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- What is perphenazine, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for perphenazine?
- Is perphenazine available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for perphenazine?
- What are the side effects of perphenazine?
- What is the dosage for perphenazine?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with perphenazine?
- Is perphenazine safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about perphenazine?
What is perphenazine, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Perphenazine is an oral antipsychotic medication used for the management of schizophrenia. Perphenazine is one of the older, first-generation antipsychotic medications. Examples of other first-generation antipsychotics include:
- prochlorperazine (Compazine, Compro, Procomp)
- chlorpromazine (Promapar, Thorazine)
- trifluoperazine (Stelazine)
- thioridazine (Mellaril)
Although the exact mechanism of antipsychotics is unknown, scientists believe that they may work by blocking the action of dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter (chemical) that nerves use to communicate with one another. Perphenazine is used when patients do not respond to other antipsychotics.
What are the side effects of perphenazine?
Perphenazine causes extrapyramidal side effects such as:
- Abnormal muscle contractions
- Difficulty breathing and swallowing
- Neck spasms
Other side effects include:
- Low blood pressure
- Dry mouth
- Blurred vision
- Urinary retention
- Worsening of glaucoma
- Increased or decreased blood glucose
- Tardive dyskinesia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome can result from perphenazine treatment. These side effects can be severe so patients must seek medical help.
Quick GuideSchizophrenia: Symptoms, Types, Causes, Treatment
What is the dosage for perphenazine?
- The recommended dose of perphenazine for treating schizophrenia is 4 to 16 mg every 6 to 12 hours. The maximum daily dose is 64 mg.
- The dose for treating nausea and vomiting is 8 to 16 mg daily in divided doses and given every 6 to 12 hours. The maximum dose is 24 mg daily.
- The dose for treating intractable hiccoughs is 8 to 16 mg daily in divided doses and given every 8 to 12 hours. The maximum dose is 24 mg daily.
Which drugs or supplements interact with perphenazine?
Combining perphenazine with medications such as procainamide (Pronestyl), sotalol (Betapace), amiodarone (Cordarone), and dofetilide (Tikosyn) that affect heart rate and rhythm can cause abnormal heart beats.
Antidepressants such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft) and tricyclic antidepressants may reduce the breakdown of perphenazine, leading to increased blood levels and side effects of perphenazine.
Perphenazine should be used with caution with medications that depress the central nervous system and cause sedation or drowsiness. Examples include alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin), zolpidem (Ambien), codeine, morphine, and alcohol. Such combinations can cause excessive sedation, drowsiness, weakness, confusion, speech impairment, and in severe cases coma or death. Combining alcohol with perphenazine also increases the risk of low blood pressure.
Is perphenazine safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
Use of perphenazine during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. Neonates exposed to antipsychotics during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and withdrawal symptoms after birth. Symptoms reported included agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, depressed breathing, and feeding disorder.
Safe use of perphenazine by nursing mothers has not been established.
What else should I know about perphenazine?
What preparations of perphenazine are available?
Tablets: 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg.
How should I keep perphenazine stored?
Perphenazine tablets should be stored between 2 C and 25 C (36 and 77 F).
REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information
Perphenazine (Trilafon - discontinued) is a prescription drug used to manage schizophrenia, severe nausea and vomiting in adults, and hiccups that last longer than a month. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing, storage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information is provided.
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chlorpromazine tablets, liquid-oral
Hiccups are a sudden, involuntary contraction of the diaphragm muscle. In general hiccups are just a temporary condition. Some of the causes of hiccups include certain medications, surgery, eating or drinking too much, spicy foods, diseases or conditions that irritate the nerves controlling the diaphragm, strokes, brain tumors, liver failure, and noxious fumes. There are a variety of home remedies and treatments that can be used to get rid of hiccups.
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Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms of many conditions. There are numerous cases of nausea and vomiting. Some causes may not require medical treatment, for example, motion sickness, and other causes may require medical treatment by a doctor, for example, heart attack, lung infections, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Some causes of nausea and vomiting may be life threatening, for example, heart attack, abdominal obstruction, and cancers.
Treatment of nausea and vomiting depends upon the cause.
prochlorperazine-rectalProchlorperazine (Compazine, Compro) is an antimetic drug prescribed to treat nausea and vomiting in adults and the management of schizophrenia, and non-psychotic anxiety. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing and storage information, and pregnancy safety should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
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Schizoaffective DisorderSchizoaffective disorder is a mental illness that features schizophrenia and a mood disorder, either major depression or bipolar disorder. Symptoms include agitation, suicidal thoughts, little need for sleep, delusions, hallucinations, and poor motivation. Treatment may involve psychotherapy, medication, skills training, or hospitalization.
SchizophreniaSchizophrenia is a disabling brain disorder that may cause hallucinations and delusions and affect a person's ability to communicate and pay attention. Symptoms of psychosis appear in men in their late teens and early 20s and in women in their mid-20s to early 30s. With treatment involving the use of antipsychotic medications and psychosocial treatment, schizophrenia patients can lead rewarding and meaningful lives.
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Schizotypal Personality DisorderSchizotypal personality disorder is characterized by odd behaviors, feelings, perceptions, and ways of relating to others that interfere with one's ability to function. Medication and psychotherapy can help the sufferer to manage their symptoms.
thioridazine- oralThioridazine (Mellaril is a discontinued brand) is an antipsychotic drug used for the management of schizophrenia and depressive disorders. Side effects, drug interactions, dosing, storage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.