Pine

What other names is Pine known by?

Dwarf-Pine, Essence d'Aiguilles de Pin, Huile d'Aiguilles de Pin, Huile Essentielle de Pin, Huiles de Pin, Monterey Pine, Pin, Pin Écossais, Pin de Montagne, Pin de Monterey, Pin de Russie, Pin Sauvage, Pin Sylvestre, Pine Essential Oil, Pine Needle Oil, Pine Oils, Pini Atheroleum, Pini Turiones, Pino, Pinus radiata, Pinus sylvestris, Pix Liquida, Pumilio Pine, Scotch Fir, Scotch Pine, Swiss Mountain Pine.

What is Pine?

Pine is a tree. People use the sprouts, needles, and bark to make medicine.

Don't confuse pine with fir shoots (Picea abies or Abies alba) or man-made "pine oil."

Pine is used for upper and lower respiratory tract swelling (inflammation), stuffy nose, hoarseness, common cold, cough or bronchitis, fevers, tendency towards infection, and blood pressure problems.

Some people apply pine directly to the skin for mild muscle pain and nerve pain.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Thinking and memory. Early research suggests that taking vitamin C along with a specific product containing pine extract (Enzogenol) for 5 weeks improves thinking and memory in middle-aged and older men.
  • Upper and lower respiratory tract swelling (inflammation).
  • Mild muscle pain.
  • Nerve pain.
  • Blood pressure problems.
  • Common cold.
  • Cough.
  • Bronchitis.
  • Fevers.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of pine for these uses.

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How does Pine work?

Pine contains chemicals that might have activity against pain and swelling (inflammation). It also seems to be mildly effective in killing bacteria and fungus.

Are there safety concerns?

Pine is POSSIBLY SAFE when used appropriately by mouth for short periods of time.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking pine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Asthma, allergy: Pine pollen can cause an increase in allergic symptoms, even in people who test negatively to pine skin tests.

Dosing considerations for Pine.

The appropriate dose of pine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for pine. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

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Last Editorial Review: 3/29/2011