- Side Effects
- Drug Interactions
What is Oxycontin, and what is it used for?
OxyContin is a prescription opioid pain medication used to manage pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate in:
- Adults; and
- Opioid-tolerant pediatric patients 11 years of age and older who are already receiving and tolerate a minimum daily opioid dose of at least 20 mg oxycodone orally or its equivalent.
Oxycontin may be used alone or with other medications.
It is not known if Oxycontin is safe and effective in children younger than 18 years of age.
What are the side effects of Oxycontin?
ADDICTION, ABUSE AND MISUSE; RISK EVALUATION AND MITIGATION STRATEGY (REMS); LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; CYTOCHROME P450 3A4 INTERACTION; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS
OxyContin may cause serious side effects including:
- noisy breathing,
- shallow breathing,
- breathing that stops during sleep (sleep apnea),
- slow heart rate or weak pulse,
- light-headed feeling,
- unusual thoughts or behavior,
- loss of appetite,
- dizziness, and
- worsening tiredness or weakness,
Get medical help right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above.
The most common side effects of OxyContin include:
Tell the doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of Oxycontin. For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Is Oxycontin addictive?
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
OxyContin exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Each person should be assessed for risk prior to prescribing OxyContin and monitored regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions.
Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS):
To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a REMS for these products. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to
- complete a REMS-compliant education program,
- counsel patients and/or their caregivers, with every prescription, on safe use, serious risks, storage, and disposal of these products,
- emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide every time it is provided by their pharmacist, and
- consider other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety.
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
- Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of OxyContin.
- Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of OxyContin or following a dose increase. Instruct patients to swallow OxyContin tablets whole; crushing, chewing, or dissolving OxyContin tablets can cause rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of oxycodone.
- Accidental ingestion of even one dose of OxyContin, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of oxycodone.
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
- Prolonged use of OxyContin during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts.
- If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 Interaction
- The concomitant use of OxyContin with all cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors may result in an increase in oxycodone plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse drug effects and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.
- In addition, discontinuation of a concomitantly used cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer may result in an increase in oxycodone plasma concentration. Monitor patients receiving OxyContin and any CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer.
Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants
- Reserve concomitant prescribing of OxyContin and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
- Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.
- Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
What is the dosage for Oxycontin?
- Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses, and because of the greater risks of overdose and death with extended-release opioid formulations, reserve OxyContin for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options (e.g., non-opioid analgesics or immediate-release opioids) are ineffective, not tolerated, or would be otherwise inadequate to provide sufficient management of pain.
- OxyContin is not indicated as an as-needed (prn) analgesic.
- OxyContin should be prescribed only by healthcare professionals who are knowledgeable in the use of potent opioids for the management of chronic pain.
- OxyContin 60 mg and 80 mg tablets, a single dose greater than 40 mg, or a total daily dose greater than 80 mg are only for use in patients in whom tolerance to an opioid of comparable potency has been established. Adult patients who are opioid tolerant are those receiving, for one week or longer, at least 60 mg oral morphine per day, 25 mcg transdermal fentanyl per hour, 30 mg oral oxycodone per day, 8 mg oral hydromorphone per day, 25 mg oral oxymorphone per day, 60 mg oral hydrocodone per day, or an equianalgesic dose of another opioid.
- Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals.
- Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually; taking into account the patient's severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic treatment experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse.
- Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24-72 hours of initiating therapy and following dosage increases with OxyContin and adjust the dosage accordingly.
- Instruct patients to swallow OxyContin tablets whole, one tablet at a time, with enough water to ensure complete swallowing immediately after placing in the mouth. Instruct patients not to pre-soak, lick, or otherwise wet the tablet prior to placing in the mouth. Cutting, breaking, crushing, chewing, or dissolving OxyContin tablets will result in uncontrolled delivery of oxycodone and can lead to overdose or death.
- OxyContin is administered orally every 12 hours.
Initial Dosage In Adults Who Are Not Opioid-Tolerant
- The starting dosage for patients who are not opioid tolerant is OxyContin 10 mg orally every 12 hours.
- Use of higher starting doses in patients who are not opioid tolerant may cause fatal respiratory depression.
Conversion From Opioids To OxyContin In Adults
Conversion From Other Oral Oxycodone Formulations To OxyContin
- If switching from other oral oxycodone formulations to OxyContin, administer one half of the patient's total daily oral oxycodone dose as OxyContin every 12 hours.
Conversion From Other Opioids To OxyContin
- Discontinue all other around-the-clock opioid drugs when OxyContin therapy is initiated.
