- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
- Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
- What Else to Know
Brand Name: Paxlovid
Generic Name: nirmatrelvir; ritonavir
Drug Class: Antivirals
What is Paxlovid, and what is it used for?
Paxlovid is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of COVID-19. Paxlovid may be used alone or with other medications.
It is not known if Paxlovid is safe and effective in children younger than 12 years of age or weighing less than 88 pounds (40 kg).
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the emergency use of the unapproved product Paxlovid for the treatment of mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults and pediatric patients (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kg) with positive results of direct severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral testing, and who is at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death.
For information on medical conditions and factors associated with increased risk for progression to severe COVID-19, see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html. Healthcare providers should consider the benefit-risk for an individual patient.
Limitations Of Authorized Use
- Paxlovid is not authorized for initiation of treatment in patients requiring hospitalization due to severe or critical COVID-19.
- Paxlovid is not authorized for use as pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis for prevention of COVID-19.
- Paxlovid is not authorized for use for longer than 5 consecutive days.
Paxlovid may only be prescribed for an individual patient by physicians, advanced practice registered nurses, and physician assistants that are licensed or authorized under state law to prescribe drugs in the therapeutic class to which Paxlovid belongs (i.e., antiinfectives).
Paxlovid is not approved for any use, including for use for the treatment of COVID-19.
Paxlovid is authorized only for the duration of the declaration that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of the emergency use of Paxlovid under section 564(b)(1) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. § 360bbb-3(b)(1), unless the authorization is terminated or revoked sooner.
Patients requiring hospitalization due to severe or critical COVID-19 after starting treatment with Paxlovid may complete the full 5-day treatment course per the healthcare provider's discretion.
Justification For Emergency Use Of Drugs During The COVID-19 Pandemic
There is currently an outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) has declared that:
- A public health emergency related to COVID-19 has existed since January 27, 2020.
- Circumstances exist justifying the authorization of emergency use of drugs and biological products during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 27, 2020 declaration).
An EUA is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorization for the emergency use of an unapproved product or unapproved use of an approved product (i.e., drug, biological product, or device) in the United States under certain circumstances including, but not limited to, when the Secretary of HHS declares that there is a public health emergency that affects the national security or the health and security of United States citizens living abroad, and that involves biological agent(s) or a disease or condition that may be attributable to such agent(s). Criteria for issuing an EUA include:
- The biological agent(s) can cause a serious or life-threatening disease or condition;
- Based on the totality of the available scientific evidence (including data from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials, if available), it is reasonable to believe that
- the product may be effective in diagnosing, treating, or preventing the serious or life-threatening disease or condition; and
- the known and potential benefits of the product—when used to diagnose, prevent, or treat such disease or condition—outweigh the known and potential risks of the product, taking into consideration the material threat posed by the biological agent(s);
- There is no adequate, approved, and available alternative to the product for diagnosing, preventing, or treating the serious or life-threatening disease or condition.
Information Regarding Available Alternatives for The EUA Authorized Use
- There are no approved alternatives to Paxlovid for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in adults and pediatric patients (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kg) with positive results of direct SARS-CoV-2 viral testing, and who are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death.
- Other therapeutics are currently authorized for the same use as Paxlovid. For additional information on all products authorized for treatment or prevention of COVID-19, please see https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/mcm-legal-regulatory-and-policy- framework/emergency-use-authorization.
- For information on clinical studies that are testing the use of Paxlovid in COVID-19, please see https:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
What are the side effects of Paxlovid?
There are limited clinical data available for Paxlovid. Serious and unexpected adverse events may occur that have not been previously reported with Paxlovid use.
Paxlovid may cause serious side effects including:
- difficulty breathing,
- swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat,
- severe dizziness, and
- abnormal lab test results
Get medical help right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above.
The most common side effects of Paxlovid include:
Tell the doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of Paxlovid. For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What are the dosages of Paxlovid?
Dosage for Emergency Use of Paxlovid
- Paxlovid is nirmatrelvir tablets co-packaged with ritonavir tablets.
