Last Editorial Review: 6/11/2021
Other Name(s):

Basilic Japonais, Beefsteak Plant, Dentidia nankinensis, Huile de Graines de Pérille, Huile de Graines de Shiso, Huile de Pérille, Huile de Shiso, Japanese Basil, Menthe Pourpre, Ocimum frutescens, Perilla arguta, Perilla frutescens, Perilla nankinensis, Perilla ocymoides, Perilla Oil, Perilla Seed Oil, Pérille, Pérille de Nankin, Pérille de Nankin Pourpre, Pérille de Nankin Vert, Purple Mint, Shiso, Shiso Japonais, Silam, Wild Coleus, Zi Su.


Perilla is an herb. The leaf and seed are used to make medicine.

Perilla is used for treating asthma. It is also used for nausea, sunstroke, inducing sweating, and to reduce muscle spasms.

In foods, perilla is used as a flavoring.

In manufacturing, perilla seed oil is used commercially in the production of varnishes, dyes, and inks.

How does it work?

Perilla contains chemicals that might decrease swelling and affect other chemicals that cause asthma symptoms.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Uses & Effectiveness

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Seasonal allergies (hayfever). Early research suggests that taking 50 mg/day or 200 mg/day of perilla extract by mouth for 3 weeks decreases symptoms of seasonal allergies.
  • Asthma. Early research suggests that using perilla seed oil might improve lung function in people with asthma.
  • Canker sores. Early research suggests that cooking with perilla seed oil for 8 months might decrease the average monthly occurrence of canker sores in people with recurrent canker sores. The effect appears to be similar to cooking with soybean oil.
  • Nausea.
  • Sunstroke.
  • Causing sweating.
  • Relieving spasms.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of perilla for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Perilla is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth for up to 8 months. When put on the skin, perilla can cause an allergic skin reaction and rash.


Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking perilla if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.


The appropriate dose of perilla depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for perilla. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Asada, M., Fukumori, Y., Inoue, M., Nakagomi, K., Sugie, M., Fujita, Y., Tomizuka, N., Yamazaki, Y., and Oka, S. Glycoprotein derived from the hot water extract of mint plant, Perilla frutescens britton. J Agric.Food Chem 1999;47(2):468-472. View abstract.

Baba, S., Osakabe, N., Natsume, M., Yasuda, A., Muto, Y., Hiyoshi, K., Takano, H., Yoshikawa, T., and Terao, J. Absorption, metabolism, degradation and urinary excretion of rosmarinic acid after intake of Perilla frutescens extract in humans. Eur J Nutr 2005;44(1):1-9. View abstract.

Banno, N., Akihisa, T., Tokuda, H., Yasukawa, K., Higashihara, H., Ukiya, M., Watanabe, K., Kimura, Y., Hasegawa, J., and Nishino, H. Triterpene acids from the leaves of Perilla frutescens and their anti-inflammatory and antitumor-promoting effects. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2004;68(1):85-90. View abstract.

Chen, J. H., Xia, Z. H., and Tan, R. X. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of bioactive triterpenes in Perilla frutescens. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 8-21-2003;32(6):1175-1179. View abstract.

Cui, K., Ding, X., Xiao, G., and Dai, J. [Analysis of triacylglycerol composition of perilla oil by combination of non-aqueous reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with gas chromatography]. Se.Pu. 1997;15(6):470-473. View abstract.

Fujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., and Nakayama, M. Inhibitory effects of perillosides A and C, and related monoterpene glucosides on aldose reductase and their structure-activity relationships. Chem Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 1995;43(6):920-926. View abstract.

Futakuchi, M., Cheng, J. L., Hirose, M., Kimoto, N., Cho, Y. M., Iwata, T., Kasai, M., Tokudome, S., and Shirai, T. Inhibition of conjugated fatty acids derived from safflower or perilla oil of induction and development of mammary tumors in rats induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Cancer Lett. 4-25-2002;178(2):131-139. View abstract.

