- What other names is Phosphatidylserine known by?
- What is Phosphatidylserine?
- How does Phosphatidylserine work?
- Are there safety concerns?
- Are there any interactions with medications?
- Dosing considerations for Phosphatidylserine.
BC-PS, Bovine Cortex Phosphatidylserine, Bovine Phosphatidylserine, Fosfatidilserina, LECI-PS, Lecithin Phosphatidylserine, Phosphatidylsérine, Phosphatidylsérine Bovine, Phosphatidylsérine de Soya, Phosphatidyl Serine, PS, PtdSer, Soy-PS, Soy Phosphatidylserine.
Phosphatidylserine is a chemical. The body can make phosphatidylserine, but gets most of what it needs from foods. Phosphatidylserine supplements were once made from cow brains, but now are commonly manufactured from cabbage or soy. The switch was triggered by a concern that products made from animal sources might cause infections such as mad cow disease.
Phosphatidylserine is used for Alzheimer's disease, age-related decline in mental function, improving thinking skills in young people, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, preventing exercise-induced stress, and improving athletic performance.
Possibly Effective for...
- Age-related mental decline. Phosphatidylserine made from cow brains seems to improve attention, language skills, and memory in aging people with declining thinking skills. It is not known whether the newer products, which are made from soy and cabbage, will have the same benefit. However, there is developing evidence that plant-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory in people with age-associated memory loss.
- Alzheimer's disease. Taking phosphatidylserine can improve some of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease after 6-12 weeks of treatment. It seems to be most effective in people with less severe symptoms. However, phosphatidylserine might lose its effectiveness with extended use. After 16 weeks of treatment, progression of Alzheimer's disease seems to overcome any benefit provided by phosphatidylserine.
Most clinical studies have used phosphatidylserine from cow brains. However, most supplements now use phosphatidylserine from soy or cabbage. Researchers do not yet know how phosphatidylserine made from these plant sources compares with phosphatidylserine made from cow brains in terms of effectiveness for Alzheimer's disease.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Depression. There is some early evidence that phosphatidylserine might improve depression in older people.
- Stress brought on by exercise. Some research suggests that athletes taking phosphatidylserine during strenuous training might feel better overall and have less muscle soreness. However, other research shows conflicting results.
- Improving athletic performance.
- Improving thinking ability.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
- Other conditions.
Phosphatidylserine is an important chemical with widespread functions in the body. It is part of the cell structure and is key in the maintenance of cellular function, especially in the brain.
Phosphatidylserine is POSSIBLY SAFE most adults and children when taken by mouth appropriately. It has been used in research studies for up to six months.
Phosphatidylserine can cause side effects including insomnia and stomach upset, particularly at doses over 300 mg.
There is some concern that products made from animal sources could transmit diseases, such as mad cow disease. To date, there are not any known cases of humans getting animal diseases from phosphatidylserine supplements, but look for supplements made from plants to be on the safe side.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking phosphatidylserine if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Be on the safe side and avoid use.
Drying medications (Anticholinergic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some drying medications are called anticholinergic drugs. Phosphatidylserine might increase chemicals that can decrease the effects of these drying medications.
Medications for Alzheimer's disease (Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Phosphatidylserine might increase a chemical in the body called acetylcholine. Medications for Alzheimer's disease called acetylcholinesterase inhibitors also increase the chemical acetylcholine. Taking phosphatidylserine along with medications for Alzheimer's disease might increase effects and side effects of medications for Alzheimer's disease.
Various medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions (Cholinergic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Phosphatidylserine might increase a chemical in the body called acetylcholine. This chemical is similar to some medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions. Taking phosphatidylserine with these medications might increase the chance of side effects.
Some of these medications used for glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and other conditions include pilocarpine (Pilocar and others) and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For Alzheimer's disease, and other age-related thinking or memory impairment: 100 mg of phosphatidylserine three times daily.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Amaducci, L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol.Bull. 1988;24(1):130-134. View abstract.
Carr, D. J., Guarcello, V., and Blalock, J. E. Phosphatidylserine suppresses antigen-specific IgM production by mice orally administered sheep red blood cells. Proc.Soc.Exp.Biol Med 1992;200(4):548-554. View abstract.
