Painful intercourse is medically known as dyspareunia. It can occur in women due to the involuntary contraction of the vaginal muscles, a condition known as vaginismus. Painful intercourse can also occur as a symptom of genital infections, including the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Abnormalities or tumors of the female genital tract can sometimes cause bleeding or pain during intercourse for women. Some medications can result in insufficient lubrication and painful intercourse, and the lowered estrogen levels associated with perimenopause and menopause may lead to vaginal dryness and pain with intercourse.
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.
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