Garst, J. E., Wilson, W. C., Kristensen, N. C., Harrison, P. C., Corbin, J. E., Simon, J., Philpot, R. M., and Szabo, R. R. Species susceptibility to the pulmonary toxicity of 3-furyl isoamyl ketone (perilla ketone): in vivo support for involvement of the lung monooxygenase system. J Anim Sci 1985;60(1):248-257. View abstract.

Gatchalian-Yee, M., Imamura, M., Nonaka, M., Gu, J. Y., and Sugano, M. Effect of dietary fats on cholesterol metabolism and eicosanoid production in hamsters fed undigested fraction of soybean protein. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 1994;40(5):499-504. View abstract.

Gu, J. Y., Wakizono, Y., Dohi, A., Nonaka, M., Sugano, M., and Yamada, K. Effect of dietary fats and sesamin on the lipid metabolism and immune function of Sprague-Dawley rats. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 1998;62(10):1917-1924. View abstract.

Gulcin, I., Berashvili, D., and Gepdiremen, A. Antiradical and antioxidant activity of total anthocyanins from Perilla pankinensis decne. J Ethnopharmacol 10-3-2005;101(1-3):287-293. View abstract.

Hamazaki, K., Itomura, M., Hamazaki, T., and Sawazaki, S. Effects of cooking plant oils on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Nutrition 2006;22(5):534-538. View abstract.

Hirose, M., Masuda, A., Ito, N., Kamano, K., and Okuyama, H. Effects of dietary perilla oil, soybean oil and safflower oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH)-induced mammary gland and colon carcinogenesis in female SD rats. Carcinogenesis 1990;11(5):731-735. View abstract.

Horii, T., Satouchi, K., Kobayashi, Y., Saito, K., Watanabe, S., Yoshida, Y., and Okuyama, H. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenate on platelet-activating factor production in rat peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Immunol 9-1-1991;147(5):1607-1613. View abstract.

Ide, T., Kobayashi, H., Ashakumary, L., Rouyer, I. A., Takahashi, Y., Aoyama, T., Hashimoto, T., and Mizugaki, M. Comparative effects of perilla and fish oils on the activity and gene expression of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rat liver. Biochim.Biophys Acta 5-6-2000;1485(1):23-35. View abstract.

Ihara, M., Umekawa, H., Takahashi, T., and Furuichi, Y. Comparative effects of short- and long-term feeding of safflower oil and perilla oil on lipid metabolism in rats. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol.Biol 1998;121(2):223-231. View abstract.

Ikemoto, S., Takahashi, M., Tsunoda, N., Maruyama, K., Itakura, H., and Ezaki, O. High-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity in mice: differential effects of dietary oils. Metabolism 1996;45(12):1539-1546. View abstract.

Imaoka, K., Inouye, S., Takahashi, T., and Kojima, Y. [Effects of Perilla frutescens extract on anti-DNP IgE antibody production in mice]. Arerugi 1993;42(1):74-80. View abstract.

Inouye, S., Tsuruoka, T., Watanabe, M., Takeo, K., Akao, M., Nishiyama, Y., and Yamaguchi, H. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on apical growth of Aspergillus fumigatus by vapour contact. Mycoses 2000;43(1-2):17-23. View abstract.

Inouye, S., Uchida, K., and Yamaguchi, H. In-vitro and in-vivo anti-Trichophyton activity of essential oils by vapour contact. Mycoses 2001;44(3-4):99-107. View abstract.

Inouye, S., Watanabe, M., Nishiyama, Y., Takeo, K., Akao, M., and Yamaguchi, H. Antisporulating and respiration-inhibitory effects of essential oils on filamentous fungi. Mycoses 1998;41(9-10):403-410. View abstract.

Inouye, S., Yamaguchi, H., and Takizawa, T. Screening of the antibacterial effects of a variety of essential oils on respiratory tract pathogens, using a modified dilution assay method. J Infect.Chemother. 2001;7(4):251-254. View abstract.

