Last Editorial Review: 6/11/2021
Other Name(s):

Bis-pantothenamidoethyl disulfide, D-bis-(N-Pantothenyl-B-aminoethyl)-disulfide, D-Pantethine, D-Pantéthine, Pantéthine, Pantetheine, Pantethine Octahydrate, Pantetina, Pantomin, Pantosin.


Pantethine is a dietary supplement that is related to vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid).

Pantethine is used for lowering cholesterol, preventing inflammation, boosting the activity of the immune system, treating an inherited condition called cystinosis, treating gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, and improving athletic performance. It is also used for improving energy, lowering the risk of heart attack and stroke, improving adrenal function, protecting against mental and physical stress, and preventing allergy symptoms in people who are allergic to formaldehyde.

How does it work?

Pantethine might increase the concentrations of chemicals that lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides.


How to Lower Your Cholesterol & Save Your Heart See Slideshow

Uses & Effectiveness

Possibly Effective for...

  • Lowering blood fats such as cholesterol and triglycerides, but only modestly. While not all research findings agree, taking pantethine by mouth or as a shot might slightly lower triglycerides, total cholesterol, and “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; as well as raise “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Pantethine also appears to correct blood fat problems that often occur in kidney failure patients who are undergoing hemodialysis.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Athletic performance. Some research suggests that taking pantethine in combination with pantothenic acid and thiamine (given as allithiamin) does not improve muscular strength or endurance in well-trained athletes.
  • Treating cystinosis, an inherited disease. Early research suggests that pantethine might be beneficial for cystinosis.
  • Reducing risk of heart and circulatory disease.
  • Improving function of the adrenal gland.
  • Preventing allergy symptoms in people allergic to formaldehyde.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of pantethine for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Taking pantethine by mouth is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people for up to a year. Pantethine can cause nausea, diarrhea, and stomach discomfort.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking pantethine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Bleeding disorders: There is some evidence that pantethine can slow blood clotting, so some healthcare providers worry that pantethine might increase the risk of severe bleeding in patients with bleeding disorders. If you have a bleeding disorder, get your healthcare provider's advice before starting pantethine.

Surgery: Pantethine might slow blood clotting. There is a concern that it might increase the risk of extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using pantethine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


What is cholesterol? See Answer


Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Pantethine might slow blood clotting. Taking pantethine along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.


The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For treating too much fat in the blood (hyperlipoproteinemia): 300 mg of pantethine 3 to 4 times daily.

FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


Agrati, A. M., Ambrosi, G., Ferraro, G., and Palmieri, G. Gemfibrozil efficacy vs. pantethine in dyslipoproteinemic patients: controlled study. Current Therapeutic Research 1989;45(Apr):650-663.

Angelica M, Pinto G Ciaccheri C et al. Improvement in serum lipid profile in hyperlipoproteinemia patients after treatment with pantethine: a cross-over double-blind trial versus placebo. Curr Ther Res 1983;33:1091-1097.

Angelico, M., Pinto, G., Ciaccheri, C., Alvaro, D., and De Santis, A. Improvement in serum lipid profile in hyperlipoproteinemic patients after treatment with pantethine: crossover, double blind trial versus placebo. Current Therapeutic Research 1983;33(June Sec 2):1091-1097.

Arsenio, L., Bodria, P., Bossi, S., Lateana, M., and Strata, A. [Clinical use of pantethine by parenteral route in the treatment of hyperlipidemia]. Acta Biomed.Ateneo.Parmense. 1987;58(5-6):143-152. View abstract.

Arsenio, L., Caronna, S., Lateana, M., Magnati, G., Strata, A., and Zammarchi, G. [Hyperlipidemia, diabetes and atherosclerosis: efficacy of treatment with pantethine]. Acta Biomed.Ateneo.Parmense. 1984;55(1):25-42. View abstract.

Avogaro P, Bittolo G Fusello M. Effect of pantethine on lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in man. Curr Ther Res 1983;33:488-493.

Avogaro, P., Bon, G. B., and Fusello, M. Effects of pantethine on lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in man. Current Therapeutic Research 1983;33(Mar):488-493.

