Generic drug: melphalan flufenamide
Brand name: Pepaxto
What is Pepaxto (melphalan flufenamide), and how does it work?
Pepaxto is a prescription medicine used in combination with the medicine dexamethasone to treat adults with multiple myeloma who did not respond to or stopped responding to at least four prior medicines including at least one proteasome inhibitor, one immunomodulatory agent and one CD38-directed antibody.
Pepaxto is not for use to prepare for transplant.
It is not known if Pepaxto is safe and effective in children.
What are the side effects of Pepaxto?
Pepaxto may cause serious side effects, including:
- Low blood cell counts are common with Pepaxto and can be serious. Your healthcare provider will do blood tests as needed to check your blood cell counts during your treatment with
- Low platelet counts: Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have a bleeding or bruising under the skin.
- Low red blood cell counts: Tell your healthcare provider if you are feeling weak, tired or you get tired easily, you look pale, or if you feel short of breath.
- Low white blood cell counts: A low white blood cell count increases the risk of infections.
- Infections. Pepaxto can cause infections that have led to death. Tell your healthcareprovider right away if you develop new or worsening signs or symptoms of infection such as fever, chills, cough, pain, or burning during urination during treatment with Pepaxto.
- Secondary cancers. New cancers such as myelodysplastic syndromes or acute leukemia have happened in people with multiple myeloma who have received Pepaxto. Your healthcare provider will monitor you for new cancers.
Your healthcare provider may change your dose of Pepaxto, stop your treatment for a period of time, or completely stop your treatment if you have certain side effects.
Pepaxto may cause fertility problems in males and females, which may affect your ability to have children. Talk with your healthcare provider if you have concerns about fertility.
These are not all of the possible side effects of Pepaxto.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What is the dosage for Pepaxto?
- The recommended dosage of Pepaxto is 40 mg administered intravenously over 30 minutes on Day 1 of each 28-day cycle until disease progression or until unacceptable toxicity. Administer dexamethasone 40 mg orally or intravenously on Days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of each cycle.
- For patients 75 years of age or older, reduce the dose of dexamethasone to 20 mg.
- Refer to the prescribing information for dexamethasone for additional dosing information.
Recommended Premedication And Concomitant Medications
- Consider providing a serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist or other antiemetics prior to and during the treatment with Pepaxto.
Dosage Modifications For Adverse Reactions
- Withold Pepaxto if the neutrophil count is less than 1 x 109/L or the platelet count is less than 50 x 109/L.
- The recommended dose reductions and dosage modifications for adverse reactions for Pepaxto are presented in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively.
Table 1: Recommended Dose Reductions for Adverse Reactions of Pepaxto
|Subsequent||Permanently discontinue Pepaxto in patients who are unable to tolerate 20 mg.|
|* Administered intravenously on Day 1 of each 28-day cycle. For dosage modifications, see Table 2.|
Table 2: Recommended Dosage Modifications for Adverse Reactions of Pepaxto
|Adverse Reaction||Severity||Dosage Modification|
|Myelosuppression||Platelet count less than 50 x 109/L on an intended Pepaxto dosing day||
|Absolute neutrophil count less than 1 x 109/L on an intended Pepaxto dosing day||
|Grade 4 hematological adverse reaction on an intended Pepaxto dosing day in 2 consecutive cycles||
|Non-Hematologic Adverse Reaction||Grade 2||
|Grade 3 or 4||
Is Pepaxto safe to use while pregnant or breastfeeding?
- Based on its mechanism of action, Pepaxto can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.
- There are no available data on Pepaxto use in pregnant women to evaluate for a drug-associated risk. Pepaxto is a genotoxic drug. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
- There is no data on the presence of melphalan flufenamide or its metabolites in human breast milk, or the effects on the breastfed child or on milk production.
- Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in the breastfed child, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with Pepaxto and for 1 week after the last dose.
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Pepaxto is a prescription medicine used in combination with the medicine dexamethasone to treat adults with multiple myeloma who did not respond to or stopped responding to at least four prior medicines including at least one proteasome inhibitor, one immunomodulatory agent and one CD38-directed antibody. Serious side effects of Pepaxto include low blood cell counts, infections, and secondary cancers.
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Cancer Risk Factors
Though it's difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don't, research shows that certain risk factors increase a person's odds of developing cancer. These risk factors include growing older, family history of cancer, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and exposure to sunlight, ionizing radiation, certain chemicals, and some viruses and bacteria.
Multiple myeloma is a form of cancer that develops in plasma cells, the white blood cells that make antibodies. Symptoms include bone pain, weakness, extreme thirst, nausea, frequent urination, and broken bones. Treatment of multiple myeloma depends upon the staging and symptoms of the disease.
Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and is not contagious. Cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, a treatment of drugs that destroy cancer cells.
Certain behavioral, lifestyle, and environmental factors contribute to cancer. Cancer prevention involves modifying these factors to decrease cancer risk. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, and obesity increase the risk of certain cancers. Vaccines, genetic testing, and cancer screening also play a role in cancer prevention.
Cancer pain results from the tumor pressing on nerves or invading bones or organs. Cancer treatments like chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery can also cause pain. Over-the-counter pain relievers, prescription medications, radiation, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques are just some treatments for cancer pain.
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Multiple Myeloma: Types of Treatment
Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells. The plasma cells are a type of white blood cell present in the bone marrow. Plasma cells are part of the immune system and help fight against infections by producing antibodies that recognize and attack microorganisms.
Multiple Myeloma: Deadly to Chronic
Multiple myeloma is cancer of the plasma cells. The plasma cells are a type of white blood cell present in the bone marrow. Plasma cells are part of the immune system and help fight against infections by producing antibodies that recognize and attack microorganisms. In multiple myeloma, cancer cells accumulate in the bone marrow and replace healthy blood cells.
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