- A Visual Guide to Migraine Headaches Slideshow
- Headache and Migraine Triggers Slideshow
- Take the Migraines Quiz
What are NSAIDs and how do they work?
Prostaglandins are a family of chemicals that are produced by the cells of the body and have several important functions. They promote inflammation that is necessary for healing, but also results in pain, and fever; support the blood clotting function of platelets; and protect the lining of the stomach from the damaging effects of acid.
Prostaglandins are produced within the body's cells by the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). There are two COX enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2. Both enzymes produce prostaglandins that promote inflammation, pain, and fever. However, only COX-1 produces prostaglandins that support platelets and protect the stomach. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) block the COX enzymes and reduce prostaglandins throughout the body. As a consequence, ongoing inflammation, pain, and fever are reduced. Since the prostaglandins that protect the stomach and support platelets and blood clotting also are reduced, NSAIDs can cause ulcers in the stomach and promote bleeding.
What NSAIDs are approved in the United States?
The following list is an example of NSAIDs available:
- celecoxib (Celebrex)
- diclofenac (Cambia, Cataflam, Voltaren-XR, Zipsor, Zorvolex)
- diflunisal (Dolobid - discontinued brand)
- etodolac (Lodine - discontinued brand)
- ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil)
- indomethacin (Indocin)
- ketoprofen (Active-Ketoprofen [Orudis - discontinued brand])
- ketorolac (Toradol - discontinued brand)
- nabumetone (Relafen - discontinued brand)
- naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn)
- oxaprozin (Daypro)
- piroxicam (Feldene)
- salsalate (Disalsate [Amigesic - discontinued brand])
- sulindac (Clinoril - discontinued brand)
- tolmetin (Tolectin - discontinued brand)
What are the side effects of NSAIDs?
NSAIDs are associated with several side effects. The frequency of side effects varies among NSAIDs.
Common side effects are
Other important side effects are:
- kidney failure (primarily with chronic use),
- liver failure,
- ulcers, and
- prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
NSAIDs can cause fluid retention which can lead to edema, which is most commonly manifested by swelling of the ankles.
WARNING: Some individuals are allergic to NSAIDs and may develop shortness of breath when an NSAID is taken. People with asthma are at a higher risk for experiencing serious allergic reaction to NSAIDs. Individuals with a serious allergy to one NSAID are likely to experience a similar reaction to a different NSAID.
Use of aspirin in children and teenagers with chickenpox or influenza has been associated with the development of Reye's syndrome, a serious and sometimes fatal liver disease. Therefore, aspirin and non-aspirin salicylates (for example, salsalate [Amigesic]) should not be used in children and teenagers with suspected or confirmed chickenpox or influenza.
NSAIDs increase the risk of potentially fatal, stomach and intestinal adverse reactions (for example, bleeding, ulcers, and perforation of the stomach or intestines). These events can occur at any time during treatment and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for these adverse events. NSAIDs (except low dose aspirin) may increase the risk of potentially fatal heart attacks, stroke, and related conditions. This risk may increase with duration of use and in patients who have underlying risk factors for heart and blood vessel disease. Therefore, NSAIDs should not be used for the treatment of pain resulting from coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
For what conditions are NSAIDs used?
NSAIDs are used primarily to treat inflammation, mild to moderate pain, and fever.
Specific uses include the treatment of:
Ketorolac (Toradol) is only used for short-term treatment of moderately severe acute pain that otherwise would be treated with narcotics.
Aspirin (also an NSAID) is used to inhibit the clotting of blood and prevent strokes and heart attacks in individuals at high risk for strokes and heart attacks.
NSAIDs also are included in many cold and allergy preparations.
Celecoxib (Celebrex) is used for treating familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) to prevent the formation and growth of colon polyps.
Are there any differences between NSAIDs?