Babizhayev, M. A. New concept in nutrition for the maintenance of the aging eye redox regulation and therapeutic treatment of cataract disease; synergism of natural antioxidant imidazole-containing amino acid-based compounds, chaperone, and glutathione boosting agents: a systemic perspective on aging and longevity emerged from studies in humans. Am.J.Ther. 2010;17(4):373-389. View abstract.

Bellani F, Colnago R Meregalli M Scarpazza P Sesia O Donati C. Treatment of hyperlipidemias complicated by cardiovascular diseases in the elderly: results of an open short-term study with pantethine. Curr Ther Res 1986;40:912-916.

Bellani, F., Colnago, R., Meregalli, M., Scarpazza, P., and Donati, C. Treatment of hyperlipidemias complicated by cardiovascular diseases in the elderly: results of an open short term study with pantethine. Current Therapeutic Research 1986;40(Nov):912-916.

Bergesio, F., Ciuti, R., Innocenti, D., Galli, G. A., and Frizzi, V. [Use of pantethine in dyslipidemia of chronic uremic patients under dialysis treatment]. G.Clin.Med. 1985;66(11-12):433-440. View abstract.

Bertolini, S., Donati, C., Elicio, N., Daga, A., Cuzzolaro, S., Marcenaro, A., Saturnino, M., and Balestreri, R. Lipoprotein changes induced by pantethine in hyperlipoproteinemic patients: adults and children. Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol.Ther.Toxicol. 1986;24(11):630-637. View abstract.

Binaghi P, Cellina G LoCicero G Bruschi F Porcaro E Penotti M. Evaluation of the hypocholesterolemic activity of pantethine in perimenopausal women. Minerva Med 1990;81:475-479.

Binaghi, P., Cellina, G., Lo, Cicero G., Bruschi, F., Porcaro, E., and Penotti, M. [Evaluation of the cholesterol-lowering effectiveness of pantethine in women in perimenopausal age]. Minerva Med. 1990;81(6):475-479. View abstract.

Borets, V. M., Lis, M. A., Pyrochkin, V. M., Kishkovich, V. P., and Butkevich, N. D. [Therapeutic efficacy of pantothenic acid preparations in ischemic heart disease patients]. Vopr.Pitan. 1987;(2):15-17. View abstract.

Bosello O, Cominacini L Garrbin U Ferrari F Zocca I Davoli A et al. Changes in the very low density lipoprotein distribution of apolipoproteins C-III2, C-III1, C-III0, C-II and apolipoprotein E after pantethine administration. Acta Ther 1984;10:421-430.

Braverman, E. R. Nutrition for the heart. Part 2. Natural Pharmacy 1999;3:22-24.

Capurso A, Resta F, Ciancia D, Lavezzari M, Mogavero AM, Taverniti R, Di TM, Siciliani G, and Palmisano S. Effect of acipimox and pantethine on serum lipids and apoproteins in patients with type II hyperlipoproteinemia. Current Therapeutic Research 1987;42(6):1216-1222.

Cattin L, DaCol P Fonda M Mameli M Pilotto L Vanuzzo D et al. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia with pantethine and fenofibrate: an open randomized study on 43 subjects. Curr Ther Res 1985;38:386-395.

Cattin, L., Da Col, P. G., Fonda, M., Mameli, M. G., and Fergulio, G. A. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia with pantethine and fenofibrate; open randomized study on 43 subjects. Current Therapeutic Research 1985;38(Sep):386-395.

Cighetti, G., Del Puppo, M., Paroni, R., Fiorica, E., and Galli, Kienle M. Pantethine inhibits cholesterol and fatty acid syntheses and stimulates carbon dioxide formation in isolated rat hepatocytes. J Lipid Res. 1987;28(2):152-161. View abstract.

Coronel, F., Tornero, F., Torrente, J., Naranjo, P., De Oleo, P., Macia, M., and Barrientos, A. Treatment of hyperlipemia in diabetic patients on dialysis with a physiological substance. Am.J.Nephrol. 1991;11(1):32-36.

Da Col P, Cattin L Fonda M Mameli M Feruglio F. Pantethine in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized double-blind trial versus tiadenol. Curr Ther Res 1984;36:214-221.

