistance in Paralichthys olivaceus against Uronema marinum. Vet.Parasitol. 5-28-2010;170(1-2):1-7. View abstract.

Hartman, R. E., Shah, A., Fagan, A. M., Schwetye, K. E., Parsadanian, M., Schulman, R. N., Finn, M. B., and Holtzman, D. M. Pomegranate juice decreases amyloid load and improves behavior in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol.Dis 2006;24(3):506-515. View abstract.

Hashemi, M., Kelishadi, R., Hashemipour, M., Zakerameli, A., Khavarian, N., Ghatrehsamani, S., and Poursafa, P. Acute and long-term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on vascular reactivity in paediatric metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Young. 2010;20(1):73-77. View abstract.

Hasnaoui, N. Jbir R. Mars M. Trifi M. Kamal-Eldin A. Melgarejo P. and Hernandez F. Organic acids, sugars, and anthocyanins contents in juices of Tunisian pomegranate fruits. International Journal of Food Properties 2011;14(4):741-757.

Hassanpour, Fard M., Ghule, A. E., Bodhankar, S. L., and Dikshit, M. Cardioprotective effect of whole fruit extract of pomegranate on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rat. Pharm.Biol. 2011;49(4):377-382. View abstract.

Hayouni, E. A., Miled, K., Boubaker, S., Bellasfar, Z., Abedrabba, M., Iwaski, H., Oku, H., Matsui, T., Limam, F., and Hamdi, M. Hydroalcoholic extract based-ointment from Punica granatum L. peels with enhanced in vivo healing potential on dermal wounds. Phytomedicine. 8-15-2011;18(11):976-984. View abstract.

Heber, D. Multitargeted therapy of cancer by ellagitannins. Cancer Lett. 10-8-2008;269(2):262-268. View abstract.

Hemmati, A. A. Arzi A. Sistani N. K. and Mikaili P. The hydro-alcoholic extract of pomegranate seed has anti-inflammatory effects on formalin-induced inflammation in rat hind paw. Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2010;5(8):561-564.

Hepaksoy, S. Erogul D. Sen F. and Aksoy U. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Turkish pomegranate varieties. Acta Horticulturae 2009;818:241-248.

Hofling, J. F., Anibal, P. C., Obando-Pereda, G. A., Peixoto, I. A., Furletti, V. F., Foglio, M. A., and Goncalves, R. B. Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species. Braz.J.Biol. 2010;70(4):1065-1068. View abstract.

Hong, M. Y., Seeram, N. P., and Heber, D. Pomegranate polyphenols down-regulate expression of androgen-synthesizing genes in human prostate cancer cells overexpressing the androgen receptor. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2008;19(12):848-855. View abstract.

Hontecillas, R., O'Shea, M., Einerhand, A., Diguardo, M., and Bassaganya-Riera, J. Activation of PPAR gamma and alpha by punicic acid ameliorates glucose tolerance and suppresses obesity-related inflammation. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2009;28(2):184-195. View abstract.

Horm, K. M. and D'Souza, D. H. Survival of human norovirus surrogates in milk, orange, and pomegranate juice, and juice blends at refrigeration (4 degrees C). Food Microbiol. 2011;28(5):1054-1061. View abstract.

Hossin, F. L. A. Effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and it's extract on obese hypercholesterolemic rats. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2009;8(8):1251-1257.

Hunt, K. J., Hung, S. K., and Ernst, E. Botanical extracts as anti-aging preparations for the skin: a systematic review. Drugs Aging 12-1-2010;27(12):973-985. View abstract.

Ibrahium, M. I. Efficiency of pomegranate peel extract as antimicrobial, antioxidant and protective agents. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2010;6(4):338-344.

Ignarro, L. J., Byrns, R. E., Sumi, D., de Nigris, F., and Napoli, C. Pomegranate juice protects nitric oxide against oxidative destruction and enhances the biological actions of nitric oxide. Nitric.Oxide. 2006;15(2):93-102. View abstract.

Ilbey, Y. O., Ozbek, E., Simsek, A., Cekmen, M., Somay, A., and Tasci, A. I. Effects of pomegranate juice on hyperoxaluria-induced oxidative stress in the rat kidneys. Ren Fail. 2009;31(6):522-531. View abstract.

Iqbal, B. Saeed M. K. Khalid B. Liaquat L. and Ahmad I. Nutritional Value and Antioxidant Activity of Various Extracts and Fractions of Punka granatum (Pomegranate) Peel. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 2010;53:330-333.

Jadeja, R. N., Thounaojam, M. C., Patel, D. K., Devkar, R. V., and Ramachandran, A. V. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice supplementation attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac necrosis in rats. Cardiovasc.Toxicol. 2010;10(3):174-180. View abstract.

