GENERIC NAME: PERINDOPRIL - ORAL (per-IN-doh-prill)
BRAND NAME(S): Aceon
WARNING: This drug can cause serious (possibly fatal) harm to an unborn baby if used during pregnancy. Therefore, it is important to prevent pregnancy while taking this medication. Consult your doctor for more details and to discuss the use of reliable forms of birth control while taking this medication. If you are planning pregnancy, become pregnant, or think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor immediately.
USES: Perindopril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. This medication is also used to prevent heart attacks in patients with a certain type of heart disease (stable coronary artery disease).Perindopril belongs to a class of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. It works by relaxing blood vessels so blood can flow more easily.OTHER This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.This medication may also be used to treat congestive heart failure and to help protect the kidneys from damage due to diabetes.
Quick GuideHow to Lower Blood Pressure: Exercise Tips
HOW TO USE: Take this medication by mouth, usually once or twice daily or as directed by your doctor. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to therapy. For the treatment of high blood pressure, the manufacturer recommends taking no more than 16 milligrams per day.Take this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. Remember to take it at the same time(s) each day. Do not skip doses or stop taking this medication unless directed by your doctor. It is important to continue taking this medication even if you feel well. Most people with high blood pressure do not feel sick. It may take up to several weeks before the full benefit of this drug takes effect.Inform your doctor if your condition worsens (e.g., your routine blood pressure readings increase).
SIDE EFFECTS: Dizziness, lightheadedness, headache, tiredness, or dry cough may occur as your body adjusts to the medication. You may also experience decreased sexual ability. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: symptoms of a high potassium blood level (such as muscle weakness, slow/irregular heartbeat), fast heartbeat, fainting, signs of infection (e.g., fever, chills, persistent sore throat), numbness/tingling/swelling of the hands/feet, chest pain.This drug may rarely cause serious (possibly fatal) liver problems. Seek immediate medical attention if you notice any of the following rare but very serious side effects: yellowing eyes/skin, dark urine, severe stomach/abdominal pain, persistent tiredness, persistent nausea/vomiting.Seek immediate medical attention if this rare but very serious side effect occurs: unusual change in the amount of urine.A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but seek immediate medical attention if it occurs. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction may include: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.In the US -Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
PRECAUTIONS: Before taking perindopril, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other ACE inhibitors (e.g., captopril, lisinopril); or if you have any other allergies (including an allergic reaction after exposure to certain membranes used for blood filtering). This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.This medication should not be used if you have certain medical conditions. Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have: a history of an allergic reaction that included swelling of the face/lips/tongue/throat (angioedema).Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver disease, untreated salt/mineral imbalance (e.g., high potassium or low sodium levels in the blood), loss of too much body water (dehydration), collagen vascular disease (e.g., lupus, scleroderma).This drug may make you dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcoholic beverages.To reduce the risk of dizziness and lightheadedness, get up slowly when rising from a sitting or lying position.You can develop dehydration if you do not drink enough fluids or if you have too much diarrhea, vomiting, or sweating. This can cause dizziness and lightheadedness due to low blood pressure. Avoid heavy exercise, and keep cool in hot weather. Contact your doctor if you are unable to drink fluids or if you have persistent diarrhea or vomiting.This medication may increase your potassium levels. Before using potassium supplements or salt substitutes that contain potassium, consult your doctor or pharmacist.Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist that you are taking this medication.Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially dizziness, increases in potassium level, and rash.This medication is not recommended for use during pregnancy due to the risk for harm to an unborn baby. Consult your doctor for more details. (See also Warning section.)It is not known if perindopril passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.
DRUG INTERACTIONS: See also How to Use and Precautions sections.Your healthcare professionals (e.g., doctor or pharmacist) may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for it. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with them first.Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use, especially of: aliskiren, drugs affecting the bone marrow (e.g., azathioprine), lithium, drugs that may increase the level of potassium in the blood (such as ARBs including losartan/valsartan, birth control pills containing drospirenone), gold injections.A very serious reaction may occur if you are getting injections for bee/wasp sting allergy (desensitization) and are also taking perindopril. Make sure all your doctors know which medicines you are using.Check the labels on all your medicines (e.g., cough-and-cold products, diet aids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-NSAIDs for pain/fever reduction) because they may contain ingredients that could increase your blood pressure (e.g., pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine) or reduce the effect of this medication (e.g., ibuprofen, naproxen). Ask your pharmacist about the safe use of those products.This document does not contain all possible interactions. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.
OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include severe dizziness, weakness, fainting.
NOTES: Do not share this medication with others.Lifestyle changes such as stress reduction programs, exercise, and dietary changes may increase the effectiveness of this medicine. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about lifestyle changes that might benefit you.Laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., sodium and potassium blood levels, kidney function) should be performed from time to time to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.Check your blood pressure regularly while taking this medication, especially when you first start this drug or when your dose is changed. Learn how to monitor your own blood pressure at home, and share the results with your doctor.
MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.
STORAGE: Store at room temperature between 68-77 degrees F (20-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.
Information last revised March 2014. Copyright(c) 2014 First Databank, Inc.
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ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin (generic name) converting enzyme inhibitors, is a class of drugs that interact with blood enzymes to enlarge or dilate blood vessels and reduce blood pressure. These drugs are used to:
- Control high blood pressure (hypertension)
- Treat of heart failure and ventricular dysfunction
- Prevent and treat of kidney disease in people with diabetes or hypertension.