- There are no established conversion ratios for conversion from other opioids to OxyContin defined by clinical trials. Initiate dosing using OxyContin 10 mg orally every 12 hours.
- It is safer to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour oral oxycodone requirements and provide rescue medication (e.g., immediate-release opioid) than to overestimate the 24-hour oral oxycodone dosage and manage an adverse reaction due to an overdose. While useful tables of opioid equivalents are readily available, there is substantial inter-patient variability in the relative potency of different opioids.
- Close observation and frequent titration are warranted until pain management is stable on the new opioid. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal and for signs of oversedation/toxicity after converting patients to OxyContin.
Conversion From Methadone To OxyContin
- Close monitoring is of particular importance when converting from methadone to other opioid agonists. The ratio between methadone and other opioid agonists may vary widely as a function of previous dose exposure. Methadone has a long half-life and can accumulate in the plasma.
Conversion From Transdermal Fentanyl To OxyContin
- Treatment with OxyContin can be initiated after the transdermal fentanyl patch has been removed for at least 18 hours.
- Although there has been no systematic assessment of such conversion, start with a conservative conversion: substitute 10 mg of OxyContin every 12 hours for each 25 mcg per hour fentanyl transdermal patch.
- Follow the patient closely during conversion from transdermal fentanyl to OxyContin, as there is limited documented experience with this conversion.
Initial Dosage In Pediatric Patients 11 Years And Older
The following dosing information is for use only in pediatric patients 11 years and older already receiving and tolerating opioids for at least five consecutive days. For the two days immediately preceding dosing with OxyContin, patients must be taking a minimum of 20 mg per day of oxycodone or its equivalent. OxyContin is not appropriate for use in pediatric patients requiring less than a 20 mg total daily dose.
Table 1, based on clinical trial experience, displays the conversion factor when switching pediatric patients 11 years and older (under the conditions described above) from opioids to OxyContin.
Discontinue all other around-the-clock opioid drugs when OxyContin therapy is initiated.
There is substantial inter-patient variability in the relative potency of different opioid drugs and formulations. Therefore, a conservative approach is advised when determining the total daily dosage of OxyContin. It is safer to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour oral oxycodone requirements and provide rescue medication (e.g., immediate-release opioid) than to overestimate the 24-hour oral oxycodone requirements and manage an adverse reaction due to an overdose.
Consider the following when using the information in Table 1.
- This is not a table of equianalgesic doses.
- The conversion factors in this table are only for the conversion from one of the listed oral opioid analgesics to OxyContin.
- The table cannot be used to convert from OxyContin to another opioid. Doing so will result in an over-estimation of the dose of the new opioid and may result in fatal overdose.
- The formula for conversion from prior opioids, including oral oxycodone, to the daily dose of OxyContin is mg per day of prior opioid x factor = mg per day of OxyContin. Divide the calculated total daily dose by 2 to get the every-12-hour OxyContin dose. If rounding is necessary, always round the dose down to the nearest OxyContin tablet strength available.
Table 1: Conversion Factors When Switching Pediatric Patients 11 Years and Older to OxyContin
|Prior Opioid||Conversion Factor|
|*For patients receiving high-dose parenteral opioids, a more conservative conversion is warranted. For example, for high-dose parenteral morphine, use 1.5 instead of 3 as a multiplication factor.|
To calculate the estimated total OxyContin daily dosage using Table 1:
- For pediatric patients taking a single opioid, sum the current total daily dosage of the opioid and then multiply the total daily dosage by the approximate conversion factor to calculate the approximate OxyContin daily dosage.
- For pediatric patients on a regimen of more than one opioid, calculate the approximate oxycodone dose for each opioid and sum the totals to obtain the approximate OxyContin daily dosage.
- For pediatric patients on a regimen of fixed-ratio opioid/non-opioid analgesic products, use only the opioid component of these products in the conversion.
- If rounding is necessary, always round the dosage down to the nearest OxyContin tablet strength available and initiate OxyContin therapy with that dose. If the calculated OxyContin total daily dosage is less than 20 mg, there is no safe strength for conversion and do not initiate OxyContin.
- Example conversion from a single opioid (e.g., hydrocodone) to OxyContin: Using the conversion factor of 0.9 for oral hydrocodone in Table 1, a total daily hydrocodone dosage of 50 mg is converted to 45 mg of oxycodone per day or 22.5 mg of OxyContin every 12 hours. After rounding down to the nearest strength available, the recommended OxyContin starting dosage is 20 mg every 12 hours.