Jafri, M. A., Aslam, M., Javed, K., and Singh, S. Effect of Punica granatum Linn. (flowers) on blood glucose level in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;70(3):309-314. View abstract.

Jardini, F. A. Lima A. de Mendonça R. M. Z. Pinto R. J. Mancini D. A. P. and Mancini Filho J. Phenolic compounds from pulp and seeds of pomegranate (Punica granatum, L.): antioxidant activity and protection of MDCK cells. / Compostos fenólicos da polpa e sementes de romã (Punica granatum, L.): atividade antioxidante e protetora em células MDCK. Alimentos e Nutrição 2010;21(4):509-517.

Jiang, J., Eliaz, I., and Sliva, D. Suppression of growth and invasive behavior of human prostate cancer cells by ProstaCaid: mechanism of activity. Int J Oncol. 2011;38(6):1675-1682. View abstract.

Jing, X. HuanRong D. and Gong Y. Effect of pomegranate juice and apple juice on free radical metabolism in liver, heart and brain of aged rats. Chinese Journal of Prevention and Control of Chronic Diseases 2011;19(2):185-187.

Johann, S., Cisalpino, P. S., Watanabe, G. A., Cota, B. B., de Siqueira, E. P., Pizzolatti, M. G., Zani, C. L., and de Resende, M. A. Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Pharm.Biol. 2010;48(4):388-396. View abstract.

Jurenka, J. S. Therapeutic applications of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): a review. Altern.Med.Rev. 2008;13(2):128-144. View abstract.

Kahya, V., Meric, A., Yazici, M., Yuksel, M., Midi, A., and Gedikli, O. Antioxidant effect of pomegranate extract in reducing acute inflammation due to myringotomy. J.Laryngol.Otol. 2011;125(4):370-375. View abstract.

Kanatt, S. R. Chander R. and Sharma A. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extract improves the shelf life of chicken products. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 2010;45(2):216-222.

Kasai, K., Yoshimura, M., Koga, T., Arii, M., and Kawasaki, S. Effects of oral administration of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate extract on ultraviolet-induced pigmentation in the human skin. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2006;52(5):383-388. View abstract.

Kasimsetty, S. G., Bialonska, D., Reddy, M. K., Ma, G., Khan, S. I., and Ferreira, D. Colon cancer chemopreventive activities of pomegranate ellagitannins and urolithins. J.Agric.Food Chem. 2-24-2010;58(4):2180-2187. View abstract.

Kasimsetty, S. G., Bialonska, D., Reddy, M. K., Thornton, C., Willett, K. L., and Ferreira, D. Effects of pomegranate chemical constituents/intestinal microbial metabolites on CYP1B1 in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-25-2009;57(22):10636-10644. View abstract.

Kawaii, S. and Lansky, E. P. Differentiation-promoting activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. J.Med.Food 2004;7(1):13-18. View abstract.

Kelebek, H. and Canbas A. Organic acid, sugar and phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Hicaz pomegranate juice. / Hicaz nar srasnn organik asit seker ve fenol bilesikleri icerigI ve antioksidan kapasitesi. GIDA - Journal of Food 2010;35(6):439-444.

Kelishadi, R., Gidding, S. S., Hashemi, M., Hashemipour, M., Zakerameli, A., and Poursafa, P. Acute and long term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on endothelial dysfunction in pediatric metabolic syndrome. J.Res.Med.Sci. 2011;16(3):245-253. View abstract.

Khalife, S. and Zafarullah, M. Molecular targets of natural health products in arthritis. Arthritis Res.Ther. 2011;13(1):102. View abstract.

Khan, G. N., Gorin, M. A., Rosenthal, D., Pan, Q., Bao, L. W., Wu, Z. F., Newman, R. A., Pawlus, A. D., Yang, P., Lansky, E. P., and Merajver, S. D. Pomegranate fruit extract impairs invasion and motility in human breast cancer. Integr.Cancer Ther. 2009;8(3):242-253. View abstract.

Khateeb, J., Gantman, A., Kreitenberg, A. J., Aviram, M., and Fuhrman, B. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) expression in hepatocytes is upregulated by pomegranate polyphenols: a role for PPAR-gamma pathway. Atherosclerosis 2010;208(1):119-125. View abstract.

Khennouf, S., Gharzouli, K., Amira, S., and Gharzouli, A. Effects of Quercus ilex L. and Punica granatum L. polyphenols against ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats. Pharmazie 1999;54(1):75-76. View abstract.

Kiefer, D. In the news, Pomegranate improves sperm quality. Life Extension 2008;14(5):18.