Da Col, P. G., Cattin, L., Fonda, M., and et al. Pantethine in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized double-blind trial versus tiadenol. Current Therapeutic Research 1984;38:719-727.

Donati, C., Bertieri, R. S., and Barbi, G. [Pantethine, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Clinical study of 1045 patients]. Clin.Ter. 3-31-1989;128(6):411-422. View abstract.

Eto, M., Watanabe, K., Chonan, N., and Ishii, K. Lowering effect of pantethine on plasma beta-thromboglobulin and lipids in diabetes mellitus. Artery 1987;15(1):1-12. View abstract.

Galeone F, Scalabrino A Giuntoli F Birindelli A Panigada G Rossi A et al. The lipid lowering effect of pantethine in hyperlipidemic patients: a clinical investigation. Curr Ther Res 1983;34:383-390.

Gensini, G. F., Prisco, D., Rogasi, P. G., Matucci, M., and Neri Serneri, G. G. Changes in fatty acid composition of the single platelet phospholipids induced by pantethine treatment. Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol.Res. 1985;5(5):309-318. View abstract.

Giannini S, Forti N DiRienzo F Campanari J Ziliotto E. Efeitos da pantetina sobrelipides sangineos. ArqBras Cardiol 1986;46:283-289.

Gleeson, J. M., Wittwer, C. T., Schipke, C. A., and Wilson, D. E. Effect of carnitine and pantethine on the metabolic abnormalities of acquired total lipodystrophy. Current Therapeutic Research 1987;41(Jan):83-88.

Herbeck, J. L. and Bryant, M. P. Nutritional features of the intestinal anaerobe Ruminococcus bromii. Appl.Microbiol. 1974;28(6):1018-1022. View abstract.

Hiramatsu, K., Nozaki, H., and Arimori, S. Influence of pantethine on platelet volume, microviscosity, lipid composition and functions in diabetes mellitus with hyperlipidemia. Tokai J.Exp.Clin.Med. 1981;6(1):49-57. View abstract.

Ishihara, M., Iihara, H., Okayasu, S., Yasuda, K., Matsuura, K., Suzui, M., and Itoh, Y. Pharmaceutical interventions facilitate premedication and prevent opioid-induced constipation and emesis in cancer patients. Support.Care Cancer 2010;18(12):1531-1538. View abstract.

Lu, Z. L. [A double-blind clinical trial--the effects of pantethine on serum lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia]. Zhonghua Xin.Xue.Guan.Bing.Za Zhi. 1989;17(4):221-223. View abstract.

Maggi, G. C., Donati, C., and Criscuoli, G. Pantethine: physiological lipomodulating agent, in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. Current Therapeutic Research 1982;32(Sep):380-386.

Maioli M, Pacifico A Cherchi G. Effect of pantethine on the subfractions of HDL in dyslipidemic patients. Curr Ther Res 1984;35:307-311.

Maioli, M., Pacifico, A., and Cherchi, G. M. Effect of pantethine on the subfractions of HDL in dislipidemic patients. Current Therapeutic Research 1984;35(Feb):307-311.

McRae MP. Treatment of hyperlipoproteinemia with pantethine: A review and analysis of efficacy and tolerability. Nutrition Res 2005;25:319-333.

Miccoli R, Marchetti P Sampietro T Benzi L Tognarelli M Navalesi R. Effects of pantethine on lipids and apolipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Curr Ther Res 1984;36:545-549.

Min-Oo, G., Ayi, K., Bongfen, S. E., Tam, M., Radovanovic, I., Gauthier, S., Santiago, H., Rothfuchs, A. G., Roffe, E., Sher, A., Mullick, A., Fortin, A., Stevenson, M. M., Kain, K. C., and Gros, P. Cysteamine, the natural metabolite of pantetheinase, shows specific activity against Plasmodium. Exp.Parasitol. 2010;125(4):315-324. View abstract.

Murata, T., Oniki, H., Koga, Y., Tsugi, H., and Komori, T. [Study of enhancement of LCAT activity (author's transl)]. Igaku Kenkyu 1980;50(3):247-254. View abstract.