- Nirmatrelvir must be co-administered with ritonavir. Failure to correctly co-administer nirmatrelvir with ritonavir may result in plasma levels of nirmatrelvir that are insufficient to achieve the desired therapeutic effect.
- The dosage for Paxlovid is 300 mg nirmatrelvir (two 150 mg tablets) with 100 mg ritonavir (one 100 mg tablet) with all three tablets taken together orally twice daily for 5 days. Prescriptions should specify the numeric dose of each active ingredient within Paxlovid. Completion of the full 5-day treatment course and continued isolation in accordance with public health recommendations are important to maximize viral clearance and minimize transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
- The 5-day treatment course of Paxlovid should be initiated as soon as possible after a diagnosis of COVID-19 has been made, and within 5 days of symptom onset. Should a patient require hospitalization due to severe or critical COVID-19 after starting treatment with Paxlovid, the patient should complete the full 5-day treatment course per the healthcare provider's discretion.
- If the patient misses a dose of Paxlovid within 8 hours of the time it is usually taken, the patient should take it as soon as possible and resume the normal dosing schedule. If the patient misses a dose by more than 8 hours, the patient should not take the missed dose and instead take the next dose at the regularly scheduled time. The patient should not double the dose to make up for a missed dose.
- Paxlovid (both nirmatrelvir and ritonavir tablets) can be taken with or without food. The tablets should be swallowed whole and not chewed, broken, or crushed.
Important Dosing Information in Patients with Renal Impairment
- No dosage adjustment is needed in patients with mild renal impairment (eGFR =60 to <90 mL/min). In patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR =30 to <60 mL/min), the dosage of Paxlovid is 150 mg nirmatrelvir and 100 mg ritonavir twice daily for 5 days. Prescriptions should specify the numeric dose of each active ingredient within Paxlovid. Providers should counsel patients about renal dosing instructions.
- Paxlovid is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR <30 mL/min) until more data are available; the appropriate dosage for patients with severe renal impairment has not been determined.
Use In Patients with Hepatic Impairment
- No dosage adjustment is needed in patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. No pharmacokinetic or safety data are available regarding the use of nirmatrelvir or ritonavir in subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C); therefore, Paxlovid is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Important Drug Interactions with Paxlovid
- No dosage adjustment is required when co-administered with other products containing ritonavir or cobicistat.
- Patients on ritonavir- or cobicistat-containing HIV or HCV regimens should continue their treatment as indicated.
- Refer to other sections of the Fact Sheet for important drug interactions with Paxlovid. Consider the potential for drug interactions prior to and during Paxlovid therapy and review concomitant medications during Paxlovid therapy.
Treatment of overdose with Paxlovid should consist of general supportive measures including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient. There is no specific antidote for overdose with Paxlovid.
What drugs interact with Paxlovid?
Potential for Paxlovid To Affect Other Drugs
- Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir co-packaged with ritonavir) is an inhibitor of CYP3A and may increase plasma concentrations of drugs that are primarily metabolized by CYP3A.
- Co-administration of Paxlovid with drugs highly dependent on CYP3A for clearance and for which elevated plasma concentrations are associated with serious and/or life-threatening events is contraindicated. Co-administration with other CYP3A substrates may require a dose adjustment or additional monitoring as shown in Table 1.
Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Paxlovid
- Nirmatrelvir and ritonavir are CYP3A substrates; therefore, drugs that induce CYP3A may decrease nirmatrelvir and ritonavir plasma concentrations and reduce Paxlovid therapeutic effect.
Established and Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions
- Table 1 provides a listing of clinically significant drug interactions, including contraindicated drugs. Drugs listed in Table 1 are a guide and not considered a comprehensive list of all possible drugs that may interact with Paxlovid. The healthcare provider should consult appropriate references for comprehensive information.