Kim, Y. H. and Choi, E. M. Stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation and inhibition of interleukin-6 and nitric oxide in MC3T3-E1 cells by pomegranate ethanol extract. Phytother.Res. 2009;23(5):737-739. View abstract.

Kishore, R. K., Sudhakar, D., and Parthasarathy, P. R. Embryo protective effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit extract in adriamycin-induced oxidative stress. Indian J.Biochem.Biophys. 2009;46(1):106-111. View abstract.

Koh, K. H. and Tham, F. Y. Screening of traditional Chinese medicinal plants for quorum-sensing inhibitors activity. J.Microbiol.Immunol.Infect. 2011;44(2):144-148. View abstract.

Kolekar, V. S. Wakure D. D. Raut P. N. and Utture S. C. Monitoring of pesticide residues in exportable pomegranate fruits. Acta Horticulturae 2011;890:547-555.

Koyama, S., Cobb, L. J., Mehta, H. H., Seeram, N. P., Heber, D., Pantuck, A. J., and Cohen, P. Pomegranate extract induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by modulation of the IGF-IGFBP axis. Growth Horm.IGF.Res. 2010;20(1):55-62. View abstract.

Kuang, N. Z., He, Y., Xu, Z. Z., Bao, L., He, R. R., and Kurihara, H. [Effect of pomegranate peel extracts on experimental prostatitis rats]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2009;32(2):235-239. View abstract.

Kumar, S., Maheshwari, K. K., and Singh, V. Central nervous system activity of acute administration of ethanol extract of Punica granatum L. seeds in mice. Indian J.Exp.Biol. 2008;46(12):811-816. View abstract.

Kumar-Roine, S., Matsui, M., Reybier, K., Darius, H. T., Chinain, M., Pauillac, S., and Laurent, D. Ability of certain plant extracts traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. J.Ethnopharmacol. 6-25-2009;123(3):369-377. View abstract.

Kuritzky, L. Pomegranate juice for erectile dysfunction. Clinical Oncology Alert 2008;13(2):3-4.

Kyralan, M. Gölükcü M. and Tokgöz H. Oil and Conjugated Linolenic Acid Contents of Seeds from Important Pomegranate Cultivars ( Punica granatum L.) Grown in Turkey. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2009;86(10):1029.

Lai, S., Zhou, Q., Zhang, Y., Shang, J., and Yu, T. [Effects of pomegranate tannins on experimental gastric damages]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34(10):1290-1294. View abstract.

Lan, J., Lei, F., Hua, L., Wang, Y., Xing, D., and Du, L. Transport behavior of ellagic acid of pomegranate leaf tannins and its correlation with total cholesterol alteration in HepG2 cells. Biomed.Chromatogr. 2009;23(5):531-536. View abstract.

Lansky, E. P. and Newman, R. A. Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. J Ethnopharmacol 1-19-2007;109(2):177-206. View abstract.

Larrosa, M., Gonzalez-Sarrias, A., Yanez-Gascon, M. J., Selma, M. V., Azorin-Ortuno, M., Toti, S., Tomas-Barberan, F., Dolara, P., and Espin, J. C. Anti-inflammatory properties of a pomegranate extract and its metabolite urolithin-A in a colitis rat model and the effect of colon inflammation on phenolic metabolism. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2010;21(8):717-725. View abstract.

Lee, S. I., Kim, B. S., Kim, K. S., Lee, S., Shin, K. S., and Lim, J. S. Immune-suppressive activity of punicalagin via inhibition of NFAT activation. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 7-11-2008;371(4):799-803. View abstract.

Leiva, K. P., Rubio, J., Peralta, F., and Gonzales, G. F. Effect of Punica granatum (pomegranate) on sperm production in male rats treated with lead acetate. Toxicol.Mech.Methods 2011;21(6):495-502. View abstract.

Li, J. Li G. Zhao Y. and Yu C. Composition of pomegranate peel polyphenols and its antioxidant activities. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 2009;42(11):4035-4041.

Li, Z., Percival, S. S., Bonard, S., and Gu, L. Fabrication of nanoparticles using partially purified pomegranate ellagitannins and gelatin and their apoptotic effects. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2011;55(7):1096-1103. View abstract.

Lu, J., E L, Wang, W., Frontera, J., Zhu, H., Wang, W. T., Lee, P., Choi, I. Y., Brooks, W. M., Burns, J. M., Aires, D., and Swerdlow, R. H. Alternate day fasting impacts the brain insulin-signaling pathway of young adult male C57BL/6 mice. J.Neurochem. 2011;117(1):154-163. View abstract.

Lucas, D. L. and Were, L. M. Anti-Listeria monocytogenes activity of heat-treated lyophilized pomegranate juice in media and in ground top round beef. J.Food Prot. 2009;72(12):2508-2516. View abstract.