- Close observation and titration are warranted until pain management is stable on the new opioid. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal or for signs of oversedation/ toxicity after converting patients to OxyContin. [see Titration And Maintenance Of Therapy In Adults And Pediatric Patients 11 Years And Older] for important instructions on titration and maintenance of therapy.
- There is limited experience with conversion from transdermal fentanyl to OxyContin in pediatric patients 11 years and older. If switching from transdermal fentanyl patch to OxyContin, ensure that the patch has been removed for at least 18 hours prior to starting OxyContin.
- Although there has been no systematic assessment of such conversion, start with a conservative conversion: substitute 10 mg of OxyContin every 12 hours for each 25 mcg per hour fentanyl transdermal patch. Follow the patient closely during conversion from transdermal fentanyl to OxyContin.
- If using asymmetric dosing, instruct patients to take the higher dose in the morning and the lower dose in the evening.
Titration And Maintenance Of Therapy In Adults And Pediatric Patients 11 Years And Older
- Individually titrate OxyContin to a dosage that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving OxyContin to assess the maintenance of pain control, signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal, and adverse reactions, as well as monitoring for the development of addiction, abuse and misuse.
- Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration. During chronic therapy, periodically reassess the continued need for the use of opioid analgesics.
- Patients who experience breakthrough pain may require a dosage adjustment of OxyContin or may need rescue medication with an appropriate dose of an immediate-release analgesic. If the level of pain increases after dose stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the OxyContin dosage. Because steady-state plasma concentrations are approximated in 1 day, OxyContin dosage may be adjusted every 1 to 2 days.
- If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, consider reducing the dosage. Adjust the dosage to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioidrelated adverse reactions.
- There are no well-controlled clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy with dosing more frequently than every 12 hours. As a guideline for pediatric patients 11 years and older, the total aily oxycodone dosage usually can be increased by 25% of the current total daily dosage. As a guideline for adults, the total daily oxycodone dosage usually can be increased by 25% to 50% of the current total daily dosage, each time an increase is clinically indicated.
Dosage Modifications With Concomitant Use Of Central Nervous System Depressants
- If the patient is currently taking a central nervous system (CNS) depressant and the decision is made to begin OxyContin, start with one-third to one-half the recommended starting dosage of OxyContin, consider using a lower dosage of the concomitant CNS depressant, and monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension.
Dosage Modifications In Geriatric Patients Who Are Debilitated And Not Opioid- Tolerant
- For geriatric patients who are debilitated and not opioid tolerant, start dosing patients at one-third to one-half the recommended starting dosage and titrate the dosage cautiously.
Dosage Modifications In Patients With Hepatic Impairment
- For patients with hepatic impairment, start dosing patients at one-third to one-half the recommended starting dosage and titrate the dosage carefully. Monitor for signs of respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension.
Discontinuation Of OxyContin
- When the patient no longer requires therapy with OxyContin, taper the dosage gradually, by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days, while monitoring for signs and symptoms of withdrawal.
- If a patient develops these signs or symptoms, raise the dose to the previous level and taper more slowly, either by increasing the interval between decreases, decreasing the amount of change in dose, or both. Do not abruptly discontinue OxyContin.
Latest Medications News
Daily Health News
What drugs interact with Oxycontin?
Table 4 includes clinically significant drug interactions with OxyContin.
Table 4: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with
|Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of OxyContin and CYP3A4 inhibitors can
increase the plasma concentration of oxycodone, resulting in increased or
prolonged opioid effects. These effects could be more pronounced with
concomitant use of OxyContin and CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors, particularly
when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of OxyContin is achieved.
After stopping a CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will decrease, resulting in decreased opioid efficacy or a withdrawal syndrome in patients who had developed physical dependence to oxycodone.
|Intervention:||If concomitant use is necessary, consider dosage reduction of OxyContin
until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor patients for respiratory depression
and sedation at frequent intervals.