Table 1: Established and Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions
|Drug Class||Drugs within Class||Effect on Concentration||Clinical Comments|
|Alpha 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist||alfuzosin||↑ alfuzosin||Co-administration contraindicated due to potential hypotension.|
|Co-administration contraindicated due to potential for serious respiratory depression or hematologic abnormalities.|
|Antianginal||ranolazine||↑ ranolazine||Co-administration contraindicated due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions.|
|↑ antiarrhythmic||Co-administration contraindicated due to potential for cardiac arrhythmias.|
|Antiarrhythmics||bepridil, lidocaine (systemic)||↑ antiarrhythmic||Caution is warranted and therapeutic concentration monitoring is recommended for antiarrhythmics if available.|
|Anticancer drugs||apalutamide||↓ nirmatrelvir/ritonavir||Co-administration contraindicated due to potential loss of virologic response and possible resistance.|
|↑ anticancer drug||Avoid co-administration of encorafenib or ivosidenib due to potential risk of serious adverse events such as QT interval prolongation. Avoid use of neratinib, venetoclax or ibrutinib. Co-administration of vincristine and vinblastine may lead to significant hematologic or gastrointestinal side effects. For further information, refer to individual product label for anticancer drug.|
|Closely monitor INR if co-administration with warfarin is necessary.
Increased bleeding risk with rivaroxaban. Avoid concomitant use.
|Co-administration contraindicated due to potential loss of virologic response and possible resistance.|
|Antidepressants||bupropion||↓ bupropion and active metabolite hydroxybupropion||Monitor for an adequate clinical response to bupropion.|
|trazodone||↑ trazodone||Adverse reactions of nausea, dizziness, hypotension, and syncope have been observed following co-administration of trazodone and ritonavir. A lower dose of trazodone should be considered. Refer to trazadone product label for further information.|
isavuconazonium sulfate itraconazole*
↑ isavuconazonium sulfate
|Avoid concomitant use of voriconazole. Refer to ketoconazole, isavuconazonium sulfate, and itraconazole product labels for further information.|
|Anti-gout||colchicine||↑ colchicine||Co-administration contraindicated due to potential for serious and/or life-threatening reactions in patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment.|
|Anti-HIV protease inhibitors||amprenavir,
|↑ protease Inhibitor||For further information, refer to the respective protease inhibitors' prescribing information. Patients on ritonavir- or cobicistatcontaining HIV regimens should continue their treatment as indicated. Monitor for increased Paxlovid or protease inhibitor adverse events with concomitant use of these protease inhibitors.|
zidovudine bictegravir/ emtricitabine/ tenofovir
|For further information, refer to the respective anti-HIV drugs prescribing information.|
|Refer to the respective prescribing information for anti-infective dose adjustment.|
|Antimycobacterial||rifampin||↓ nirmatrelvir/ritonavir||Co-administration contraindicated due to potential loss of virologic response and possible resistance. Alternate antimycobacterial drugs such as rifabutin should be considered.|
|Refer to the bedaquiline product label for further information.
Refer to rifabutin product label for further information on rifabutin dose reduction.
|Co-administration contraindicated due to serious and/or life-threatening reactions such as cardiac arrhythmias.|
|Antipsychotics||quetiapine||↑ quetiapine||If co-administration is necessary, reduce quetiapine dose and monitor for quetiapine-associated adverse reactions. Refer to the quetiapine prescribing information for recommendations.|
|Calcium channel blockers||amlodipine,
|↑ calcium channel blocker||Caution is warranted and clinical monitoring of patients is recommended. A dose decrease may be needed for these drugs when co-administered with Paxlovid.
If co-administered, refer to individual product label for calcium channel blocker for further information.
|Cardiac glycosides||digoxin||↑ digoxin||Caution should be exercised when coadministering Paxlovid with digoxin, with appropriate monitoring of serum digoxin levels. Refer to the digoxin product label for further information.|
|Endothelin receptor Antagonists||bosentan||↑ bosentan||Discontinue use of bosentan at least 36 hours prior to initiation of Paxlovid. Refer to the bosentan product label for further information.|
|Co-administration contraindicated due to potential for acute ergot toxicity characterized by vasospasm and ischemia of the extremities and other tissues including the central nervous system.|
|Hepatitis C direct acting antivirals||elbasvir/grazoprevir, glecaprevir/pibrentasvir||↑ antiviral||Increased grazoprevir concentrations can result in ALT elevations. It is not recommended to co-administer ritonavir with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir.