Ishihara, T., Okamoto, I., Masaki, N., Kohno, K., Tanimoto, T., Ikegami, H., and Kurimoto, M. [Inhibition of antigen-specific T helper type 2 responses by Perilla frutescens extract]. Arerugi 1999;48(4):443-450. View abstract.

Ito, M., Kiuchi, F., Yang, L. L., and Honda, G. Perilla citriodora from Taiwan and its phytochemical characteristics. Biol Pharm Bull. 2000;23(3):359-362. View abstract.

Kanzaki, T. and Kimura, S. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from Perilla frutescens (shiso). Contact Dermatitis 1992;26(1):55-56. View abstract.

Karp, F., Mihaliak, C. A., Harris, J. L., and Croteau, R. Monoterpene biosynthesis: specificity of the hydroxylations of (-)-limonene by enzyme preparations from peppermint (Mentha piperita), spearmint (Mentha spicata), and perilla (Perilla frutescens) leaves. Arch Biochem Biophys 1990;276(1):219-226. View abstract.

Kawahata, T., Otake, T., Mori, H., Kojima, Y., Oishi, I., Oka, S., Fukumori, Y., and Sano, K. A novel substance purified from Perilla frutescens Britton inhibits an early stage of HIV-1 replication without blocking viral adsorption. Antivir.Chem Chemother. 2002;13(5):283-288. View abstract.

Kawai, K., Matsuno, K., and Kasai, H. Detection of 4-oxo-2-hexenal, a novel mutagenic product of lipid peroxidation, in human diet and cooking vapor. Mutat.Res 2-28-2006;603(2):186-192. View abstract.

Kerr, L. A., Johnson, B. J., and Burrows, G. E. Intoxication of cattle by Perilla frutescens (purple mint). Vet.Hum.Toxicol 1986;28(5):412-416. View abstract.

Kim, D. S., Kim, H. R., Woo, E. R., Hong, S. T., Chae, H. J., and Chae, S. W. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid on adriamycin-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiac muscle cells by inhibiting reactive oxygen species and the activations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Biochem Pharmacol 10-1-2005;70(7):1066-1078. View abstract.

Kim, H. K. and Choi, H. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid lowers postprandial lipid levels with increase of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid contents in rat hepatic membrane. Lipids 2001;36(12):1331-1336. View abstract.

Kim, H. K. and Choi, H. Stimulation of acyl-CoA oxidase by alpha-linolenic acid-rich perilla oil lowers plasma triacylglycerol level in rats. Life Sci 8-5-2005;77(12):1293-1306. View abstract.

Kim, H. K., Choi, S., and Choi, H. Suppression of hepatic fatty acid synthase by feeding alpha-linolenic acid rich perilla oil lowers plasma triacylglycerol level in rats. J Nutr Biochem 2004;15(8):485-492. View abstract.

Kim, J. H., Jin, Y. R., Park, B. S., Kim, T. J., Kim, S. Y., Lim, Y., Hong, J. T., Yoo, H. S., and Yun, Y. P. Luteolin prevents PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibition of PDGF beta-receptor phosphorylation. Biochem.Pharmacol. 6-15-2005;69(12):1715-1721. View abstract.

Kim, J. S., Lee, H. J., Lee, M. H., Kim, J., Jin, C., and Ryu, J. H. Luteolin inhibits LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV-2 microglial cells. Planta Med 2006;72(1):65-68. View abstract.

Ko, W. C., Shih, C. M., Leu, I. J., Chen, T. T., and Chang, J. P. Mechanisms of relaxant action of luteolin in isolated guinea pig trachea. Planta Med 2005;71(5):406-411. View abstract.

Kurowska, E. M., Dresser, G. K., Deutsch, L., Vachon, D., and Khalil, W. Bioavailability of omega-3 essential fatty acids from perilla seed oil. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2003;68(3):207-212. View abstract.

Kwon, K. H., Kim, K. I., Jun, W. J., Shin, D. H., Cho, H. Y., and Hong, B. S. In vitro and in vivo effects of macrophage-stimulatory polysaccharide from leaves of Perilla frutescens var. crispa. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25(3):367-371. View abstract.