Martin, K. R. Krueger C. G. Rodriquez G. Dreher M. and Reed J. D. Development of a novel pomegranate standard and new method for the quantitative measurement of pomegranate polyphenols. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 2009;89(1):157-162.

Mattiello, T., Trifiro, E., Jotti, G. S., and Pulcinelli, F. M. Effects of pomegranate juice and extract polyphenols on platelet function. J.Med.Food 2009;12(2):334-339. View abstract.

McCarrell, E. M., Gould, S. W., Fielder, M. D., Kelly, A. F., El, Sankary W., and Naughton, D. P. Antimicrobial activities of pomegranate rind extracts: enhancement by addition of metal salts and vitamin C. BMC.Complement Altern.Med. 2008;8:64. View abstract.

McDougall, G. J., Ross, H. A., Ikeji, M., and Stewart, D. Berry extracts exert different antiproliferative effects against cervical and colon cancer cells grown in vitro. J.Agric.Food Chem. 5-14-2008;56(9):3016-3023. View abstract.

McFarlin, B. K., Strohacker, K. A., and Kueht, M. L. Pomegranate seed oil consumption during a period of high-fat feeding reduces weight gain and reduces type 2 diabetes risk in CD-1 mice. Br.J.Nutr. 2009;102(1):54-59. View abstract.

Meerts, I. A., Verspeek-Rip, C. M., Buskens, C. A., Keizer, H. G., Bassaganya-Riera, J., Jouni, Z. E., van Huygevoort, A. H., van Otterdijk, F. M., and van de Waart, E. J. Toxicological evaluation of pomegranate seed oil. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(6):1085-1092. View abstract.

Melgarejo, P., Calin-Sanchez, A., Vazquez-Araujo, L., Hernandez, F., Martinez, J. J., Legua, P., and Carbonell-Barrachina, A. A. Volatile composition of pomegranates from 9 Spanish cultivars using headspace solid phase microextraction. J.Food Sci. 2011;76(1):S114-S120. View abstract.

Melgarejo, P., Salazar, D. M., and Amoros, A. Total lipids content and fatty acid composition of seed oils from six pomegranate cultivars. J.Sci.Food Agr. 1995;69:253-256.

Mena, P., Garcia-Viguera, C., Navarro-Rico, J., Moreno, D. A., Bartual, J., Saura, D., and Marti, N. Phytochemical characterisation for industrial use of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Spain. J.Sci.Food Agric. 8-15-2011;91(10):1893-1906. View abstract.

Menezes, S. M., Cordeiro, L. N., and Viana, G. S. Punica granatum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque. J Herb Pharmacother 2006;6(2):79-92. View abstract.

Mirmiran, P., Fazeli, M. R., Asghari, G., Shafiee, A., and Azizi, F. Effect of pomegranate seed oil on hyperlipidaemic subjects: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Br.J.Nutr. 2010;104(3):402-406. View abstract.

Mohan, M., Waghulde, H., and Kasture, S. Effect of pomegranate juice on Angiotensin II-induced hypertension in diabetic Wistar rats. Phytother.Res. 2010;24 Suppl 2:S196-S203. View abstract.

Moskaug, J. O., Borge, G. I., Fagervoll, A. M., Paur, I., Carlsen, H., and Blomhoff, R. Dietary polyphenols identified as intracellular protein kinase A inhibitors. Eur.J Nutr. 2008;47(8):460-469. View abstract.

Mousavinejad, G. Emam-Djomeh Z. Rezaei K. and Khodaparast M. H. H. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds and their effects on antioxidant activity in pomegranate juices of eight Iranian cultivars. Food Chemistry 2009;115(4):1274-1278.

Navarro, P. Nicolas T. S. Gabaldon J. A. Mercader-Ros M. T. Calín-Sánchez Á. Carbonell-Barrachina Á. A. and Pérez-López A. J. Effects of Cyclodextrin Type on Vitamin C, Antioxidant Activity, and Sensory Attributes of a Mandarin Juice Enriched with Pomegranate and Goji Berries. Journal of Food Science 2011;76(5):319-324.

Navarro, V., Villarreal, M. L., Rojas, G., and Lozoya, X. Antimicrobial evaluation of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;53(3):143-147. View abstract.

Naveena, B. M. Sen A. R. Vaithiyanathan S. Patil G. and Kondaiah N. Antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice in cooked chicken patties. Journal of Muscle Foods 2010;21(3):557-569.

Newton, K. M., Reed, S. D., Grothaus, L., Ehrlich, K., Guiltinan, J., Ludman, E., and Lacroix, A. Z. Reprint of The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design. Maturitas 2008;61(1-2):181-193. View abstract.