Refer to the ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir label for further information.
Refer to the sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir product label for further information.
Patients on ritonavir-containing HCV regimens should continue their treatment as indicated. Monitor for increased Paxlovid or HCV drug adverse events with concomitant use.
ritonavir and dasabuvir
|Herbal products||St. John's Wort (hypericum perforatum)||↓ nirmatrelvir/ritonavir||Co-administration contraindicated due to potential loss of virologic response and possible resistance.|
|HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors||lovastatin,
|Co-administration contraindicated due to potential for myopathy including rhabdomyolysis. Discontinue use of lovastatin and simvastatin at least 12 hours prior to initiation of Paxlovid.|
|HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors||atorvastatin,
|Consider temporary discontinuation of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin during treatment with Paxlovid.|
|Hormonal contraceptive||ethinyl estradiol||↓ ethinyl estradiol||An additional, non-hormonal method of contraception should be considered.|
|Therapeutic concentration monitoring is recommended for immunosuppressants. Avoid use of Paxlovid when close monitoring of immunosuppressant serum concentrations is not feasible.
Avoid concomitant use of sirolimus and Paxlovid.
If co-administered, refer to individual product label for immunosuppressant for further information.
|Long-acting betaadrenoceptor agonist||salmeterol||↑ salmeterol||Co-administration is not recommended. The combination may result in increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events associated with salmeterol, including QT prolongation, palpitations, and sinus tachycardia.|
|Narcotic analgesics||fentanyl||↑ fentanyl||Careful monitoring of therapeutic and adverse effects (including potentially fatal respiratory depression) is recommended when fentanyl is concomitantly administered with Paxlovid.|
|methadone||↓ methadone||Monitor methadone-maintained patients closely for evidence of withdrawal effects and adjust the methadone dose accordingly.|
|PDE5 inhibitor||sildenafil (Revatio®) when used for pulmonary arterial hypertension||↑ sildenafil||Co-administration contraindicated due to the potential for sildenafil associated adverse events, including visual abnormalities hypotension, prolonged erection, and syncope.|
|Co-administration contraindicated due to potential for extreme sedation and respiratory depression.|
|Sedative/hypnotics||midazolam (administered parenterally)||↑ midazolam||Co-administration of midazolam (parenteral) should be done in a setting which ensures close clinical monitoring and appropriate medical management in case of respiratory depression and/or prolonged sedation. Dosage reduction for midazolam should be considered, especially if more than a single dose of midazolam is administered. Refer to the midazolam product label for further information.|
|↑ corticosteroid||Increased risk for Cushing's syndrome and adrenal suppression. Alternative corticosteroids including beclomethasone and prednisolone should be considered.|
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
- There are no available human data on the use of nirmatrelvir during pregnancy to evaluate for a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes.
- Published observational studies on ritonavir use in pregnant women have not identified an increase in the risk of major birth defects. Published studies with ritonavir are insufficient to identify a drug-associated risk of miscarriage. There are maternal and fetal risks associated with untreated COVID-19 in pregnancy.
- There are no available data on the presence of nirmatrelvir in human or animal milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. There is no information on the effects of ritonavir on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production.
- The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for Paxlovid and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Paxlovid or from the underlying maternal condition.
- Breastfeeding individuals with COVID-19 should follow practices according to clinical guidelines to avoid exposing the infant to COVID-19.
What else should I know about Paxlovid?
Tell your healthcare provider if you:
- Have any allergies
- Have liver or kidney disease
- Are pregnant or plan to become pregnant
- Are breastfeeding a child
- Have any serious illnesses
Some medicines may interact with Paxlovid and may cause serious side effects. Keep a list of your medicines to show your healthcare provider and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.