Linnabary, R. D., Warren, J., Wilson, B. J., and Byerly, C. S. Acute bovine pulmonary emphysema produced by Perilla frutescens. Mod.Vet.Pract. 1978;59(9):684-686. View abstract.

Liu, J., Steigel, A., Reininger, E., and Bauer, R. Two new prenylated 3-benzoxepin derivatives as cyclooxygenase inhibitors from Perilla frutescens var. acuta. J Nat Prod. 2000;63(3):403-405. View abstract.

Makino, T., Furuta, A., Fujii, H., Nakagawa, T., Wakushima, H., Saito, K., and Kano, Y. Effect of oral treatment of Perilla frutescens and its constituents on type-I allergy in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24(10):1206-1209. View abstract.

Makino, T., Furuta, Y., Wakushima, H., Fujii, H., Saito, K., and Kano, Y. Anti-allergic effect of Perilla frutescens and its active constituents. Phytother Res 2003;17(3):240-243. View abstract.

Makino, T., Ito, M., Kiuchiu, F., Ono, T., Muso, E., and Honda, G. Inhibitory effect of decoction of Perilla frutescens on cultured murine mesangial cell proliferation and quantitative analysis of its active constituents. Planta Med 2001;67(1):24-28. View abstract.

Makino, T., Ono, T., Liu, N., Nakamura, T., Muso, E., and Honda, G. Suppressive effects of rosmarinic acid on mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in rats. Nephron 2002;92(4):898-904. View abstract.

Makino, T., Ono, T., Matsuyama, K., Nogaki, F., Miyawaki, S., Honda, G., and Muso, E. Suppressive effects of Perilla frutescens on IgA nephropathy in HIGA mice. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2003;18(3):484-490. View abstract.

Makino, T., Ono, T., Muso, E., and Honda, G. Effect of Perilla frutescens on nitric oxide production and DNA synthesis in cultured murine vascular smooth muscle cells. Phytother.Res. 2002;16 Suppl 1:S19-S23. View abstract.

Makino, T., Ono, T., Muso, E., Honda, G., and Sasayama, S. Suppressive effects of Perilla frutescens on spontaneous IgA nephropathy in ddY mice. Nephron 1999;83(1):40-46. View abstract.

Makino, T., Ono, T., Muso, E., Yoshida, H., Honda, G., and Sasayama, S. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid on the proliferation of cultured murine mesangial cells. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2000;15(8):1140-1145. View abstract.

Nagatsu, A., Tenmaru, K., Matsuura, H., Murakami, N., Kobayashi, T., Okuyama, H., and Sakakibara, J. Novel antioxidants from roasted perilla seed. Chem Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 1995;43(5):887-889. View abstract.

Nakanishi, T., Nishi, M., Inada, A., Obata, H., Tanabe, N., Abe, S., and Wakashiro, M. Two new potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase from leaves of Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo. Chem Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 1990;38(6):1772-1774. View abstract.

Nakazawa, T. and Ohsawa, K. Metabolites of orally administered Perilla frutescens extract in rats and humans. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2000;23(1):122-127. View abstract.

Nakazawa, T., Yasuda, T., Ueda, J., and Ohsawa, K. Antidepressant-like effects of apigenin and 2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid from Perilla frutescens in the forced swimming test. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26(4):474-480. View abstract.

Narisawa, T., Fukaura, Y., Yazawa, K., Ishikawa, C., Isoda, Y., and Nishizawa, Y. Colon cancer prevention with a small amount of dietary perilla oil high in alpha-linolenic acid in an animal model. Cancer 4-15-1994;73(8):2069-2075. View abstract.

Narisawa, T., Takahashi, M., Kotanagi, H., Kusaka, H., Yamazaki, Y., Koyama, H., Fukaura, Y., Nishizawa, Y., Kotsugai, M., Isoda, Y., and . Inhibitory effect of dietary perilla oil rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid on colon carcinogenesis in rats. Jpn.J Cancer Res 1991;82(10):1089-1096. View abstract.