Newton, K. M., Reed, S. D., Grothaus, L., Ehrlich, K., Guiltinan, J., Ludman, E., and Lacroix, A. Z. The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design. Maturitas 10-16-2005;52(2):134-146. View abstract.

Nishigaki, I. Rajendran P. Venugopal R. Ekambaram G. Sakthisekaran D. and Nishigaki Y. Effect of extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) on glycated protein-iron chelate-induced toxicity: an in vitro study on human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. Journal of Health Science 2008;54(4):441-449.

Niwano, Y., Saito, K., Yoshizaki, F., Kohno, M., and Ozawa, T. Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties. J.Clin.Biochem.Nutr. 2011;48(1):78-84. View abstract.

Nualkaekul, S. and Charalampopoulos, D. Survival of Lactobacillus plantarum in model solutions and fruit juices. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 3-30-2011;146(2):111-117. View abstract.

O'May, C. and Tufenkji, N. The swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is blocked by cranberry proanthocyanidins and other tannin-containing materials. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2011;77(9):3061-3067. View abstract.

Oliveira, R. A., Narciso, C. D., Bisinotto, R. S., Perdomo, M. C., Ballou, M. A., Dreher, M., and Santos, J. E. Effects of feeding polyphenols from pomegranate extract on health, growth, nutrient digestion, and immunocompetence of calves. J.Dairy Sci. 2010;93(9):4280-4291. View abstract.

Orak, H. H. Demirci A. S. and Gümüs T. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv.) peel. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2011;10(3):1958-1969.

Orak, H. H. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, colour and some nutritional characteristics of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice and its sour concentrate processed by conventional evaporation. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2009;60(1):1-11. View abstract.

Pacheco-Palencia, L. A., Noratto, G., Hingorani, L., Talcott, S. T., and Mertens-Talcott, S. U. Protective effects of standardized pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenolic extract in ultraviolet-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. J.Agric.Food Chem. 9-24-2008;56(18):8434-8441. View abstract.

Pai, M. B., Prashant, G. M., Murlikrishna, K. S., Shivakumar, K. M., and Chandu, G. N. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: an in vitro study. Indian J.Dent.Res. 2010;21(3):334-336. View abstract.

Pande, G. and Akoh, C. C. Antioxidant capacity and lipid characterization of six Georgia-grown pomegranate cultivars. J.Agric.Food Chem. 10-28-2009;57(20):9427-9436. View abstract.

Panichayupakaranant, P. Tewtrakul S. and Yuenyongsawad S. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities of standardised pomegranate rind extract. Food Chemistry 2010;123(2):400-403.

Panichayupakarananta, P., Issuriya, A., Sirikatitham, A., and Wang, W. Antioxidant assay-guided purification and LC determination of ellagic acid in pomegranate peel. J.Chromatogr.Sci. 2010;48(6):456-459. View abstract.

Parashar, A. Gupta C. Gupta S. K. and Kumar A. Antimicrobial ellagitannin from pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits. International Journal of Fruit Science 2009;9(3):226-231.

Park, H. M., Moon, E., Kim, A. J., Kim, M. H., Lee, S., Lee, J. B., Park, Y. K., Jung, H. S., Kim, Y. B., and Kim, S. Y. Extract of Punica granatum inhibits skin photoaging induced by UVB irradiation. Int.J.Dermatol. 2010;49(3):276-282. View abstract.

Parle, M. and Samal M. K. Neuroprotective effects of pomegranate juice in mice. International Journal of Medical Sciences 2010;2(2):166-169.

Parmar, H. S. and Kar, A. Antidiabetic potential of Citrus sinensis and Punica granatum peel extracts in alloxan treated male mice. Biofactors 2007;31(1):17-24. View abstract.

Parmar, H. S. and Kar, A. Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones. J.Med.Food 2008;11(2):376-381. View abstract.

Patel, C., Dadhaniya, P., Hingorani, L., and Soni, M. G. Safety assessment of pomegranate fruit extract: acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2008;46(8):2728-2735. View abstract.

Pillai, N. R. Anti-diarrhoeal activity of Punica granatum in experimental animals. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 1992;30(3):201-204.

Pirbalouti, A. G., Azizi, S., Koohpayeh, A., and Hamedi, B. Wound healing activity of Malva sylvestris and Punica granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2010;67(5):511-516. View abstract.

Pirbalouti, A. G., Koohpayeh, A., and Karimi, I. The wound healing activity of flower extracts of Punica granatum and Achillea kellalensis in Wistar rats. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2010;67(1):107-110. View abstract.