If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing the OxyContin dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal.
|Examples||Macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g. ketoconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir)|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of OxyContin and CYP3A4 inducers can decrease the
plasma concentration of oxycodone, resulting in decreased efficacy or onset
of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence
After stopping a CYP3A4 inducer, as the effects of the inducer decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will increase, which could increase or prolong both the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions, and may cause serious respiratory depression.
|Intervention:||If concomitant use is necessary, consider increasing the OxyContin dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. If a CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, consider OxyContin dosage reduction and monitor for signs of respiratory depression.|
|Examples:||Rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin|
|Benzodiazepines and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants|
|Clinical Impact:||Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.|
|Intervention:||Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation.|
|Examples:||Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol.|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.|
|Intervention:||If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue OxyContin if serotonin syndrome is suspected.|
|Examples:||Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).|
|Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)|
|Clinical Impact:||MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma).|
|Intervention:||The use of OxyContin is not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.|
|Examples:||phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid|
|Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics|
|Clinical Impact:||May reduce the analgesic effect of OxyContin and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.|
|Intervention:||Avoid concomitant use.|
|Examples:||butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine|
|Clinical Impact:||Oxycodone may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of OxyContin and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary.|
|Clinical Impact:||Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed.|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when OxyContin is used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.|
Oxycontin contraindications, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety
- Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. There are no available data with OxyContin in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage.
- Oxycodone is present in breast milk. Published lactation studies report variable concentrations of oxycodone in breast milk with administration of immediate-release oxycodone to nursing mothers in the early postpartum period.
- The lactation studies did not assess breastfed infants for potential adverse reactions. Lactation studies have not been conducted with extended–release oxycodone, including OxyContin, and no information is available on the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including excess sedation and respiratory depression in a breastfed infant, breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with OxyContin.
Subscribe to MedicineNet's General Health Newsletter
OxyContin is a prescription opioid pain medication used to manage pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term treatment. Serious side effects of OxyContin include noisy breathing, shallow breathing, breathing that stops during sleep (sleep apnea), slow heart rate or weak pulse, lightheadedness, confusion, unusual thoughts or behavior, seizure, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, dizziness, and worsening tiredness or weakness.
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
16 Surprising Headache Triggers and Tips for Pain Relief
Do you have frequent headaches? Learn the most common headache triggers for tension headaches, sinus headaches, cluster headaches...
Pain-Relief Tips for Bumps, Bruises, Sprains, and Strains in Pictures
View this First Aid slideshow on Care and Pain Relief. See how to get pain relief if you've bumped your head, sprained your...
Pain Management: Surprising Causes of Pain
What's causing your pain? Learn the common causes of lower back pain, as well as pain in the knee, stomach, kidney, shoulder,...
Common Causes of Foot Pain
Learn about common causes of foot pain such as bunions, corns, athlete's foot, plantar warts and more. Get the latest information...
Lower Back Pain: Symptoms, Stretches, Exercise for Pain Relief
Do you suffer from low back pain? Learn more about common triggers of lower back pain like posture, exercise, and spondylosis....
Back Pain: Common Spine Problems
That stack of little bones along the center of your back has a key role to support and control your body. What happens when...
Pain Management: Knee Pain Dos and Don'ts
Your knees go through a lot in the course of a day, and sometimes they can run into trouble. Here are a few things you can do...
Pain Management: 15 Easy Ways to Reduce Chronic Pain
Chronic pain can be a symptom of many conditions, including arthritis, headaches, and others. Comprehensive chronic pain...
Low Back Pain: 11 Stretches & Exercises for Relief
One of the best low back pain treatments is exercise. Whether your pain is in the lower left or lower right back, learn more...
Chronic Pain Syndrome: Treatment and Management for CPS
Do you suffer from excruciating pain? What is chronic pain syndrome (CPS)? See causes, symptoms and treatment options, including...
Weight Loss Surgery: What to Expect
Are you considering weight loss (bariatic) surgery? WebMD helps you know what makes you a good candidate and the pros and cons of...
Back Pain: 16 Back Pain Truths and Myths
Back pain conditions are very common. Learn the causes of upper and lower back pain. Find the truth and get the facts behind back...
Pain: Why Does My Head Ache?
Find out what's behind your headache, and get some strategies to bring you relief for your pain.
Back Pain: A Visual Guide to Herniated Disks
Have you felt pain shooting down your leg from your lower back or rear end? It may be that one of the disks that separate the...
Pain Management: Signs Your Muscle Pain Is Something Else
Could your achy muscles be a sign of more than a tough workout? Learn when a twinge might warrant a visit to the doctor's office.
Neck Pain: Causes of Stiffness, Muscle Spasms, Treatment, and Relief
What causes chronic neck pain? If you have poor posture, bad sleep habits, or spine problems, these issues can lead to a stiff...
Pain Management: One-Move Fixes for Pain and Stress
A quick stretch, yoga pose, or on-the-spot exercise can help fix sudden aches from head to toe. Learn how to quash pain with just...