Nomura, H., Kimura, Y., Okamoto, O., and Shiraishi, G. Effects of antihyperlipidemic drugs and diet plus exercise therapy in the treatment of patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Clin.Ther. 1996;18(3):477-482. View abstract.

Osono, Y., Hirose, N., Nakajima, K., and Hata, Y. The effects of pantethine on fatty liver and fat distribution. J.Atheroscler.Thromb. 2000;7(1):55-58. View abstract.

Pellett, O. L., Smith, M. L., Thoene, J. G., Schneider, J. A., and Jonas, A. J. Renal cell culture using autopsy material from children with cystinosis. In Vitro 1984;20(1):53-58. View abstract.

Penet, M. F., Abou-Hamdan, M., Coltel, N., Cornille, E., Grau, G. E., de, Reggi M., and Gharib, B. Protection against cerebral malaria by the low-molecular-weight thiol pantethine. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 1-29-2008;105(4):1321-1326. View abstract.

Pocecco, M. Treatment of infantile nephropathic cystinosis with cysteamine: 2. New England Journal of Medicine 1986;314(May 15):1320.

Postiglione, A., Rubba, P., Cicerano, U., Chierchia, I., and Mancini, M. Pantethine versus fenofibrate in the treatment of type II hyperlipoproteinemia. Monogr Atheroscler. 1985;13:145-148. View abstract.

Rana, A., Seinen, E., Siudeja, K., Muntendam, R., Srinivasan, B., van der Want, J. J., Hayflick, S., Reijngoud, D. J., Kayser, O., and Sibon, O. C. Pantethine rescues a Drosophila model for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 4-13-2010;107(15):6988-6993. View abstract.

Randazzo, J., Zhang, P., Makita, J., Blessing, K., and Kador, P. F. Orally active multi-functional antioxidants delay cataract formation in streptozotocin (type 1) diabetic and gamma-irradiated rats. PLoS.One. 2011;6(4):e18980. View abstract.

Rubba, P., Postiglione, A., De Simone, B., Lamenza, F., and Mancini, M. Comparative evaluation of the lipid-lowering effects of fenofibrate and pantethine in type II hyperlipoproteinemia. Current Therapeutic Research 1985;38(May):719-727.

Rumberger, J. A., Napolitano, J., Azumano, I., Kamiya, T., and Evans, M. Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B(5) used as a nutritional supplement, favorably alters low-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in low- to moderate-cardiovascular risk North American subjects: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation. Nutr.Res. 2011;31(8):608-615. View abstract.

Seghieri, G., Maffucci, G., Toscano, G., Santoni, F., Tuci, S., and De Giorgio, L. A. [Effect of pantethine therapy in chronic uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia]. G.Clin.Med. 1985;66(5-6):187-192. View abstract.

Shigeta, Y. and Shichiri, M. Urinary excretion of pantothenic acid and pantethine in human subjects. J.Vitaminol.(Kyoto) 9-10-1966;12(3):186-191. View abstract.

Siudeja, K., Srinivasan, B., Xu, L., Rana, A., de, Jong J., Nollen, E. A., Jackowski, S., Sanford, L., Hayflick, S., and Sibon, O. C. Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration. EMBO Mol.Med. 2011;3(12):755-766. View abstract.

Tonutti, L., Taboga, C., and Noacco, C. [Comparison of the efficacy of pantethine, acipimox, and bezafibrate on plasma lipids and index of cardiovascular risk in diabetics with dyslipidemia]. Minerva Med. 1991;82(10):657-663. View abstract.

Vignola, D., Fanini, A., and Biffignandi, P. [Effects of D(+)-bis-(N-pantothenyl-amidoethyl)-disulphur on the blood lipid profile and apoproteins A and B levels]. Clin.Ter. 6-30-1985;113(6):479-483. View abstract.

Wittwer, C. T., Gahl, W. A., Butler, J. D., Zatz, M., and Thoene, J. G. Metabolism of pantethine in cystinosis. J.Clin.Invest 1985;76(4):1665-1672. View abstract.

Agrati AM, Ambrosi G, Ferraro G, Palmieri. Gemfibrozil efficacy vs pantethine in dyslipoproteinemic patients: a controlled study. Curr Ther Res 1989;45:650-63.