Chiu, D., Lubin, B., Roelofsen, B., and van Deenen, L. L. Sickled erythrocytes accelerate clotting in vitro: an effect of abnormal membrane lipid asymmetry. Blood 1981;58(2):398-401. View abstract.
Emmelot, P. and Van Hoeven, R. P. Phospholipid unsaturation and plasma membrane organization. Chem Phys.Lipids 1975;14(3):236-246. View abstract.
FOLCH, J. The chemical structure of phospatidyl serine. J Biol Chem 1948;174(2):439-450. View abstract.
Franck, P. F., Bevers, E. M., Lubin, B. H., Comfurius, P., Chiu, D. T., Op den Kamp, J. A., Zwaal, R. F., van Deenen, L. L., and Roelofsen, B. Uncoupling of the membrane skeleton from the lipid bilayer. The cause of accelerated phospholipid flip-flop leading to an enhanced procoagulant activity of sickled cells. J Clin.Invest 1985;75(1):183-190. View abstract.
Gatti, C., Cantelmi, M. G., Brunetti, M., Gaiti, A., Calderini, G., and Teolato, S. Effect of chronic treatment with phosphatidyl serine on phospholipase A1 and A2 activities in different brain areas of 4 month and 24 month old rats. Farmaco Sci. 1985;40(7):493-500. View abstract.
Gindin, J., Novikov, M., Kedar, D., Walter-Ginzburg, A., Naor, S., and Levi, S. The effect of plant phosphatidylserine on age-associated memory impairment and mood in the functioning elderly. Geriatric Institute for Education and Research and Dept of Geriatrics; Kaplan Hospital; Rehovot, Israel 1995;
Jager, R., Purpura, M., Geiss, K. R., Weiss, M., Baumeister, J., Amatulli, F., Schroder, L., and Herwegen, H. The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance. J Int Soc.Sports Nutr 2007;4(1):23. View abstract.
Kidd, P. M. Phosphatidylserine; Membrane nutrient for memory. A clinical and mechanistic assessment. Altern Med Rev 1996;1:70-84.
Leichtman, D. A. and Brewer, G. J. A plasma inhibitor of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation in patients with sickle hemoglobinopathies. Am J Hematol. 1977;2(3):251-258. View abstract.
Monteverde, A., Gnemmi, P., Rossi, F., Monteverde, A., and Finali, G. C. Selegiline in the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer-type dementia. Clin.Ther 1990;12(4):315-322. View abstract.
Nerozzi, D., Aceti, F., Melia, E., Magnani, A., Marino, R., Genovesi, G., Amalfitano, M., Cozza, G., Murgiano, S., De, Giorgis G., and . [Phosphatidylserine and memory disorders in the aged]. Clin.Ter. 3-15-1987;120(5):399-404. View abstract.
Palmieri, G., Palmieri, R., Inzoli, MR Lombardi G., Sottini, C., Tavolato, B., and Giometto, B. Double-blind controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in patients with senile mental deterioration. Clin Trials J 1987;24:73-83.
Pepping, J. Phosphatidylserine. Am J Health Syst.Pharm. 10-15-1999;56(20):2038, 2043-2038, 2044. View abstract.
Ransmayr, G., Plorer, S., Gerstenbrand, F., and Bauer, G. Double-blind placebocontrolled trial of phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. Clin Trials J 1987;24:62-72.
Richardson, S. G., Matthews, K. B., Stuart, J., Geddes, A. M., and Wilcox, R. M. Serial changes in coagulation and viscosity during sickle-cell crisis. Br.J Haematol. 1979;41(1):95-103. View abstract.
Rosadini, G., Sannita, W. G., Nobili, F., and Cenacchi, T. Phosphatidylserine: quantitative EEG effects in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychobiology 1990;24(1):42-48. View abstract.
Starks, M. A., Starks, S. L., Kingsley, M., Purpura, M., and Jager, R. The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. J Int Soc.Sports Nutr 2008;5:11. View abstract.
Stuart, J. and Johnson, C. S. Rheology of the sickle cell disorders. Baillieres Clin.Haematol. 1987;1(3):747-775. View abstract.