You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for a list of medicines that interact with Paxlovid. Do not start taking a new medicine without telling your healthcare provider. Your healthcare provider can tell you if it is safe to take Paxlovid with other medicines.
Tell your healthcare provider if you are taking combined hormonal contraceptive. Paxlovid may affect how your birth control pills work. Females who are able to become pregnant should use another effective alternative form of contraception or an additional barrier method of contraception. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have any questions about contraceptive methods that might be right for you.
Do not take Paxlovid if:
- You are allergic to nirmatrelvir, ritonavir, or any of the ingredients in Paxlovid.
- You are taking any of the following medicines:
- Pethidine, piroxicam, propoxyphene
- Amiodarone, dronedarone, flecainide, propafenone, quinidine
- Lurasidone, pimozide, clozapine
- Dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methylergonovine
- Lovastatin, simvastatin
- Sildenafil (Revatio®) for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)
- Triazolam, oral midazolam
- Carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin
- St. John's Wort (hypericum perforatum)
Taking Paxlovid with these medicines may cause serious or life-threatening side effects or affect how Paxlovid works.
These are not the only medicines that may cause serious side effects if taken with Paxlovid. Paxlovid may increase or decrease the levels of multiple other medicines. It is very important to tell your healthcare provider about all of the medicines you are taking because additional laboratory tests or changes in the dose of your other medicines may be necessary while you are taking Paxlovid.
Your healthcare provider may also tell you about specific symptoms to watch out for that may indicate that you need to stop or decrease the dose of some of your other medicines.
Paxlovid is a prescription antiviral medicine used to treat the symptoms of COVID-19 with emergency use authorization (EUA). The most common side effects of Paxlovid include diarrhea, myalgia, altered sense of taste, and high blood pressure. Serious side effects of Paxlovid include hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat; severe dizziness, and abnormal lab test results. Consult your doctor if pregnant or breastfeeding.
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Typically vaccine-related side effects are reported within 24 to 48 hours of taking the vaccine.
Can I Drink Alcohol Before Getting a COVID-19 Vaccine?
While no scientific evidence exists claiming to avoid alcohol before or after the COVID-19 vaccine, health officials still advise against drinking a week before or after.
Can COVID-19 Affect a Newborn Baby?
There is a low risk of transmitting COVID-19 from mother to child during pregnancy. In some cases, newborns might test positive for COVID-19 after birth. Symptoms for newborns who test positive may range from mild to severe illness.
How Soon After the COVID-19 Booster Vaccines Are You Protected?
According to recent studies, it takes about 14 days after receiving the COVID-19 booster vaccine for your immune system to offer protection from the virus.
What Are the Differences Between Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccines?
Despite being made using the same technology and sharing similar effects on the body, here are the differences between the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines.
Should I Get Tested for COVID-19 if I Have a Sore Throat?
If you have a sore throat along with symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath, you should get tested for COVID-19.
How Does COVID-19 Infection Affect the Placenta?
The placenta is the supply chain and waste disposal for the baby in your womb. After studying a few second-trimester and hundreds of third-trimester placentas from women with Covid-19, researchers determined the virus causes significant destruction within this vital organ.
Keep Your Immune System Healthy With COVID-19
Strong immunity is pivotal for the prevention and complete recovery from COVID-19. Here are eight tips to boost your immunity and reduce your risk of serious COVID-19 illness.
Can I Have COVID-19 and Fungal Infection at the Same Time?
One of those challenges is that bacterial and fungal infections can occur alongside COVID-19, especially in people whose cases are severe enough to put them in the ICU or who have existing comorbidities like diabetes or HIV.
Can COVID-19 Leave Lingering Symptoms?
Nearly 80 percent of people infected with COVID-19 experience one or more lingering symptoms post-recovery.
Can I Get COVID-19 Again?
If you have had COVID-19, can you get it again? Yes, COVID-19 reinfection is rare but possible. Learn what symptoms to look for and how to protect yourself.
