Osteopenia: Symptoms & Signs

Medically Reviewed on 12/22/2022

Osteopenia is a bone condition characterized by a decreased density of bone, but the density is not decreased enough to warrant a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteopenia leads to bone weakening and an increased risk of breaking a bone (fracture). Osteopenia represents a lesser degree of bone loss than osteoporosis. When there are other risk factors present (like corticosteroid medication use, smoking, or other bone conditions) that also increase the risk of bone fractures, medications may be required.

Osteopenia causes and risk factors

Osteopenia can be related to a genetic predisposition to early bone loss. It can also occur due to hormonal factors, such as decreased estrogen levels after menopause, immobility, certain medications, smoking, excess alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions including rheumatoid arthritis and celiac disease. Osteopenia does not cause pain or other symptoms unless a bone is broken.

Other causes of osteopenia

  • Certain Gastrointestinal Surgeries
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Excess Alcohol Consumption
  • Gastric Bypass Surgery
  • Heredity
  • Hormonal Changes
  • Long-Term Corticosteroid Use
  • Low Calcium Intake
  • Malabsorption
  • Malnutrition
  • Medications
  • Radiation Exposure
  • Thin Frame


Osteoporosis Super-Foods for Strong Bones With Pictures See Slideshow

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Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.