Okamoto, M., Mitsunobu, F., Ashida, K., Mifune, T., Hosaki, Y., Tsugeno, H., Harada, S., and Tanizaki, Y. Effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids compared with n-6 fatty acids on bronchial asthma. Intern Med 2000;39(2):107-111. View abstract.

Okuno, M., Kajiwara, K., Imai, S., Kobayashi, T., Honma, N., Maki, T., Suruga, K., Goda, T., Takase, S., Muto, Y., and Moriwaki, H. Perilla oil prevents the excessive growth of visceral adipose tissue in rats by down-regulating adipocyte differentiation. J Nutr 1997;127(9):1752-1757. View abstract.

Onogi, N., Okuno, M., Komaki, C., Moriwaki, H., Kawamori, T., Tanaka, T., Mori, H., and Muto, Y. Suppressing effect of perilla oil on azoxymethane-induced foci of colonic aberrant crypts in rats. Carcinogenesis 1996;17(6):1291-1296. View abstract.

Osakabe, N., Takano, H., Sanbongi, C., Yasuda, A., Yanagisawa, R., Inoue, K., and Yoshikawa, T. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect of rosmarinic acid (RA); inhibition of seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR) and its mechanism. Biofactors 2004;21(1-4):127-131. View abstract.

Osakabe, N., Yasuda, A., Natsume, M., and Yoshikawa, T. Rosmarinic acid inhibits epidermal inflammatory responses: anticarcinogenic effect of Perilla frutescens extract in the murine two-stage skin model. Carcinogenesis 2004;25(4):549-557. View abstract.

Peng, Y., Ye, J., and Kong, J. Determination of phenolic compounds in Perilla frutescens L. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. J Agric.Food Chem 10-19-2005;53(21):8141-8147. View abstract.

Qiao, S., Li, W., Tsubouchi, R., Haneda, M., Murakami, K., Takeuchi, F., Nisimoto, Y., and Yoshino, M. Rosmarinic acid inhibits the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in RAW264.7 macrophages. Free Radic.Res 2005;39(9):995-1003. View abstract.

Ragazinskiene, O., Gailys, V., Jankauskiene, K., Simoniene, G., and Jurkstiene, V. [Common perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton.) as a perspective immunomodulator]. Medicina (Kaunas.) 2004;40(3):220-224. View abstract.

Renzulli, C., Galvano, F., Pierdomenico, L., Speroni, E., and Guerra, M. C. Effects of rosmarinic acid against aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin-A-induced cell damage in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2). J Appl Toxicol 2004;24(4):289-296. View abstract.

Ryu, J. H., Son, H. J., Lee, S. H., and Sohn, D. H. Two neolignans from Perilla frutescens and their inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Bioorg.Med Chem Lett 2-25-2002;12(4):649-651. View abstract.

Sakai, T. and Hirose, Y. Farnesenes isolated from the volatile oil of Perilla frutscens f. viridis Makino. Bull.Chem Soc Jpn. 1969;42(12):3615. View abstract.

Sanbongi, C., Takano, H., Osakabe, N., Sasa, N., Natsume, M., Yanagisawa, R., Inoue, K. I., Sadakane, K., Ichinose, T., and Yoshikawa, T. Rosmarinic acid in perilla extract inhibits allergic inflammation induced by mite allergen, in a mouse model. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34(6):971-977. View abstract.

Shin, T. Y., Kim, S. H., Kim, S. H., Kim, Y. K., Park, H. J., Chae, B. S., Jung, H. J., and Kim, H. M. Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in rats by Perilla frutescens. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 2000;22(3):489-500. View abstract.

Takagi, S., Goto, H., Shimada, Y., Nakagomi, K., Sadakane, Y., Hatanaka, Y., and Terasawa, K. Vasodilative effect of perillaldehyde on isolated rat aorta. Phytomedicine 2005;12(5):333-337. View abstract.