Are Migraines a Symptom of COVID-19?
Although the main symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, and shortness of breath, migraines are also a common symptom that may persist during or after infection.
Is It Safe to Go to the Gym During the COVID-19 Pandemic?
The COVID-19 pandemic changed many people's routines. Even if you are vaccinated, going to the gym does still come with some risk of getting COVID-19.
COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Prevention Tips
COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that spreads from person to person via infected respiratory droplets. The main symptoms of COVID-19 infection include cough, fever, and shortness of breath. Occasionally, people infected with COVID-19 may experience diarrhea, a sore throat, a runny or stuffy nose, or aches and pains. Avoiding contact with infected people, social distancing, not touching your face, frequent hand washing, cleaning, and disinfecting of frequently touched surfaces can help to reduce your risk of contracting the 2019 novel coronavirus.
How Do You Fight Fatigue From COVID-19?
You can fight COVID-19 fatigue by getting plenty of rest, practicing good sleep hygiene, napping when needed, staying hydrated, and eating a balanced diet.
What Happens If You Don't Take the Second Shot of the COVID-19 Vaccine?
If you don’t take the second shot of the COVID-19 vaccine, you will not reach full immunity against the virus and will be at higher risk of contracting the disease.
How Long Does Immunity Last After You Get Moderna, Pfizer, or Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccines?
People's bodies all respond differently to the vaccines so to understand how long immunity lasts, it comes down to your body’s antibody production.
What Qualifies as Immunocompromised for Covid Vaccine Booster?
People with compromised immune systems who have already received two doses of either the Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine are eligible for a third shot if they meet these immunocompromised conditions.
Can Parents Spread COVID-19 to Kids?
Parents need to be aware that their children can easily contract COVID-19, exercise maximum caution, and follow the COVID-19 protocols to ensure everyone is safe.
Does COVID-19 Have an Effect on Your Skin?
COVID-19 can affect the skin with symptoms known as cutaneous manifestations that result in bumps, rashes, papules, and more.
Can COVID-19 Cause Pneumonia?
In some cases, COVID-19 can cause life-threatening lung complications such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and sepsis.
Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT) and COVID-19
Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is an extremely rare side effect of the COVID-19 vaccine and has only been seen with the Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca vaccines.
Do All Patients With COVID-19 Get Pneumonia?
According to the CDC, about 3%-17% of patients with COVID-19 develop lung-related complications that require hospitalization, such as pneumonia.
Can Babies Get COVID-19?
According to the CDC, it's not common for newborns to be diagnosed with COVID-19. But there have been a few cases of newborns testing positive for the virus.
How Does COVID-19 Mainly Spread?
COVID-19 mainly spreads via airborne particles and respiratory droplets formed when an infected person breathes, talks, coughs, or sneezes.
Is Fever a Symptom of COVID-19?
Fever is a symptom of COVID-19, although not everyone presents with fever. Learn about other COVID-19 symptoms and what to do if you are infected.
What Kind of Headache Comes With COVID?
COVID-19 headache is described as a really tight, squeezing sensation that gets worse with coughing and physical activity.
Can COVID-19 Only Be Shortness of Breath?
Shortness of breath may be a symptom of COVID-19, but on its own it is unlikely to be a sign of infection. Learn about other causes of shortness of breath.
Are There Any FDA-Approved Drugs for COVID-19?
Recently, the FDA has authorized several other medications for emergency use for COVID-19 besides the drug Veklury (remdesivir).
Can Flying on an Airplane Increase My Risk of Getting COVID-19?
Yes, air travel can increase your risk of COVID-19 infection; however, reduce that risk by getting vaccinated, wearing a face mask, and maintaining social distancing when possible.
Is COVID-19 Life-Threatening?
Most people infected with COVID-19 experience mild to moderate respiratory symptoms and recover without special medical treatment. However, the virus is much more life-threatening to older people and those with underlying medical problems.
Do Recovered COVID-19 Patients Have Antibodies?