NSAIDs vary in their potency, duration of action, how they are eliminated from the body, how strongly they inhibit COX-1 versus COX-2 and their tendency to cause ulcers and promote bleeding. The more an NSAID blocks COX-1, the greater is its tendency to cause ulcers and promote bleeding. One NSAID, celecoxib (Celebrex), blocks COX-2 but has little effect on COX-1, and is therefore further classified as a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Selective COX-2 inhibitors cause less bleeding and fewer ulcers than other NSAIDs.
Aspirin is a unique NSAID, not only because of its many uses, but because it is the only NSAID that inhibits the clotting of blood for a prolonged period of time (4 to 7 days). This prolonged effect of aspirin makes it an ideal drug for preventing blood clots that cause heart attacks and strokes.
Most NSAIDs inhibit the clotting of blood for only a few hours. Ketorolac (Toradol) is a very potent NSAID and is used for moderately severe acute pain that usually requires narcotics. Ketorolac causes ulcers more frequently than other NSAID. Therefore, it is not used for more than five days. Although NSAIDs have a similar mechanism of action, individuals who do not respond to one NSAID may respond to another.
With which drugs do NSAIDs interact?
NSAIDs reduce blood flow to the kidneys and therefore reduce the action of diuretics ("water pills") and decrease the elimination of lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid) and methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall). As a result, the blood levels of these drugs may increase as may their side effects.
NSAIDs also decrease the ability of the blood to clot and therefore increase bleeding. When used with other drugs that also increase bleeding (for example, warfarin [Coumadin]), there is an increased likelihood of serious bleeding or complications of bleeding. Therefore, individuals who are taking drugs that reduce the ability of blood to clot should avoid prolonged use of NSAIDs.
NSAIDs increase the negative effect of cyclosporine on kidney function.
Persons who have more than three alcoholic beverages per day may be at increased risk of developing stomach ulcers when taking NSAIDs.
Quick GuideMigraine or Headache? Migraine Symptoms, Triggers, Treatment
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of drugs are used to treat inflammation, mild to moderate pain, and fever. Examples of the most common NSAIDs include: aspirin salsalate (Amigesic), diflunisal (Dolobid), ibuprofen (Motrin), ketoprofen (Orudis), nabumetone (Relafen), piroxicam (Feldene), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn,) diclofenac (Voltaren), indomethacin (Indocin), sulindac (Clinoril), tolmetin (Tolectin), etodolac (Lodine), ketorolac (Toradol), oxaprozin (Daypro), celecoxib (Celebrex).
Multimedia: Slideshows, Images & Quizzes
Ankylosing Spondylitis Quiz: Symptoms & Treatment
What is ankylosing spondylitis? Take this quiz to learn the causes, symptoms, and treatments for this painful disorder....
Back Pain Quiz: Test Your Back Pain IQ
There are numerous causes of chronic lower back pain and only one ailment gets more complaints. What is it? Quiz your knowledge...
Headaches Quiz: Learn About Headache Pain
If you're plagued with headaches, our Headaches Quiz may help you identify causes, triggers, symptoms, and treatments for...
Pain Quiz: Test Your IQ of Pain
Is pain all in the brain? Take the Pain Quiz to learn everything you've ever wanted to know about the unpleasant sensation we...
Picture of Gout
Condition characterized by abnormally elevated levels of uric acid in the blood, recurring attacks of joint inflammation...
Gout Attack Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Diet
Gout attacks (gouty arthritis) are caused by crystals of uric acid deposits. Learn about symptoms, causes, treatments and...
12 Surprising Headache Triggers Tips
Painful headaches can ruin your productivity and quality of life. But what triggers headaches and migraines? Learn some...
Nerve Pain: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment Options
Learn about nerve pain symptoms, causes, and treatment options. Discover medications, treatments, and natural remedies that can...
Sciatica Symptoms, Causes, Treatments
Sciatica pain radiates from the lower back toward the feet. Sciatica may feel like a cramp in the leg, burning, tingling, pins...