Pain Management: All About CBD Oil
Cannabidiol oil: It's made from marijuana and everyone seems to be talking about it. But what is it, and what does it really do?
Pain Management: Why Does My Calf Muscle Hurt?
There's a group of muscles on the back of each lower leg that doctors call "calf muscles." They play a key role in helping you...
Weight Loss Surgery Quiz
What happens after weight loss surgery? What should you eat? Take this quiz to learn about bariatric surgery. Are you a candidate?
Pain Management: Visual Guide to Frozen Shoulder
It's got nothing to do with cold weather. It means your shoulder is jammed up. WebMD guides you through the causes of frozen...
Chest Pain Quiz
What causes chest pain? If you have chest pain, does it mean you're having a heart attack? Take the quiz to learn what diseases...
Back Pain Quiz: Test Your Back Pain IQ
There are numerous causes of chronic lower back pain and only one ailment gets more complaints. What is it? Quiz your knowledge...
Pain Quiz: Test Your IQ of Pain
Is pain all in the brain? Take the Pain Quiz to learn everything you've ever wanted to know about the unpleasant sensation we...
Leg Pain: Causes and Treatments for Aching Calf, Thighs, and Muscles
Leg, calf and thigh pain are symptoms of conditions that may involve the muscles, nerves, and more. Sensations like tingling,...
Fibromyalgia Relief: Treatments and Tips to Ease Pain and Other Symptoms
What is fibromyalgia? Learn about fibromyalgia symptoms such as trigger points (also called tender points), learn what causes...
Back Pain: How to Ease Sciatic Nerve Pain
Use WebMD's slideshow to learn ways to get relief from sciatica, such as applying heat or cold, physical therapy,...
Back Pain: Bad Habits for Your Back
You’re more likely to have back pain as you get older. Here’s how to avoid making things worse with bad habits.
Back Pain: Tips for Traveling When You Have Back Pain
Don't let back or other pain keep you from your travel adventures. Try these tips to minimize discomfort during your next flight...
Pain Management: All About Your Knees
They do their job so well that you might take them for granted. Learn how they're put together, what can go wrong with them, and...
Fibromyalgia Pain Relief: Stretching and Strength Exercises
Living with fibromyalgia is painful. By making simple exercise modifications, you can boost your energy, decrease pain and...
Knee Pain: 8 Exercises to Help Your Knees
Getting over a knee injury? WebMD shows you moves that can help make you stronger, so you're less likely to get re-injured.
Pain Management: Ergonomic Tips for a Home Office
Are you working at home? Find out how to set up a workspace to prevent stiffness, protect your muscles and joints, and avoid...
Related Disease Conditions
What Is the Recommended Pain Reliever for COVID-19?
Acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve) can all be used for pain relief from COVID-19 body aches if they are taken in the recommended doses.
Why Do I Have Stomach Pain at Night?
Stomach pains are a common human ailment, but stomach pains that wake you up at night should be taken seriously. Learn about stomach pains, their causes, and how to treat them. An upset stomach is most likely to get better with simple home remedies, such as drinking the following herbal beverages.
Chest pain is a common complaint by a patient in the ER. Causes of chest pain include broken or bruised ribs, pleurisy, pneumothorax, shingles, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, angina, heart attack, costochondritis, pericarditis, aorta or aortic dissection, and reflux esophagitis. Diagnosis and treatment of chest pain depends upon the cause and clinical presentation of the patient's chest pain.
Lower Back Pain (Lumbar Spine Pain)
There are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis, and abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area.
7 Reasons You Are Tired After Surgery
Postsurgical fatigue is normal and is due to a variety of factors. Depression, stress, and anxiety may produce fatigue. Sleep deficits, certain medications, anemia, blood loss, fasting, and loss of electrolytes and minerals associated with surgery can also produce fatigue. Exercise, physical exertion, aging, and the overall health status of patients are additional factors that play a role in making people feel tired after surgery.
How Do You Relieve Upper Stomach Pain?
What causes upper stomach pain? Learn what can cause upper stomach pain and what remedies can help relieve symptoms.
Tailbone Pain (Coccydynia)
Coccydynia is an inflammation of the bony area (tailbone or coccyx) located between the buttocks. Coccydynia is associated with pain and tenderness at the tip of the tailbone between the buttocks. Pain is often worsened by sitting. There are many causes of tailbone pain that can mimic coccydynia including fracture, pilonidal cysts, infection, and sciatica. Treatment methods include medication and rest.