Prashanth, D., Asha, M. K., and Amit, A. Antibacterial activity of Punica granatum. Fitoterapia 2001;72(2):171-173. View abstract.

Qu, W. Pan Z. L. and Ma H. Extraction modeling and activities of antioxidants from pomegranate marc. Journal of Food Engineering 2010;99(1):16-23.

Rababah, T. M., Banat, F., Rababah, A., Ereifej, K., and Yang, W. Optimization of extraction conditions of total phenolics, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanin of oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate. J.Food Sci. 2010;75(7):C626-C632. View abstract.

Radjabian, T. Husseini H. F. Karami M. Rasooli I. and Faghihzadeh S. Effect of pomegranate fruit juice and seed oil on serum lipid levels and atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Journal of Medicinal Plants 2008;7(25):93-104, 117.

Rasheed, Z., Akhtar, N., Anbazhagan, A. N., Ramamurthy, S., Shukla, M., and Haqqi, T. M. Polyphenol-rich pomegranate fruit extract (POMx) suppresses PMACI-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of MAP Kinases and NF-kappaB in human KU812 cells. J.Inflamm.(Lond) 2009;6:1. View abstract.

Rasheed, Z., Akhtar, N., and Haqqi, T. M. Pomegranate extract inhibits the interleukin-1beta-induced activation of MKK-3, p38alpha-MAPK and transcription factor RUNX-2 in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. Arthritis Res.Ther. 2010;12(5):R195. View abstract.

Rattanachaikunsopon, P. and Phumkhachorn, P. Use of asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control columnaris in Nile tilapia. J.Aquat.Anim Health 2010;22(1):14-20. View abstract.

Reed, J. D., Krueger, C. G., and Vestling, M. M. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of oligomeric food polyphenols. Phytochemistry 2005;66(18):2248-2263. View abstract.

Rena, K., Palida, A., and Zhang, X. Y. [Studies on the chemical constituents from Xinjiang Punica granatum]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2009;32(3):363-365. View abstract.

Rettig, M. B., Heber, D., An, J., Seeram, N. P., Rao, J. Y., Liu, H., Klatte, T., Belldegrun, A., Moro, A., Henning, S. M., Mo, D., Aronson, W. J., and Pantuck, A. Pomegranate extract inhibits androgen-independent prostate cancer growth through a nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent mechanism. Mol.Cancer Ther. 2008;7(9):2662-2671. View abstract.

Rock, W., Rosenblat, M., Miller-Lotan, R., Levy, A. P., Elias, M., and Aviram, M. Consumption of wonderful variety pomegranate juice and extract by diabetic patients increases paraoxonase 1 association with high-density lipoprotein and stimulates its catalytic activities. J.Agric.Food Chem. 9-24-2008;56(18):8704-8713. View abstract.

Romier-Crouzet, B., Van De Walle, J., During, A., Joly, A., Rousseau, C., Henry, O., Larondelle, Y., and Schneider, Y. J. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators by polyphenolic plant extracts in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(6):1221-1230. View abstract.

Rosenblat, M. and Aviram, M. Paraoxonases role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Biofactors 2009;35(1):98-104. View abstract.

Rosenblat, M. and Aviram, M. Pomegranate juice protects macrophages from triglyceride accumulation: inhibitory effect on DGAT1 activity and on triglyceride biosynthesis. Ann.Nutr.Metab 2011;58(1):1-9. View abstract.

Rosenblat, M., Draganov, D., Watson, C. E., Bisgaier, C. L., La Du, B. N., and Aviram, M. Mouse macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity is increased whereas cellular paraoxonase 3 activity is decreased under oxidative stress. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol 3-1-2003;23(3):468-474. View abstract.

Rosenblat, M., Volkova, N., Attias, J., Mahamid, R., and Aviram, M. Consumption of polyphenolic-rich beverages (mostly pomegranate and black currant juices) by healthy subjects for a short term increased serum antioxidant status, and the serum's ability to attenuate macrophage cholesterol accumulation. Food Funct. 2010;1(1):99-109. View abstract.

Rosenblat, M., Volkova, N., Coleman, R., and Aviram, M. Pomegranate byproduct administration to apolipoprotein e-deficient mice attenuates atherosclerosis development as a result of decreased macrophage oxidative stress and reduced cellular uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. J Agric Food Chem 3-8-2006;54(5):1928-1935. View abstract.

Rozenberg, O., Howell, A., and Aviram, M. Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it. Atherosclerosis 2006;188(1):68-76. View abstract.

Salgado, L. Melgarejo P. Meseguer I. and Sánchez M. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Acta Horticulturae 2009;818:257-264.