Takano, H., Osakabe, N., Sanbongi, C., Yanagisawa, R., Inoue, K., Yasuda, A., Natsume, M., Baba, S., Ichiishi, E., and Yoshikawa, T. Extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic phytochemical, inhibits seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in humans. Exp.Biol.Med.(Maywood.) 2004;229(3):247-254. View abstract.

Takeda, H., Tsuji, M., Matsumiya, T., and Kubo, M. Identification of rosmarinic acid as a novel antidepressive substance in the leaves of Perilla frutescens Britton var. acuta Kudo (Perillae Herba). Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2002;22(1):15-22. View abstract.

Ueda, H. and Yamazaki, M. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic actions by oral administration of a perilla leaf extract in mice. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2001;65(7):1673-1675. View abstract.

Ueda, H. and Yamazaki, M. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by orally administering a perilla leaf extract. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 1997;61(8):1292-1295. View abstract.

Ueda, H., Yamazaki, C., and Yamazaki, M. Inhibitory effect of Perilla leaf extract and luteolin on mouse skin tumor promotion. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26(4):560-563. View abstract.

Ueda, H., Yamazaki, C., and Yamazaki, M. Luteolin as an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic constituent of Perilla frutescens. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25(9):1197-1202. View abstract.

Watanabe, S., Sakai, N., Yasui, Y., Kimura, Y., Kobayashi, T., Mizutani, T., and Okuyama, H. A high alpha-linolenate diet suppresses antigen-induced immunoglobulin E response and anaphylactic shock in mice. J Nutr 1994;124(9):1566-1573. View abstract.

Waters, C. M., Alexander, J. S., Harris, T. R., and Haselton, F. R. Perilla ketone increases endothelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro. J Appl Physiol 1993;74(5):2493-2501. View abstract.

Wilson, B. J., Garst, J. E., Linnabary, R. D., and Channell, R. B. Perilla ketone: a potent lung toxin from the mint plant, Perilla frutescens Britton. Science 8-5-1977;197(4303):573-574. View abstract.

Yamamoto, H. and Ogawa, T. Antimicrobial activity of perilla seed polyphenols against oral pathogenic bacteria. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2002;66(4):921-924. View abstract.

Yamasaki, K., Nakano, M., Kawahata, T., Mori, H., Otake, T., Ueba, N., Oishi, I., Inami, R., Yamane, M., Nakamura, M., Murata, H., and Nakanishi, T. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae. Biol.Pharm Bull 1998;21(8):829-833. View abstract.

Yoshida, K., Kameda, K., and Kondo, T. Diglucuronoflavones from purple leaves of Perilla ocimoides. Phytochemistry 1993;33(4):917-919. View abstract.

Yoshida, S., Miyazaki, M., Takeshita, M., Yuasa, S., Kobayashi, T., Watanabe, S., and Okuyama, H. Functional changes of rat brain microsomal membrane surface after learning task depending on dietary fatty acids. J Neurochem. 1997;68(3):1269-1277. View abstract.

Yun, L., Onodera, H., Takagi, H., Koujitani, T., Yasuhara, K., Mitsumori, K., and Hirose, M. [A 13-week subchronic oral toxicity study of Perilla extracts in F344 rats]. Kokuritsu Iyakuhin Shokuhin Eisei Kenkyusho Hokoku 1999;(117):104-107. View abstract.

Zhong, J., Yoshida, M., and Yoshida, T. Effects of biological factors on cell growth and anthocyanin formation by suspended cultures of Perilla frutescens cells. Chin J Biotechnol. 1995;11(2):143-147. View abstract.

Golik A, Zaidenstein R, Dishi V, et al. Effects of captopril and enalapril on zinc metabolism in hypertensive patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:75-8. View abstract.

Makino T, Ono T, Muso E, Honda G. Inhibitory effect of Perilla frutescens and its phenolic constituents on cultured murine mesangial cell proliferation. Planta Med 1998;64:541-45. View abstract.

Okamoto M, Mitsunobu F, Ashida K, et al. Effects of perilla seed oil supplementation on leukotriene generation by leucocytes in patients with asthma associated with lipometabolism. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;122:137-42. View abstract.