Shoulder and Neck Pain
Shoulder and neck pain may be caused by bursitis, a pinched nerve, whiplash, tendinitis, a herniated disc, or a rotator cuff injury. Symptoms also include weakness, numbness, coolness, color changes, swelling, and deformity. Treatment at home may incorporate resting, icing, and elevating the injury. A doctor may prescribe pain medications and immobilize the injury.
Foot pain may be caused by injuries (sprains, strains, bruises, and fractures), diseases (diabetes, Hansen disease, and gout), viruses, fungi, and bacteria (plantar warts and athlete's foot), or even ingrown toenails. Pain and tenderness may be accompanied by joint looseness, swelling, weakness, discoloration, and loss of function. Minor foot pain can usually be treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation and OTC medications such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Severe pain should be treated by a medical professional.
Pain Management and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Second Source article from WebMD
Pain management and treatment can be simple or complex, according to its cause. There are two basic types of pain, nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain. Some causes of neuropathic pain include: complex regional pain syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and irritable bowel syndrome. There are a variety of methods to treat chronic pain, which are dependant on the type of pain experienced.
Neck Pain (Cervical Pain)
Neck pain (cervical pain, cervicalgia) may be caused by any number of disorders and diseases. Tenderness is another symptom of neck pain. Though treatment for neck pain really depends upon the cause, treatment typically may involve heat/ice application, traction, physical therapy, cortisone injection, topical anesthetic creams, and muscle relaxants.
Ankle Pain (Tendonitis)
Ankle pain is commonly due to a sprain or tendinitis. The severity of ankle sprains ranges from mild (which can resolve within 24 hours) to severe (which can require surgical repair). Tendinitis of the ankle can be caused by trauma or inflammation.
Neck Pain and Dizziness
Neck pain is any degree of discomfort in the front or back of the neck between the head and the shoulders. Dizziness is characterized as either vertigo with disequilibrium or lightheadedness associated with feeling faint or the potential to lose consciousness. Causes of neck pain and dizziness vary, and treatment depends on the cause. With any unexplained or persisting neck pain or dizziness, consult with a health care professional, who can determine whether the symptoms are harmless and temporary or serious and threatening.
What Foods Cause Joint Pain?
With arthritis, the constant pain and stiffness often lead the body to be in a state of stress or "inflammation." Foods that cause joint pain include heavily processed foods, red meat, foods high in sugar, fried foods, alcohol and foods rich in MSG, refined carbohydrates, gluten and purines.
Arthritis, bursitis, IT band syndrome, fracture, and strain are just some of the causes of hip pain. Associated symptoms and signs include swelling, tenderness, difficulty sleeping on the hip, and loss of range of motion of the hip. Treatment depends upon the cause of the hip pain but may include anti-inflammatory medications and icing and resting the hip joint.
What Causes Sciatica Nerve Pain to Flare Up?
Sciatica nerve pain results from pressure on the sciatic nerve that runs from the lower back to the feet. Find out more about the causes and symptoms of sciatica nerve pain.
What Is More Painful C-section or Natural Birth?
Ultimately, a natural birth may be more painful than a cesarean section. However, the pain after your cesarean section combined with the heightened risks to you and your baby may outweigh the initial pain of childbirth.
33 Causes of Chest Pain: Signs and Symptoms
Chest pain may be caused by many conditions. Learn when chest discomfort, pressure, and tightness is a medical emergency. Find out the most likely causes of left-sided chest pain and chest pain when breathing. Read about potential underlying causes of chest pain including muscle pain, coronary artery disease, coronary artery dissection, esophageal conditions, gallbladder problems, GERD, heart attack, lung problems, and more. Discover how chest pain in women differs from that in men.
Elbow pain is most often the result of tendinitis, which can affect the inner or outer elbow. Treatment includes ice, rest, and medication for inflammation. Inflammation, redness, warmth, swelling, tenderness, and decreased range of motion are other symptoms associated with elbow pain. Treatment for elbow pain depends upon the nature of the patient's underlying disease or condition.
Do C-section Scars Go Away?
C-section scars do not go away completely. They can fade on their own with time or with treatments, but a visible line is often left. You can use nonsurgical and surgical methods to reduce the appearance of scars.
Can You Have a Hysterectomy With C-Section?
Hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) may be performed during Cesarean delivery and is referred to as a Cesarean hysterectomy. It involves the removal of the uterus at the time of Cesarean delivery.
Is a Mastectomy Major Surgery?
Mastectomy is a surgical procedure that involves either partial or total removal of breast tissue to treat or prevent breast cancer and reduce the chances of developing breast cancer. Breast reconstruction may be done along with this surgery.