Samadloiy, H. R. Azizi M. H. and Barzegar M. Physico-chemical quality of seeds of pomegranate cultivars (Punica granatum L.) grown in Iran and antioxidative activity of their phenolic component. Journal of Food Science and Technology 2008;45(2):190-192.

Sanchez-Lamar, A., Fonseca, G., Fuentes, J. L., Cozzi, R., Cundari, E., Fiore, M., Ricordy, R., Perticone, P., Degrassi, F., and De, Salvia R. Assessment of the genotoxic risk of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) whole fruit extracts. J.Ethnopharmacol. 2-12-2008;115(3):416-422. View abstract.

Sartippour, M. R., Seeram, N. P., Rao, J. Y., Moro, A., Harris, D. M., Henning, S. M., Firouzi, A., Rettig, M. B., Aronson, W. J., Pantuck, A. J., and Heber, D. Ellagitannin-rich pomegranate extract inhibits angiogenesis in prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Int.J.Oncol. 2008;32(2):475-480. View abstract.

Saruwatari, A., Okamura, S., Nakajima, Y., Narukawa, Y., Takeda, T., and Tamura, H. Pomegranate juice inhibits sulfoconjugation in Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells. J.Med.Food 2008;11(4):623-628. View abstract.

Sastravaha, G., Gassmann, G., Sangtherapitikul, P., and Grimm, W. D. Adjunctive periodontal treatment with Centella asiatica and Punica granatum extracts in supportive periodontal therapy. J Int Acad Periodontol. 2005;7(3):70-79. View abstract.

Savant, R. H., Banerjee, K., Utture, S. C., Patil, S. H., Dasgupta, S., Ghaste, M. S., and Adsule, P. G. Multiresidue analysis of 50 pesticides in grape, pomegranate, and mango by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. J.Agric.Food Chem. 2-10-2010;58(3):1447-1454. View abstract.

Sayyari, M., Valero, D., Babalar, M., Kalantari, S., Zapata, P. J., and Serrano, M. Prestorage oxalic acid treatment maintained visual quality, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant potential of pomegranate after long-term storage at 2 degrees C. J.Agric.Food Chem. 6-9-2010;58(11):6804-6808. View abstract.

Schwartz, E., Tzulker, R., Glazer, I., Bar-Ya'akov, I., Wiesman, Z., Tripler, E., Bar-Ilan, I., Fromm, H., Borochov-Neori, H., Holland, D., and Amir, R. Environmental conditions affect the color, taste, and antioxidant capacity of 11 pomegranate accessions' fruits. J.Agric.Food Chem. 10-14-2009;57(19):9197-9209. View abstract.

Seeram, N. P., Henning, S. M., Zhang, Y., Suchard, M., Li, Z., and Heber, D. Pomegranate juice ellagitannin metabolites are present in human plasma and some persist in urine for up to 48 hours. J Nutr 2006;136(10):2481-2485. View abstract.

Seeram, N. P., Lee, R., and Heber, D. Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice. Clin Chim Acta 2004;348(1-2):63-68. View abstract.

Seeram, N. P., Zhang, Y., McKeever, R., Henning, S. M., Lee, R. P., Suchard, M. A., Li, Z., Chen, S., Thames, G., Zerlin, A., Nguyen, M., Wang, D., Dreher, M., and Heber, D. Pomegranate juice and extracts provide similar levels of plasma and urinary ellagitannin metabolites in human subjects. J.Med.Food 2008;11(2):390-394. View abstract.

Segura, J. J., Morales-Ramos, L. H., Verde-Star, J., and Guerra, D. [Growth inhibition of Entamoeba histolytica and E. invadens produced by pomegranate root (Punica granatum L.)]. Arch Invest Med (Mex.) 1990;21(3):235-239. View abstract.

Sentandreu, E., Navarro, J. L., and Sendra, J. M. LC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) determination of direct condensation flavanol-anthocyanin adducts in pressure extracted pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice. J.Agric.Food Chem. 10-13-2010;58(19):10560-10567. View abstract.

Seong, A. R., Yoo, J. Y., Choi, K., Lee, M. H., Lee, Y. H., Lee, J., Jun, W., Kim, S., and Yoon, H. G. Delphinidin, a specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses inflammatory signaling via prevention of NF-kappaB acetylation in fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 7-8-2011;410(3):581-586. View abstract.

Shabtay, A., Eitam, H., Tadmor, Y., Orlov, A., Meir, A., Weinberg, P., Weinberg, Z. G., Chen, Y., Brosh, A., Izhaki, I., and Kerem, Z. Nutritive and antioxidative potential of fresh and stored pomegranate industrial byproduct as a novel beef cattle feed. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-12-2008;56(21):10063-10070. View abstract.