While antibodies have been found in people who recover from COVID-19, it’s unclear how long the immune response lasts. It’s important to continue following public health guidelines to protect yourself from reinfection.
What Is the Most Effective Treatment for COVID-19?
Depending on a person’s symptoms, the most effective treatment for COVID-19 may range from rest and hydration to oxygen therapy and ventilation.
What Is the Delta Variant of COVID-19?
Here’s everything you need to know about the Delta variant, why it’s so contagious, and whether COVID-19 vaccines can protect against infection.
What Are Some of the Symptoms of COVID-19 in Children?
What should you do if your child gets sick during the pandemic? Understand the symptoms of COVID-19 in children and how to manage them.
Does COVID-19 Affect My Heart?
As per the American Heart Association, COVID-19 may have a long-term effect on the heart. Having a heart condition doesn't make a person more likely to catch COVID-19, but an individual with heart disease or a serious heart condition is more likely to become severely ill from COVID-19 and has a higher risk of death.
Can COVID-19 Vaccine Affect Fertility?
The COVID-19 vaccine does not affect fertility.
Are Pregnant Women at Higher Risk With COVID-19?
Your body undergoes significant physiological, mechanical, and immunologic changes during pregnancy. You're not more likely to get COVID-19 because you're pregnant.
Which Type of Diabetes Is Worse for COVID?
COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a mild illness in most people. People with type 1 diabetes have 3.5 times the risk of dying compared to people without diabetes and people with type 2 diabetes have double the mortality risk with this viral infection.
How Do the COVID-19 Variants Differ?
The Delta variant is believed to be twice as contagious as previous COVID-19 variants and is associated with increased rates of hospitalization and serious illness.
Guide for COVID-19 Vaccine for Cancer Patients
The authorities have jointly agreed that patients on active cancer treatment are at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection and complications. Hence, there is a necessity to prioritize patients with cancer for the COVID-19 vaccine.
How Does COVID-19 Affect Children?
Most children and adolescents infected with COVID-19 experience less severe symptoms than adults.
Which Groups of People Are at Increased Risk of Severe Illness From COVID-19?
People at higher risk of severe illness due to COVID-19 include individuals who have underlying medical conditions and have not been vaccinated.
Is My Sore Throat Allergies or COVID-19?
Sore throat can be a symptom of allergies or COVID-19, and it can be difficult to tell which one you have. Understanding the difference between these two illnesses can help.
What Are Some of the Common Symptoms of COVID-19 and Flu?
Flu and COVID-19 share common symptoms because they are both respiratory tract infections. Learn the 12 common symptoms below.
Should You Take the COVID-19 Vaccine if You Are Trying to Get Pregnant?
The COVID-19 vaccine is still being offered to women who are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant. Current information says that there is no reason not to get vaccinated if you are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant.
Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) and COVID-19
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been found mostly in children infected with COVID-19 or who were in contact with other infected people. The condition causes widespread inflammation in various tissues and organ systems.
How Should I Prepare My Kids That Are Going Back to School During COVID-19?
As you start preparing your kids for back to school during COVID-19, there are some ways like wearing a mask and handwashing that can help keep them safe and healthy.
What is Herd Immunity, and How Does It Help to Protect the Population from COVID-19?
Herd immunity means that the entire population is better protected against a particular disease. Herd immunity is possible with COVID-19, but the virus is likely to linger for several more years with breakthrough infections.
Should You Avoid Pain Relievers Before Getting the COVID-19 Vaccine?
Both the CDC and WHO do not recommend taking pain relievers before getting the COVID-19 vaccine, as it is still unknown whether they interfere with vaccine effectiveness.
How Do mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines Work?
Vaccines train a person’s immune system to recognize and fight specific germs that can cause illness. COVID-19 vaccines work with the immune system to help develop defenses against the disease so that the body will be ready to fight coronavirus if exposed to it in the future. If a vaccinated person gets exposed to coronavirus in the future, the antibodies will fight the virus and work to prevent severe COVID-19 illness.