Sullivan, T. J. and Parker, C. W. Pharmacologic modulation of inflammatory mediator release by rat mast cells. Am J Pathol. 1976;85(2):437-464. View abstract.
van Raam, B. J. and Kuijpers, T. W. Mitochondrial defects lie at the basis of neutropenia in Barth syndrome. Curr Opin.Hematol. 2009;16(1):14-19. View abstract.
Villardita, J. C., Grioli, S., Salmeri, G., Nicoletti, F., and Pennisi, G. Multicenter clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly patiens with intellectual deterioration. Clin Trials J 1987;24:84-93.
Zhou, J., Liu, S., Ma, M., Hou, J., Yu, H., Lu, C., Gilbert, G. E., and Shi, J. Procoagulant activity and phosphatidylserine of amniotic fluid cells. Thromb.Haemost. 2009;101(5):845-851. View abstract.
Amaducci L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988;24:130-4.
Benton D, Donohoe RT, Sillance B, Nabb S. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr Neurosci 2001;4:169-78. View abstract.
Blokland A, Honig W, Brouns F, Jolles J. Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: comparison of bovine cortex PS with egg PS and soybean PS. Nutrition 1999;15:778-83. View abstract.
Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano) 1993;5:123-33. View abstract.
Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacol Bull 1992;28:61-6. View abstract.
Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage J, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology 1991;41:644-9. View abstract.
Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, Hurlet A, Ylieff M. Double-blind, randomized, controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1986;73:136-40. View abstract.
Engel RR, Satzger W, Gunther W, et al. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1992;2:149-55. View abstract.
Fahey TD, Pearl MS. The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. Biol Sport 1998;15:135-44.
Funfgeld EW, Baggen M, Nedwidek P, et al. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res 1989;317:1235-46. View abstract.
Heiss WD, Kessler J, Mielke R, et al. Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease. A neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation. Dementia 1994;5:88-98. View abstract.
Kidd PM. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: rationale for its integrative management. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:402-28. View abstract.
Kidd PM. Phosphatidylserine; Membrane nutrient for memory. A clinical and mechanistic assessment. Altern Med Rev 1996;1:70-84.
Kim HY, Akbar M, Lau A, et al. Inhibition of neuronal apoptosis by docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). Role of phosphatidylserine in antiapoptotic effect. J Biol Chem 2000;275:35215-23.. View abstract.
Lewis CJ. Letter to reiterate certain public health and safety concerns to firms manufacturing or importing dietary supplements that contain specific bovine tissues. FDA. Available at: www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/dspltr05.html.
Maggioni M, Picotti GB, Bondiolotti GP, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990;81:265-70. View abstract.
Mallat Z, Benamer H, Hugel B, et al. Elevated levels of shed membrane microparticles with procoagulant potential in the peripheral circulating blood of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2000;101:841-3.. View abstract.
Monastra G, Cross AH, Bruni A, et al. Phosphatidylserine, a putative inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor, prevents autoimmune demyelination. Neurology 1993;43:153-63.. View abstract.
Monteleone P, Beinat L, Tanzillo C, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology 1990;52:243-8.. View abstract.
Monteleone P, Maj M, Beinat L, et al. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992;42:385-8.. View abstract.
Palmieri G, Palmieri R, Inzoli MR, et al. Double-blind controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in patients with senile mental deterioration. Clin Trials J 1987;24:73-83.
Pepping J. Phosphatidylserine. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1999;56:2038,2043-4.
Schreiber S, Kampf-Sherf O, Gorfine M, et al. An open trial of plant-source derived phosphatydilserine for treatment of age-related cognitive decline. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 2000;37:302-7. View abstract.
Villardita C, Grioli S, Salmeri G, et al. Multicentre clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with intellectual deterioration. Clin Trials J 1987;24:84-93.
Yamazaki M, Inoue A, Koh CS, et al. Phosphatidylserine suppresses Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease. J Neuroimmunol 1997;75:113-22.. View abstract.
Zanotti A, Valzelli L, Toffano G. Chronic phosphatidylserine treatment improves spatial memory and passive avoidance in aged rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1989;99:316-21.. View abstract.