Shan, B., Cai, Y. Z., Brooks, J. D., and Corke, H. Potential application of spice and herb extracts as natural preservatives in cheese. J.Med.Food 2011;14(3):284-290. View abstract.

Sharma, A., Chandraker, S., Patel, V. K., and Ramteke, P. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Plants Against Pathogens causing Complicated Urinary Tract Infections. Indian J.Pharm.Sci. 2009;71(2):136-139. View abstract.

Sharma, M., Li, L., Celver, J., Killian, C., Kovoor, A., and Seeram, N. P. Effects of fruit ellagitannin extracts, ellagic acid, and their colonic metabolite, urolithin A, on Wnt signaling. J.Agric.Food Chem. 4-14-2010;58(7):3965-3969. View abstract.

Shiner, M., Fuhrman, B., and Aviram, M. Macrophage paraoxonase 2 (PON2) expression is up-regulated by pomegranate juice phenolic anti-oxidants via PPAR gamma and AP-1 pathway activation. Atherosclerosis 2007;195(2):313-321. View abstract.

Shukla, M., Gupta, K., Rasheed, Z., Khan, K. A., and Haqqi, T. M. Bioavailable constituents/metabolites of pomegranate (Punica granatum L) preferentially inhibit COX2 activity ex vivo and IL-1beta-induced PGE2 production in human chondrocytes in vitro. J.Inflamm.(Lond) 2008;5:9. View abstract.

Shukla, M., Gupta, K., Rasheed, Z., Khan, K. A., and Haqqi, T. M. Consumption of hydrolyzable tannins-rich pomegranate extract suppresses inflammation and joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition 2008;24(7-8):733-743. View abstract.

Simsek, N. Karadeniz A. and Bayraktaroglu A. G. Effects of L-carnitine, royal jelly and pomegranate seed on peripheral blood cells in rats. / Ratlarda periferal kan hücreleri üzerine L-karnitin, ar sütü ve nar cekirdeginin etkileri. Kafkas Üniversitesi. Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 2009;15(1):63-69.

Singh, K., Jaggi, A. S., and Singh, N. Exploring the ameliorative potential of Punica granatum in dextran sulfate sodium induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Phytother.Res. 2009;23(11):1565-1574. View abstract.

Song, W. Jiao S. Zhou J. and Ye C. Microwaves assisted extraction of polyphenol from pomegranate peel and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Modern Food Science and Technology 2008;24(1):23-27.

Steinmetz, W. E. NMR assignment and characterization of proton exchange of the ellagitannin granatin B. Magn Reson.Chem. 2010;48(7):565-570. View abstract.

Stowe, C. B. The effects of pomegranate juice consumption on blood pressure and cardiovascular health. Complement Ther.Clin.Pract. 2011;17(2):113-115. View abstract.

Su, X., Sangster, M. Y., and D'Souza, D. H. In vitro effects of pomegranate juice and pomegranate polyphenols on foodborne viral surrogates. Foodborne.Pathog.Dis. 2010;7(12):1473-1479. View abstract.

Sundararajan, A., Ganapathy, R., Huan, L., Dunlap, J. R., Webby, R. J., Kotwal, G. J., and Sangster, M. Y. Influenza virus variation in susceptibility to inactivation by pomegranate polyphenols is determined by envelope glycoproteins. Antiviral Res. 2010;88(1):1-9. View abstract.

Syed, D. N., Malik, A., Hadi, N., Sarfaraz, S., Afaq, F., and Mukhtar, H. Photochemopreventive effect of pomegranate fruit extract on UVA-mediated activation of cellular pathways in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Photochem Photobiol 2006;82(2):398-405. View abstract.

Syed, D. N., Suh, Y., Afaq, F., and Mukhtar, H. Dietary agents for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Cancer Lett. 7-8-2008;265(2):167-176. View abstract.

Tanner, A. E. Saker K. E. Ju Y. Lee Y. W. O'Keefe S. Robertson J. and Tanko J. M. Cell proliferation of feline and human breast cancer cell types is inhibited by pomegranate juice. Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition 2008;92(2):221-222.

Tantray, M. A., Akbar, S., Khan, R., Tariq, K. A., and Shawl, A. S. Humarain: a new dimeric gallic acid glycoside from Punica granatum L. bark. Fitoterapia 2009;80(4):223-225. View abstract.

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Tayel, A. A., Salem, M. F., El-Tras, W. F., and Brimer, L. Exploration of Islamic medicine plant extracts as powerful antifungals for the prevention of mycotoxigenic Aspergilli growth in organic silage. J.Sci.Food Agric. 2011;91(12):2160-2165. View abstract.

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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182

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