Does Vitamin D Protect Against COVID-19?
COVID-19 or coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It manifests as mild to moderate respiratory illness in most people who may not require any special treatment. Certain high-risk groups, such as older people and people with underlying health conditions (chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases), are more likely to get seriously ill.
How Long Should I Stay Home if I Have Been in Close Contact With Someone With COVID-19?
COVID-19 or coronavirus disease is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered strain of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). This disease has resulted in a global pandemic. The cases were first discovered in the city of Wuhan in early December 2019, which then spread globally and emerged as the cause of acute respiratory disease due to its highly transmissible and pathogenic nature.
What Should a Pregnant Woman Do If She Has COVID-19?
COVID-19 is a disease caused by a coronavirus. If you are pregnant and you think you have COVID-19, get professional medical help as soon as possible to reduce the risk of medical complications.
Who Can Get the Booster Shot for COVID-19?
Learn who can get the booster shot for COVID-19, whether you can mix and match brands, and why COVID-19 booster shots are needed.
Are COVID-19 Vaccines Safe for Cardiac Patients?
Getting vaccinated for COVID-19 is both safe and recommended for cardiac patients, since they are more likely to develop complications from the infection.
Is It Possible to Develop Immunity to COVID-19 After Recovering?
People who recover from COVID-19 do develop an immune response to the disease after infection; however, these antibodies usually decline after 8 months.
What Is a Monoclonal Antibody for COVID-19?
Monoclonal antibodies for COVID-19 are lab-produced antibodies that can prevent the SARS-CoV-2 virus from attaching to cells.
Are Kawasaki and COVID-19 Related?
Children with COVID-19 infection have experienced symptoms similar to Kawasaki disease due to multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).
Is Psoriasis a COVID-19 Risk?
Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory condition that primarily affects the skin. There is no definitive link between psoriasis and an increased risk of COVID-19.
How Is COVID-19 Different From Allergies?
COVID-19 symptoms are often similar to symptoms of seasonal allergies, so it is important to know how to tell the difference. Learn how to distinguish between the two.
Is It Normal to Have Side Effects After the Second COVID-19 Vaccine?
As with any immunization, it is normal to have side effects after receiving your COVID-19 vaccine, irrespective of the dose.
Can Immunocompromised People Get the COVID-19 Vaccine?
Immunocompromised people can and should get the COVID-19 vaccine, as they are extremely vulnerable to severe infection.
Do COVID-19 Vaccines Protect Against the Delta Strain?
Research suggests that a full course of COVID-19 vaccines could protect you from early mutants such as the Delta strain.
Can You Get the COVID-19 Vaccine If You’re Pregnant?
The answer is 'Yes, you can get the COVID-19 vaccine if you’re pregnant.' But you may want to talk to your doctor before you get the vaccine.
COVID-19 Vaccine for 5 to 11 Years Olds
Children aged 5 to 11 years old can receive a distinct vaccination formulation of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, which is one-third the amount provided to adolescents.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- What Is the COVID-19 Antigen Test?
- How Do the COVID-19 Coronavirus Tests Work?
- What Is the Difference Between a PCR Nasal Swab and a COVID-19 Antigen Test?
- How to Differentiate Between the Signs and Symptoms of COVID-19, Allergies, Cold, and Flu?
- What Is the COVID-19 Antibody Test For?
- Tests Available for COVID-19
- Wuhan Coronavirus FAQs
- Coronavirus COVID-19 Prevention FAQs
- COVID-19 Vaccine Myths and Facts FAQs
- What if I get COVID-19 with Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- What Are Monoclonal Antibody Treatments for COVID-19 Coronavirus?
- Testing Is Key to COVID-19 Recovery for Patients and Economy
- Should I Go to the Dentist During the COVID-19 Pandemic?
- Is the Test for COVID-19 Coronavirus Reliable?
- How Long Can the COVID-19 Coronavirus Survive?
- What if I get COVID-19 with Diabetes?
- What if I Get COVID-19 with Asthma?
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