Angelica M, Pinto G, Ciaccheri C, et al. Improvement in serum lipid profile in hyperlipoproteinemia patients after treatment with pantethine: a cross-over double-blind trial versus placebo. Curr Ther Res 1983;33:1091-7.

Anonymous. Pantethine. Altern Med Rev 1998;3:379-81.

Arsenio L, Bodria P, Magnati G, et al. Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia. Clin Ther 1986;8:537-45.. View abstract.

Bon GB, Cazzolato G, Zago S, et al. Effects of pantethine on in-vitro peroxidation of low density lipoproteins. Atherosclerosis 1985;57:99-106.. View abstract.

Butler JD, Zatz M. Pantethine depletes cystinotic fibroblasts of cystine. J Pediatr 1983;102:796-8.

Carrara P, Matturri L, Galbussera M, et al. Pantethine reduces plasma cholesterol and the severity of arterial lesions in experimental hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Atherosclerosis 1984;53:255-64. View abstract.

Cighetti G, Del Puppo M, Paroni R, Galli Kienle M. Modulation of HMG-CoA reductase activity by pantetheine/pantethine. Biochim Biophys Acta 1988;963:389-93. View abstract.

Clark JI, Livesey JC, Steele JE. Delay or inhibition of rat lens opacification using pantethine and WR-77913. Exp Eye Res 1996;62:75-84. View abstract.

Congdon NT, West ST, Duncan DT, et al. The effect of pantethine and ultraviolet-B radiation on the development of lenticular opacity in the emory mouse. Curr Eye Res 2000;20:17-24. View abstract.

Coronel F, Tornero F, Torrente J, et al. Treatment of hyperlipemia in diabetic patients on dialysis with a physiological substance. Am J Nephrol 1991;11:32-6.. View abstract.

Da Col PG, Cattin L, Fonda M, et al. Pantethine in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized double-blind trial versus tiadenol. Curr Ther Res 1984;36:314-22.

Donati C, Barbi G, Cairo G, et al. Pantethine improves the lipid abnormalities of chronic hemodialysis patients: results of a multicenter clinical trial. Clin Nephrol 1986;25:70-4.. View abstract.

Gaddi A, Descovich GC, Noseda G, et al. Controlled evaluation of pantethine, a natural hypolipidemic compound, in patients with different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis 1984;50:73-83. View abstract.

Hiraoka T, Clark JI, LI XY, Thurston GM. Effect of selected anti-cataract agents on opacification in the selenite cataract model. Exp Eye Res 1996;62:11-9. View abstract.

Kelly GS. Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Altern Med Rev 1999;4:249-65.. View abstract.

Maggi GC, Donati C, Criscuoli G. Pantethine: a physiological lipomodulating agent in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. Curr Ther Res 1982;32:380-6.

McCarty MF. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by cystamine may mediate the hypotriglyceridemic activity of pantethine. Med Hypotheses 2001;56:314-7. View abstract.

Murai A, Miyahara T, Tanaka T, et al. The effects of pantethine on lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities in survivors of cerebral infarction. Artery 1985;12:234-43. View abstract.

Prisco D, Rogasi PG, Matucci M, et al. Effect of oral treatment with pantethine on platelet and plasma phospholipids in IIa hyperlipoproteinemia. Angiology 1987;38:241-7. View abstract.

Ranganathan S, Jackson RL, Harmony JA. Effect of pantethine on the biosynthesis of cholesterol in human skin fibroblasts. Atherosclerosis 1982;44:261-73.. View abstract.

Rubba P, Postaiglione B, De Simone F, et al. Comparative evaluation of the lipid-lowering effects of fenofibrate and pantethine in type II hyperlipoproteinemia. Curr Ther Res 1985;38:719-27.

Webster MJ. Physiological and performance responses to supplementation with thiamin and pantothenic acid derivatives. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998;77:486-91. View abstract.

Wittwer CT, Graves CP, Peterson MA, et al. Pantethine lipomodulation: evidence for cysteamine mediation in vitro and in vivo. Atherosclerosis 1987;68:41-9.. View abstract.