Psoriatic Arthritis Symptoms, Treatment, Images
What is psoriatic arthritis? Psoriatic arthritis is an arthritis type that comes with psoriasis (skin inflammation). Psoriatic...
Chronic Pain Syndrome: Treatment and Management for CPS
What is chronic pain syndrome (CPS)? See causes, symptoms and treatment options including medications. Learn about pain...
Pain-Relief Tips for Bumps, Bruises, Sprains, and Strains in Pictures
View this First Aid slideshow on Care and Pain Relief. See how to get pain relief if you've bumped your head, sprained your...
How Does Acupuncture Work? Benefits, Needles, Definition
What is acupuncture? How does acupuncture work? Does acupuncture hurt? Learn various acupuncture points, the definition of...
Ankylosing Spondylitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
What is Ankylosing spondylitis (AS)? Ankylosing spondylitis is arthritis of the spine. It causes symptoms like stiffness and...
Related Disease Conditions
Ankle pain is commonly due to a sprain or tendinitis. The severity of ankle sprains ranges from mild (which can resolve within...
Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of arthritis that causes chronic inflammation of the spine. The tendency to develop ankylosing...
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis or JRA) annually affects one child in every thousand. There are six...
Bone cancer is a rare type of cancer that occurs in cells that make up the bones. Primary bone cancer that arises in bone cells...
A bruise, or contusion, is caused when blood vessels are damaged or broken as the result of a blow to the skin. The raised area...
Bursitis of the knee results when any of the three fluid-filled sacs (bursae) become inflamed due to injury or strain. Symptoms...
Shoulder bursitis is inflammation of the shoulder bursa. Bursitis may be caused by injury, infection, or a rheumatic condition....
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH or Forestier's disease) is a form of degenerative arthritis. It is characterized...
Elbow pain is most often the result of tendinitis, which can affect the inner or outer elbow. Treatment includes ice, rest, and...
Endometriosis (Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, and Prognosis)
Endometriosis implants are most commonly found on the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, outer surfaces of the uterus or intestines,...
Eosinophilic Fasciitis (Shulman's Syndrome)
Eosinophilic fasciitis is a skin disease that causes thickening and inflammation of the skin and fascia. Symptoms include...
Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice, a person is usually not...
A heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart...
Acute injuries, medical conditions, and chronic use conditions are causes of knee pain. Symptoms and signs that accompany knee...
Migraine headache is a type of headache associated with a sensitivity to light, smells, or sounds, eye pain, severe pounding on...
Miscarriage is the medical term for the spontaneous loss of pregnancy from conception to 20 weeks gestation. Risk factors for a...
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Ulcers
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prescribed medications for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Examples of...
Paget's disease is a chronic bone disorder due to irregular breakdown and formation of bone tissue. Symptoms of Paget's disease...
Pericarditis (Symptoms, ECG, Types, Causes, Treatment)
Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardial sac that surrounds the heart. The causes of pericarditis include injury from...
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a disorder of the muscles and joints that causes pain and stiffness in the arms, neck, shoulders,...
Pseudogout, a form of arthritis, results when deposits of crystals collect in and around the joints. Symptoms of pseudogout...
Psoriatic arthritis is a disease that causes skin and joint inflammation. Symptoms include painful, stiff, and swollen joints,...
Reactive arthritis is a chronic, systemic rheumatic disease characterized by three conditions, including conjunctivitis, joint...
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints,...
Sore throat (throat pain) usually is described as pain or discomfort in the throat area. A sore throat may be caused...
Stroke (Signs, Symptoms, Warning Signs)
A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding...
Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of body tissues caused by autoimmune disease....
A toothache is a pain on or around a tooth. It may be caused by a variety of things from a cavity, abscess, or even sinusitis....
Hives (Urticaria & Angioedema)
Hives, also called urticaria, is a raised, itchy area of skin that is usually a sign of an allergic reaction. The allergy may be...
Still's disease (systemic-onset juvenile rheumatoid arthritis) is a disorder characterized by inflammation with high fever...
Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic Colitis and Collagenous Colitis)
Microscopic colitis (lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis) is a disease of inflammation of the colon. Microscopic colitis...
Hyperkalemia (High Blood Potassium) Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
Hyperkalemia is an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood. Hyperkalemia symptoms include nausea, fatigue, tingling...
SAPHO syndrome is a chronic disorder that involves the skin, bone, and joints. SAPHO syndrome is an eponym for the combination of...
Osgood-Schlatter disease, a painful inflammation just below the knee but above the shin, typically affects adolescent boys....
Shin splints result from inflammation from injury to the tendon and adjacent tissues in the front of the outer leg. Shin splints...
Neck Pain (Cervical Pain)
Neck pain (cervical pain) may be caused by any number of disorders and diseases. Tenderness is another symptom of neck pain....
Barrett's esophagus occurs as a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), primarily in white males. GERD...
Dengue fever is contracted from the bite of a striped Aedes aegypti mosquito. Symptoms and signs of dengue include headache,...
Hamstring injuries may range from minor strains to major ruptures. A hamstring injury causes spasm, tightness, and tenderness....
Degenerative Disc Disease & Sciatica
Degenerative disc disease makes the disc more susceptible to herniation (rupture) which can lead to localized or radiating pain....
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, warmth, swelling, redness...
Relapsing polychondritis is an uncommon, chronic disorder of the cartilage that is characterized by recurrent episodes of...
Menstrual cramps (pain in the belly and pelvic area) are experienced by women as a result of menses. Menstrual cramps are not the...
Heat-related illness include heat rash, cramps, exhaustion, stroke, and sunburn. Treatment of heat related illnesses depend on...
Heat exhaustion is a milder form of heat-related illness that can develop after several days of exposure to high temperatures and...
Indigestion (Dyspepsia, Upset Stomach Pain) Symptoms, Relief Remedies, Medicine
Indigestion (dyspepsia) can be caused by diseases or conditions that involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and also by some...
Menstrual Cramps and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Medication Guide
Menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms include abdominal cramping, bloating, a feeling of fullness, abdominal...
Cold, Flu, Allergy Treatments
Before treating a cold, the flu, or allergies with over-the-counter (OTC) medications, it's important to know what's causing the...
A bursa is a fluid-filled sac found in the joints that cushions them. Bursitis is an inflammation of the bursae, most commonly...
Eye allergy (or allergic eye disease) are typically associated with hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Medications and cosmetics...
Fibrocystic Breast Condition (Changes)
Fibrocystic breast condition (sometimes called fibrocystic breast disease) is characterized by lumpiness and usually pain,...
Chronic pain is pain (an unpleasant sense of discomfort) that persists or progresses over a long period of time. In contrast to...
Headaches can be divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches,...
First aid is a complicated subject and it is situation-specific. First aid is defined as the help and medical assistance someone...
Sprains and Strains
An injury to a ligament is called a sprain, and an injury to muscle or tendon is called a strain. Sprains and strains may be...
Pain Management: Musculoskeletal Pain
Natural menopause is the permanent ending of menstruation that is not brought on by any type of medical treatment. For women...
Tension Headache (Symptoms, Relief, Causes, Treatment)
A tension headache s one of the most common types of headaches, and the exact cause is not known. Factors that may contribute to...
Myofascial Pain Syndrome
Myofascial pain syndrome is muscle pain in the body's soft tissues due to injury or strain. Symptoms include muscle pain with...
Cluster headaches are a type of headache that recurs over a period. Episodes can last one to three times a day during this time,...
Headaches in Children
Kids get headaches and migraines too. Many adults with headaches started having them as kids, in fact, 20% of adult headache...
Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)
Dry mouth is a common side effect of many prescription and non-prescription drugs and certain medical conditions. Symptoms of dry...
Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)
Tennis elbow is also known as lateral epicondylitis. Symptoms of tennis elbow include tenderness and dull pain of the outer...