These drugs also improve the survival rate of people who have survived heart attacks and they prevent early death of people from heart attacks, high blood pressure, and heart failure. Sometimes ACE inhibitors are combined with other drugs for treating a condition. Examples of ACE inhibitors include:
- benazepril (Lotensin)
- captopril (Capoten)
- enalapril (Vasotec)
- fosinopril (Monopril)
- ramipril (Altace)
Examples of the most common side effects of this class of drugs are:
- chest pain,
- and rash.
There are serious side effects of this drug like
- kidney failure,
- severe allergic reactions,
- and liver dysfunction or failure.
ACE inhibitors all are similar in the way they work; however, they differ in how the body eliminates doses of the drug. Drug interactions, dosage, and pregnancy and safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.
Calcium Channel Blockers
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of drugs that dilate the arteries, and are used for treating:
- High blood pressure
- Abnormally rapid heart rhythms
- Pulmonary hypertension
- Raynaud's syndrome
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Calcium channel blockers also are prescribed for the prevention of migraine headaches and angina.
CCBs may also be prescribed after a heart attack.
Examples of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) approved in the U. S. include:
- nisoldipine (Sular)
- nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia)
- nicardipine (Cardene)
- isradipine (Dynacirc)
- nimodipine (Nimotop)
- felodipine (Plendil)
- amlodipine (Norvasc)
- diltiazem (Cardizem)
- verapamil (Calan, Isoptin)
Congestive Heart Failure MedicationsThere are a variety of medications to treat congestive heart failure. Most medicaiton regimines for patients with congestive heart failure are tailored to each patient. Examples of medicaitons prescribed for congestive heart failure include ACE inhibitors (for example, Altace, Capoten, Vasotec); beta blockers; digoxin (Lanoxin); and diuretics. Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, storage, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed before taking any medication.
Febrile SeizuresFebrile seizures, or convulsions caused by fever, can be frightening in small children or infants. However, in general, febrile seizures are harmless. Febrile seizure is not epilepsy. It is estimated that one in every 25 children will have at least one febrile seizure. It is important to know what to do to help your child if he/she has a febrile seizure. Some of the features of a febrile seizure include:
- losing consciousness,
- moving limbs on both sides of the body,
- lasts 1-2 minutes.
High Blood Pressure Hypertension
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a disease in which pressure within the arteries of the body is elevated. About 75 million people in the US have hypertension (1 in 3 adults), and only half of them are able to manage it. Many people do not know that they have high blood pressure because it often has no has no warning signs or symptoms.
Systolic and diastolic are the two readings in which blood pressure is measured. The American College of Cardiology released new guidelines for high blood pressure in 2017. The guidelines now state that blood normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If either one of those numbers is higher, you have high blood pressure.
The American Academy of Cardiology defines high blood pressure slightly differently. The AAC considers 130/80 mm Hg. or greater (either number) stage 1 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is considered 140/90 mm Hg. or greater.
If you have high blood pressure you are at risk of developing life threatening diseases like stroke and heart attack.
REFERENCE: CDC. High Blood Pressure. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.
High Blood Pressure TreatmentHigh blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include lifestyle modifications (alcohol, smoking, coffee, salt, diet, exercise), drugs and medications such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), alpha blockers, clonidine, minoxidil, and Exforge.
ParathyroidectomyParathyroidectomy is the removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands to treat hyperparathyroidism. Risks of parathyroidectomy include:
- paralysis of the vocal cords,
- difficulty swallowing thin liquids,
- difficulty breathing,
- and drug reactions.
- damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve,
- bleeding or hematoma,
- problems maintaining calcium levels in the blood,
- need for further and more aggressive surgery,
- need for a limited or total thyroidectomy,
- prolonged pain,
- impaired healing,
- and recurrence of the tumor.
Vasodilators Drug Class Side Effects List of Names
Vasodilators are a class of drugs that doctors prescribe to many diseases and conditions. This type of medicine dilates, or opens, blood vessels (arteries and veins) so that the heart can pump fresh oxygen and blood to the body more efficiently.
Vasodilators are available within a variety other drug types that have many brand and generic names.
Types of vasodilators available include:
- ACE inhibitors, for example, benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), and ramipril (Altace)
- ARBs, for example, olmesartan (Benicar) and losartan (Cozaar)
- Calcium channel blockers (CCBS), for example, amlodipine (Norvasc) and felodipine (Cardene, Cardene SR)
- Nitrates, for example, nitroglycerin, isosorbide mononitrate (Ismo, Moneket), and isosorbide dinitrate (Imdur, Isordil)
Your doctor will talk to you about the type of vasodilator that is right for you.
Is caffeine a vasodilator? Some people believe that caffeine is a natural vasodilator, but it's not. It's actually a vasoconstrictor (the opposite of a vasodilator), which makes the blood vessels contract and become narrower.
Natural, herbal, and over-the-counter (OTC) vasodilators are available. Examples include Coenzyme Q10, Magnesium, Cocoa, garlic, L-arginine, and niacin. Make sure to talk with your doctor or other health care professional before taking any natural or herbal supplements to treat medical problems.
Vasodilating drugs treat many diseases and conditions, for example:
- High blood pressure (hypertension)
- Congestive heart failure (CHF)
- Cardiac pain or heart pain (angina)
- Prevention of stroke
- Prevention of a heart attack
- Prevention of heart failure after a heart attack
- High blood pressure in pregnant women (Preeclampsia)
- High blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension)
- Diabetic nephropathy
- Raynaud's syndrome
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Pulmonary vasodilators are medicines that open (dilate) the arteries in the lungs. Doctors prescribe them to treat patients with pulmonary hypertension. Examples include oxygen, nitric oxide, sildenafil (Viagra, Revatio), tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca), and nitroprusside (Nipride, Nitropress).