Chronic pain is pain (an unpleasant sense of discomfort) that persists or progresses over a long period of time. In contrast to acute pain that arises suddenly in response to a specific injury and is usually treatable, chronic pain persists over time and is often resistant to medical treatments.
How Can I Get My C-Section to Heal Faster?
Cesarean delivery is the surgical delivery of a baby by cutting open the belly and womb. It is a major abdominal surgery performed in situations where a normal vaginal delivery can be dangerous to the health of the mother or baby. The cesarean delivery scar is about a 2- to 3-inch scar over your bikini line.
Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that leads to ongoing pain symptoms. Patients can be predisposed to developing neuropathic pain who have conditions such as diabetes, cancer, stroke, HIV, vitamin deficiencies, shingles, and multiple sclerosis. Patient history and nerve testing are used to diagnose neuropathic pain. Antidepressants, antiseizure medications, and other types of medications are used to treat neuropathic pain. Many people with neuropathic pain are able to attain some level of relief.
Which Exercises to Avoid With Lower Back Pain?
Doctors recommend strengthening exercises to help relieve low back pain, however, here are eight workouts to avoid potentially worsening your chronic pain.
What Is the Home Remedy for Knee Pain? 10 Effective Measures
Knee pain can be a recent malady—due to an injury or may be occurring for several years due to a joint condition such as osteoarthritis. Whatever be the reason, some home remedies will often work for both types of knee pain.
Which Cancer Is the Most Painful?
Cancer spreading to the bone is the most painful type of cancer. Pain can be caused by a tumor pressing on the nerves around the bone. As the tumor size increases, it can release chemicals that irritate the area around the tumor.
What Is the Fastest Way To Cure Heel Pain?
Learn what medical treatments can help ease your heel pain symptoms and help you manage this condition.
How Painful Is UPPP Surgery?
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is currently the most common surgery performed for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or snoring in the United States. It is performed only if weight loss, nasal medications, and nasal dilators do not help reduce snoring.
What Are the Best Exercises for Sciatica Pain Relief?
What is sciatica? Learn what exercises and home remedies can help ease your sciatica symptoms and speed up your recovery.
Pain Relief Options for Childbirth
Women experience and tolerate pain differently. For some pregnant women, focused breathing is all they need to get through labor and childbirth; but for others, numbing of the pain is desired. There are a number of different medications a woman can take during labor and childbirth. It is important for you to learn what pain relief options are available. Please discuss the options with your health care professional well before your "birth day" so that when you are in labor you understand the choices.
Pain Management: Musculoskeletal Pain
Natural menopause is the permanent ending of menstruation that is not brought on by any type of medical treatment. For women undergoing natural menopause, the process is described in three stages: perimenopause, menopause, and postmenopause. However, not all women undergo natural menopause. Some women experience induced menopause as a result of surgery or medical treatments, such as chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy.
What Is the Best Exercise for Lower Back Pain?
Lower back pain is a common health problem that can benefit from daily stretching. Here are the seven best exercises for low back pain.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain condition in which high levels of nerve impulses are sent to an affected site is called complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). CRPS is most common in people aged 20-35. The syndrome also can occur in children; it affect women more often than men.
Are C-Sections Really That Bad?
In most births, the baby exits the uterus through the birth canal after a period of labor. C-sections are more complex than vaginal births because they are a form of surgery.
Where Is Hip Flexor Pain Felt?
Hip flexor pain is usually felt in the groin region. The groin region is where the thigh meets the pelvis. The hip flexors are some of the strongest muscles of the body. They are the ones who allow you to lift your knees toward your chest.
What Is Middle Back Pain a Symptom Of?
Middle back pain is a common complaint in middle-aged individuals who sit for long hours at work. It is felt between the shoulder blades. The problem may be simply poor posture or something more serious.
How Do I Know If My Knee Pain Is Serious?
Some knee pain may subside with adequate rest and other physical therapies, which can be done at home; however, knee pain that doesn’t dissolve easily with rest should be considered serious and requires medical attention. Knee pain is the most common complaint of the musculoskeletal system.
Cancer pain results from the tumor pressing on nerves or invading bones or organs. Cancer treatments like chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery can also cause pain. Over-the-counter pain relievers, prescription medications, radiation, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques are just some treatments for cancer pain.
What Could Be the Cause of Upper Back Pain?
There are many potential upper back pain causes. Learn about upper back pain, why upper back pain happens, and how upper back pain is treated.