Impingement syndrome is a condition that affects the shoulder. Symptoms include pain with overhead use of the arm, difficulty...
Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammation of the esophagus. Eosinophilic esophagitis has many causes including acid reflux,...
Pain management and treatment can be simple or complex, according to its cause. There are two basic types of pain, nociceptive...
Heart Attack Treatment
A heart attack involves damage or death of part of the heart muscle due to a blood clot. The aim of heart attack treatment is to...
Foot pain may be caused by injuries (sprains, strains, bruises, and fractures), diseases (diabetes, Hansen disease, and gout),...
A dry socket is a potential complication that can occur when a blood clot in the gums becomes dislodged after a tooth extraction....
Sunburn (Sun Poisoning) Symptoms, Pain Relief, Healing Time
Sunburn is caused by overexposure to UV radiation from the sun. UV rays can also damage the eyes. Repeated overexposure to UV...
Menstruation (menstrual cycle) is also referred to as a "period." When a woman menstruates, the lining of the uterus is shed....
Internal Bleeding (Symptoms, Signs, Causes, Treatment)
Internal bleeding occurs when an artery or vein is damaged and blood to escapes the circulatory system and collects inside the...
Orthostatic hypotension symptoms include: LightheadednessWeaknessBlurred vision Syncope or passing out Causes of...
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
An upper respiratory infection is a contagious infection of the structures of the upper respiratory tract, which includes the...
Shingles and Pregnancy
Becoming infected with chickenpox during pregnancy could cause birth defects in your unborn child. Likewise, shingles could also...
Knee injuries, especially meniscus tears, are common in contact sports. Symptoms and signs of a torn meniscus include knee pain,...
Scleritis is inflammation of the white part of the eye. It may be caused by a serious underlying condition, such as an autoimmune...
Swollen Ankles and Swollen Feet
Swollen ankles and swollen feet is a symptom of an underlying disease or condition such as edema, medications, pregnancy,...
Pain Management: Neuropathic Pain
Neuropathic pain is chronic pain resulting from injury to the nervous system. The injury can be to the central nervous system...
Sore Throat Home Remedies (Soothe, Pain Relief)
Natural and home remedies for sore throat symptoms and pain relief include essential oils, licorice gargles, slippery elm...
Multiple Sclerosis Early Symptoms and Signs (Early, Body Areas Affected)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission....
Flatfoot (Pes Planus)
Flatfoot is a disorder in which the foot's entire sole is touching the ground while standing. Symptoms and signs of flatfoot...
Piriformis syndrome may develop if the piriformis muscle spasms and compresses the sciatic nerve. This causes buttock pain that...
Occipital Neuralgia (Headache)
Occipital neuralgia is a type of headache that involves inflammation or irritation of occipital nerves. Signs and symptoms...
Common Medical Abbreviations List (Acronyms and Definitions)
Doctors, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals use abbreviations, acronyms, and other terminology for instructions...
Prostatitis vs. BPH (Enlarged Prostate) Differences and Similarities
Prostatitis and BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia, enlarged prostate gland) are both conditions of the prostate gland. There...
Migraine vs. Headache: Differences and Similarities
Headaches are the most common reason why a person goes to the doctor or other healthcare professional for treatment. There are...
Mastoiditis (Symptoms, Treatment, Cure in Adults and Children
Mastoiditis in children and adults is inflammation and/or infection of the mastoid bone, which is located behind the ear. The...
Migraines and Seizures (Symptoms, Auras, Medication)
Migraines are a type of headache and seizures are the main symptom of epilepsy. Migraine headaches and seizures are two...
Migraine and Stroke (Symptoms, Types, Causes, Treatment)
Migraine headache is a type of headache in which the exact cause is not known; however, they may be inherited, and certain...
30 Sunburn Natural and Home Remedies for Severe Sunburns
There are many natural and home remedies that are thought to relieve the symptoms ofa sunburn. Check out our top 30 tips to...
Treatment & Diagnosis
- Lower Back Pain
- Joint Pain
- Neck Pain (Cervicalgia)
- Knee Pain
- Shoulder Pain
- Pleurisy (Pleuritis)
- Doctor: Checklist to Take To Your Doctor's Appointment
- Buttock Pain
- Leg Pain
- Sore Tongue
- Joint Stiffness
- Swollen Joints
- Wrist Pain
- Finger Pain
- Hand Pain
- Stiff Neck
- Common Cold
- PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome)
- West Nile Virus
- Chronic Sore Throat
- Joint Redness
- Joint Warmth
- Gum Disease
- Abscessed Tooth
- Dry Socket
- Headaches FAQs
- Back Pain FAQs
- Pain FAQs
- Ankylosing Spondylitis FAQs
- Celebrex - New Arthritis Drug
- Pain Management Over-The-Counter
- Pharmacy Visit, How To Get The Most Out of Your Visit
- Indications for Drugs: Approved vs. Non-approved
- How To Reduce Your Medication Costs
- Cox-2 Inhibitors Dilemma: What Patients Should Do
- The Cox-2 Inhibitors Controversy: Q&A with Dr. Shiel
- Pain (Acute and Chronic)
- Drugs: Buying Prescription Drugs Online Safely
- Medication Disposal
- Dangers of Mixing Medications
- Drugs: The Most Common Medication Errors
- Do NSAIDs Interact With Coumadin?
- Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand-Names?
Medications & Supplements
- flurbiprofen (Ansaid is a discontinued brand)
- aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, Bayer, Ecotrin, and others)
- phenylbutazone, Butazolidine
- sulindac, Clinoril
- oxaprozin, Daypro
- salsalate, Amigesic, Salflex, Argesic-SA, Marthritic, Salsitab, Artha-G
- diflunisal, Dolobid
- piroxicam, Feldene
- indomethacin, Indocin, Indocin-SR (Discontinued Brand in U.S.)
- etodolac, Lodine (Discontinued)
- meclofenamate; Meclomen
- ibuprofen (Advil, Children's Advil/Motrin, Medipren, Motrin, Nuprin, PediaCare Fever, and others)
- fenoprofen, Nalfon
- naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn)
- ketoprofen (Discontinued brands: Nexcede, Orudis, Oruvail, Actron)
- nabumetone, Relafen (Discontinued)
- tolmetin, Tolectin (Discontinued Brand)
- choline magnesium salicylate, Trilisate
- diclofenac, Voltaren, Cataflam, Voltaren-XR, Cambia
- celecoxib (Celebrex)
- Cox-2 Inhibitors
- OTC Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers
- Drugs: Questions to Ask Your Doctor or Pharmacist about Your Drugs
- Drug Interactions
- valdecoxib, Bextra
- Aspirin Therapy (Guidelines for Heart Attack and Stroke Prevention)
- ketorolac (Toradol brand has been discontinued in the US)
- Oxycodone vs. Tramadol for Pain
- Tramadol (Ultram) Side Effects
- Aspirin vs. NSAIDs (Side Effect and Use Differences)
- Ibuprofen vs. Meloxicam (Mobic) for Pain
- Ibuprofen and Plavix (Side Effects and Interactions)
- Aspirin vs. Plavix (clopidogrel)
- erenumab (Aimovig)
Prevention & Wellness
- Living with Chronic Pain
- Swine Flu: Taking Care of a Sick Person in Your Home
- 12 Tips for Family Emergencies
- Drug Name Confusion: Preventing Medication Errors
- Cox-2 Inhibitors: FDA Announces Series of Changes to the Class of Marketed Non-Steroidal
- FDA Makes Statement on Naproxen (Aleve)
- Vioxx: FDA Statement on Recent Allegations
- Painkiller Vioxx Pulled From Market Alert
- Pain Relievers Use Caution
- Prescriptions - Talk About Them
Migraines and Headaches Resources
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Reference: FDA Prescribing Information.