How Can I Relieve Back Pain at Home?
You can relieve back pain at home with these tips for both short-term and long-term relief.
What Happens During a C-Section?
A C-section or Cesarean section is a surgery in which a baby can be delivered through the abdomen and uterus.
Does Cancer in the Liver Cause Pain?
In some, liver cancer may cause pain, particularly in the upper right area of the abdomen. Often people with liver cancer may experience pain accompanied by swelling or the formation of hard lumps felt in the right side of the abdomen.
What Are the Best Stretches for Lower Back Pain?
Lower back pain is one of the common types of complaints by the general population. It may happen due to poor posture, injury, stress, or poor sleeping facilities.
How Long Is Recovery After C-Section?
Cesarean deliveries make up for an estimated 31.9 percent of all deliveries in the United States. Recovery after cesarean delivery can take as long as one and a half months.
What are the Best Stretches for Back Pain Relief at Home?
Learn what stretches can help you deal with back pain and manage this condition at home.
What Surgery Can I Have To Stop Snoring?
We all snore occasionally. Around 44% of males and 28% of females aged between 30 and 60 years are habitual snorers.
Pain Management: Neuropathic Pain
Neuropathic pain is chronic pain resulting from injury to the nervous system. The injury can be to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) or the peripheral nervous system (nerves outside the brain and spinal cord).
What Is the Best Exercise for Back Pain?
We are often a bit negligent toward our back while doing chores or physical exercise. While the causes for back pain may vary, regular exercise and maintaining a healthy weight are crucial for keeping the back healthy.
What Are the Best Exercises for Back Pain?
When you are experiencing back pain, you may want to rest, but being active is good for the back. Exercising can strengthen the muscles of the back and those that support posture, as well as improve overall body health. Strengthening the muscles provides support to the spine and slowly reduces back pain.
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Do They Take Out Your Organs During C-Section?
- C-Section (Cesarean Birth)
- How Dangerous Is Bariatric Surgery?
- Fundoplication (Acid Reflux Surgery)
- Plastic Surgery (Cosmetic Surgery)
- Can Crohn's Disease Be Cured With Surgery?
- Gastric Bypass Surgery
- Purpose of Brazilian Butt Lift (BBL) Surgery
- What Are the Risks of Natural Birth After C-Section?
- Muscle Pain (Myalgia)
- Lower Back Pain
- Chronic Pain
- Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
- Neuropathic Pain
- Chronic Pain: Implantable Pain Control Devices
- Mind-Body-Pain Connection: How Does It Work?
- Acupuncture: Targeting Chronic Pain
- Chronic Pain Treatments for Mind and Body
- Chronic Pain: Dealing With Back and Neck Pain
- Pain Management
- Plastic Surgery -- What Can It Do for You?
- Pain Management: Dealing with Back Pain
- Chronic Pain and Fatigue - What You Can Do
- Meditation for Stress and Pain with Karen Eastman, Ph.D., Lobsang Rapgay, Ph.D., and Lonnie Zeltz
- Plastic Surgery Choices
- Pain Management: Painkiller Addiction
- Pain: Managing the Pains and Aches of Office Life
- Bariatric Surgery -- Is It Right for You?
- Pain Awareness and Management
- Plastic Surgery with Michael Powell, MD
- Pain Management: Routes to Relief
- Back Pain FAQs
- Pain FAQs
- Chest Pain FAQs
- Weight Loss Surgery FAQs
- Pain Management: OTC NSAIDs - Doctors Dialogue
- Pain Management Over-The-Counter
- Myositis Muscle (Pain and Inflammation) Serious Drug Interactions
- Pain (Acute and Chronic)
- Painful Periods Related to Stress
- Pain and Stress: Endorphins: Natural Pain and Stress Fighters
- Doctors Answer Pain Questions
- What Pain Medication Can I Take While on Warfarin?
- Can Lupus Cause Hip Pain?
- Can Lower Back Problems Cause Foot Pain?
- Can Long-Term Driving Cause Sciatic Nerve Leg Pain (Sciatica)?
- Does Aspirin Make Ulcers Worse?
- Do I need Rehab to Quit Oxycontin for Chronic Pain?
- Does Pain Medication Affect Men and Women Differently?
- Do Some People Have Higher Pain Tolerance?
- What Is Breakthrough Pain?
- Can You Use Methadone for Back Pain?
- 8 Tips to Pick the Right Plastic Surgeon
- Pain Relievers and High Blood Pressure
Medications & Supplements
Pain Management Resources
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.